Chair: Daniel Fallman, Umea University, Sweden
Drawing the City: Differing Perceptions of the Urban Environment
Contribution & Benefit: We provide an updated study of the Milgram Mental Maps experiment, also considering demographic and tech-use attributes. Useful to those working on mobile LBS and Urban Computing services.
Abstract » In building location-based services, it is important to present information in ways that fit with how individuals view and navigate the city. We conducted an adaptation of the 1970s Mental Maps study by Stanley Milgram in order to better understand differences in people's views of the city based on their backgrounds and technology use. We correlated data from a demographic questionnaire with the map data from our participants to perform a first-of-its-kind statistical analysis on differences in hand-drawn city maps. We describe our study, findings, and design implications for location-based services.ACM
Characterizing Local Interests and Local Knowledge
Contribution & Benefit: Characterizes the search-related interests of locals and non-locals, and given shared interests, analyzes the venues that they visit. Can inform the use of local knowledge for search support, including personalization.
Abstract » When searching for destinations and activities, the interests and knowledge of locals and non-locals may vary. In this paper, we compare and contrast the search-related interests of these two groups, and when they share a common inter-est (in our case, for restaurants), we analyze the quality of the venues they intend to visit. We find differences in interests depending on local knowledge, and that locals generally select higher-quality venues than non-locals. These findings have implications for search and recommendation systems that can personalize results based on local knowledge and leverage that knowledge to benefit non-locals.ACM
Mobile Service Distribution From the End-User Perspective - The Survey Study on Recommendation Practices
- Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: A presentation on findings from a study focused on recommendation practices of users of mobile services, including motivations, means, context and types of services recommended to others.
Abstract » Vast amounts of mobile services and applications are being offered to end users via app stores and service providers' web sites. In addition, users take part in the distribution of services by recommending services to each other, i.e. through various word-of-mouth practices. To understand the current patterns of user-initiated service distribution, we conducted an exploratory survey study (N=203) to investigate the recommendation practices and motivations of mobile service users in situations where they recommend to other(s) and other(s) recommend to them. We found that the dominating way to recommend mobile services to others is to tell about the service in face-to-face situations, despite available support for electronic sharing in mobile situations. Social media was also used, but clearly less frequently. Based on the findings of this study, we present design ideas for supporting users in their recommendation practices.
Augmenting Spatial Skills with Mobile Devices
Contribution & Benefit: Shows efficiency of mental rotation over touch or tilt techniques on smartphones and tablet PCs. Describes implications for designing mobile applications to enhance spatial skills.
Abstract » Mobile devices are increasingly providing novel ways for users to engage with the spaces around them. However, there are few systematic studies of enhancing spatial ability with mobile devices, and applications such as turn-by-turn navigation systems have even been associated with a decline in spatial skills. In this paper we present a study based on the 1971 Shepard-Metzler mental rotation test but performed on a mobile-phone handset and a tablet PC. Our study extends the original experiment with the incorporation of touch and tilt interaction techniques, in order to determine if these affect the use and acquisition of spatial skills. Results suggest that the task is performed faster, and with no significant difference in accuracy, when participants rely on mental abilities rather than interaction techniques to perform 3D rotations. We also find significant differences between tablet and phone handset platforms under interactive conditions. We conclude that applications on mobile devices could be designed to enhance rather than erode spatial skills, by supporting the use of imagination to align real and virtual content.ACM
The Normal Natural Troubles of Driving with GPS
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a video analysis study of driving using GPS navigation systems in natural settings. The paper argues for a driving with GPS as an active process and not as 'docile driving'.
Abstract » In-car GPS based satellite navigation systems are now a common part of driving, providing turn-by-turn navigation instructions on smartphones, portable units or in-car dashboard navigation systems. This paper uses interactional analysis of video data from fifteen naturalistically recorded journeys with GPS to understand the navigational practices deployed by drivers and passengers. The paper documents five types of 'trouble' where GPS systems cause issues and confusion for drivers around: destinations, routes, maps & sensors, timing and relevance and legality. The paper argues that to design GPS systems better we need to move beyond the notion of a docile driver who follows GPS command blindly, to a better understanding of how drivers, passengers and GPS systems work together. We develop this in discussing how technology might better support 'instructed action'. ACM