Poster interactions focusing on Work in Progress: Design and User Experience

Works In Progress

May 8, 2012 @ 10:50, Room: Exhibition Hall

Postboard: free-form tangible messaging for people with aphasia (and other people) - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we report the design of a communication system for people with aphasia. It consists of pairs of physical whiteboards that are connected over the internet. This allows users to combine any personal language skills with visuals and already existing materials at hand. The design has been based on feedback and evaluation sessions with aphasics and their therapists. The user test results show that the design provides a low entry barrier and enables relaxed conversations.
Understanding Designer Brainstorms: The Effect of Analog and Digital Interfaces on Dominance - Works In Progress
Abstract » Brainstorming has long been an integral part of the design
process. However, only recently have technological advances
given rise to collaborative interfaces for facilitating brainstorming
activities. While there has been some research on
the effects of these technologies on group dynamics, little is
known about how collaborative interfaces affect dominance
within a brainstorm in interaction design. In this paper, we
explore the relationship between one collaborative technology,
the DiamondTouch Tabletop, and dominance in designer
brainstorms.
Do Cognitive Styles of Users affect Preference and Performance related to CAPTCHA Challenges? - Works In Progress
Abstract » A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is nowadays a widely used security mechanism for constructing a high-confidence proof that the entity interacting with a remote service is actually a human being. Aiming to investigate the relation among users' cognitive styles, and CAPTCHA challenges in terms of preference and performance, a study is in progress which entails a psychometric-based survey for extracting users' cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario with two variations of CAPTCHA mechanisms. A total of 131 participants of age between 19 and 25 participated in the reported study providing interesting insights with respect to users' cognitive styles and CAPTCHA preference and performance issues.
Visualizing Sentiments in Business-Customer Relations with Metaphors - Works In Progress
Abstract » This project explores how the visualization of sentiments, extracted from social media posts, can foster transparency and strengthen relations between businesses and their customers. Guided by the nature of the data and an iterative design based on our end users’ feedback, we examine a variety of visualization styles and metaphors as possible directions for a common set of tools to benefit both groups of users.
MixT: Automatic Generation of Step-by-Step Mixed Media Tutorials - Works In Progress
Abstract » As software interfaces become more complicated, users rely on tutorials to learn, creating an increasing demand for effective tutorials. Existing tutorials, however, are limited in their presentation: Static step-by-step tutorials are easy to scan but hard to create and don't always give all of the necessary information for how to accomplish a step. In contrast, video tutorials provide very detailed information and are easy to create, but they are hard to scan as the video-player timeline does not give an overview of the entire task. We present MixT, which automatically generates mixed media tutorials that combine the strengths of these tutorial types. MixT tutorials include step-by-step text descriptions and images that are easy to scan and short videos for each step that provide additional context and detail as needed. We ground our design in a formative study that shows that mixed-media tutorials outperform both static and video tutorials.
Sharing Narrative and Experience: Digital Stories and Portraits at a Women’s Centre - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present our work-in-progress designing technologies to foster social connection with isolated immigrant women in the UK. We report our preliminary studies using digital storytelling and digital portrait methods with participants at a Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) centre supporting women who have experiences of domestic violence. While these methods have provided valuable insights, in contexts where participants feel vulnerable and cultural diversity is the norm, HCI's conventional assumptions about storytelling and probe use cannot be taken for granted. We describe our rationale for the adaptation of methods and tensions highlighted through the process.
Sketch-based Interface for Interaction with Unmanned Air Vehicles - Works In Progress
Abstract » In order to decrease the number of casualties and limit the number of potentially dangerous situations that Soldiers encounter, the US military is exploring the use of autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to fulfill air support requests (ASR) from the field. The interface for this system must provide interaction in modes that facilitate the completion of the support request in various scenarios, and it must be usable by operators of all skill levels, without requiring extensive training or considerable expertise. Sketches are a simple and natural way to exchange information and ideas. Sketching as a form of human-computer interaction can be very useful in areas where information is represented graphically. In this paper we present the development of an interface that that allows the user to plan an ASR using sketch and other inputs while conforming to the user’s mental model of natural interaction.
Exquisite Corpses that explore interactions - Works In Progress
Abstract » Inspired by the Surrealist technique known as exquisite corpse, we investigated a novel method for exploring low-level interactions. By creating a video collection of input actions and output reactions, we created a tool that allows quick video sketching of interactions. Designers can mix and match different actions, and quickly see the results. We present three examples and conclude with our lessons learned from using this technique.
Exploring Material-Centered Design Concepts for Tangible Interaction - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we present two concepts for material-centered design of tangible interaction: (1) material-based interaction constraints and (2) material-driven user engagement. This approach applies material iconography as underlying theory, a method from art history that focuses on the characteristics and meanings of materials. Our reflections are based on experiences with an interactive installation we have built: the soap bubble user interface, a tangible user interface that has been presented and used in six public and semi-public settings. This work contributes to the emerging field of research on materiality of tangible user interfaces.
Spatial Awareness and Intelligibility for the Blind: Audio-Touch Interfaces. - Works In Progress
Abstract » Many people with visual disabilities mainly use audio feedback as a primary modality for interaction. Representing the visual environment with appropriate sounds contributes to make it intelligible to the blind. This audio-encoded environment still needs to be accessed in the same way as sighted people scan visual contents with their gaze. A finger-based scanning could be seen as a gaze-like strategy for those with visual impairments to be able of sensing an audio-represented context. We present in this work a computational interface that meets both, the visual-audio codification and the multi-touch interaction, so as to enlarge legibility of the environment for the blind and to facilitate navigating to desired locations, exploration, and serendipitous discovery. The core of this interface is the color and depth codification into musical instruments sounds, which effectively provides spatial awareness, audio revealing of boundaries and obstacles detection. The main contribution of our work is the assistance provided by this interface toward an active interaction of the user with his fingers that makes it possible to selectively explore, to discover points of interest, develop personalized strategies for navigating, and, in general, enjoy a greater sense of independence.
It’s Neat to Feel the Heat: How Can We Hold Hands at a Distance? - Works In Progress
Abstract » There is a growing body of work in HCI on the design of communication technologies to help support long distance relationships. We build upon this work by presenting three different prototypes based on hand holding. This distinguishes itself by basing distance communication metaphors on elements of co-located hand-holding actions. We then present an evaluation of the prototypes based on a three-phase interview process with 12 participants. We conclude by discussing the combined evocative power of unique physical metaphors and memories in fostering romantic connections at a distance.
Deriving Requirements for an Online Community Interaction Scheme: Indications from Older Adults - Works In Progress
Abstract » Social media and online communication encourage social interaction but do little to strengthen community relations between people who live in the same area. The aim of this work is to develop a set of requirements, in this initial case from a group of older adults, for an online system aimed at increasing local face-to-face communication and enhancing community interaction. Eleven older adults took part in two discussion groups to develop this list of requirements. The results of these discussions are presented and come under six broad categories, these being: Security/Information, Social, Physical, Interface, Crime and Management. We also suggest additional requirements we think would benefit the system and future directions.
Multiple Visualizations and Debugging: How do we co-ordinate these? - Works In Progress
Abstract » There are many popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE) that provide multiple visualizations and other sophisticated functionalities to facilitate program comprehension and debugging. To better understand the effectiveness and role of multiple visualizations, we conducted a preliminary study of java program debugging with a professional, multi-representation IDE. We found that program code and dynamic representations (dynamic viewer, variable watch and output) attracted the most attention of programmers. Static representations like Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams and Control Structure Diagrams (CSD) saw significantly lesser usage. Interesting eye gaze patterns of programmers were also revealed by the study.
DigitShadow: Facilitating Awareness of Home Surroundings - Works In Progress
Abstract » DigitShadow is a novel information affordance aimed at enhancing the awareness of home surroundings. It aggregates local online information and events happening in the neighborhood, and communicates them to the inhabitants by supporting both peripheral and focused attention. DigitShadow casts the digital “shadow” of online information to the ambient level, and then facilitates the transition to attentive and interactive level to provide detail information. We illustrate the design process of DigitShadow, including the contextual interviews, the data analysis and findings from a cognitive perspective, the conceptual design framework, and the preliminary prototyping.
SparkInfo: Designing a Social Space for Co-Creation of Audiovisual Elements and Multimedia Comments - Works In Progress
Abstract » People can have more insights and social experiences when they collaborate on collecting, revisiting, and utilizing their contents, such as images and videos; however, designing a social space that offers rich co-creation and exploration of multimedia contents remains a challenge. We propose a new system, SparkInfo, which enables users to create, exchange and augment their audiovisual elements in ways that are personally unique and sociable. SparkInfo is designed for a group of people, who have created audiovisual elements for the same purpose or at the same event, to collect their elements in one place and have a meaningful experience of their co-created media resources. SparkInfo provides a social space for the co-creation of audiovisual and multimedia resources. In the process of exploring and embellishing their materials, SparkInfo users can create new ideas, stories, and information. By utilizing this process, the users are able to experience how SparkInfo can embody the cycle of knowledge building, re-mixing, and sharing.
PseudoButton: Enabling Pressure-Sensitive Interaction by Repurposing Microphone on Mobile Device - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose a new interaction technique, called PseudoButton, which emulates a pressure-sensitive touch sensor by repurposing a built-in microphone on mobile devices. This simple and novel technique increases input expressivity of the device and expands its interaction area for users to alleviate the occlusion problem caused by touchscreens without adding extra sensors. To verify our idea, we implemented a prototype and conducted a preliminary evaluation on it. The results show that participants can input at accuracy of 94% for five different pressure levels with minimal error.
Tactile Feedback on Flat Surfaces for the Visually Impaired - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we introduce a mobile, generic, and inexpensive visuo-tactile sensory substitution device for the visually impaired. The device helps users to explore the world around them, by pointing it towards objects of the environment and rendering tactile information to the objects sensed by a camera. With the help of two visually impaired participants, we conducted three preliminary experiments and evaluated the performance of the device in detecting, reaching and exploring tasks. Both participants were able to detect, explore and reach for a given object of interest in a controlled room setting using only the tactile information rendered on the flat panel of the device. The implication of results and future directions for tactile assistive devices are discussed.
"Listen2dRoom": Helping Blind Individuals Understand Room Layouts - Works In Progress
Abstract » Over half a million Americans are legally blind. Despite much effort in assistive technology, blindness remains a major challenge to accessibility. For individuals who are blind, there has been considerable research on indoor/outdoor way finding, but there has been little research on room layout information. The purpose of the current research is to support blind individuals to understand the layout of an unfamiliar room. We found some important applications for this type of assistive technology such as safety, easy-to-use furniture and home appliances. To this end, we identified user needs and variables with blind participants, designed and evaluated prototype systems, and iteratively improved the system. The overall process, findings, and on-going future works are discussed. This effort is expected to enhance independence for persons who are blind.
Back Keyboard: A Physical Keyboard on Backside of Mobile Phone using QWERTY - Works In Progress
Abstract » Since smart phones adopted touchscreen, users have been enjoying large displays. However, when using soft keyboard, the available size of the display becomes less than 50%. In this paper Back Keyboard, a physical keyboard installed backside of mobile phone, is presented. Also the design process with a prototype through a series of studies is described. User evaluation was conducted with the prototype; the average text entry rate was 15.3 WPM (SD: 3.6) and the error rate was 12.2% (SD: 9.0) after a 40-minute typing session. Moreover, the text entry rates of Back Keyboard and general keyboards for PCs did not have significant relations. This means that the prototype could be used smoothly regardless of one’s ability of typing on a PC.
Clerk agent promotes consumers’ ethical purchasing behavior in unmanned purchase environment - Works In Progress
Abstract » This study explored whether cues from others in a purchase environment have an effect on purchase behavior for products with fair-trade labels, an ethical attribute of products, among Japanese consumers. By manipulating cues from others, we assessed consumers’ intentions to purchase fair-trade products under three different experimental situations: 1) the observed condition, in which participants’ purchasing behaviors were observed by others (N = 84), 2) the agent condition, in which participants’ purchasing behaviors were observed by a clerk-like agent (N = 118), and 3) the non-observed condition, in which participants’ purchasing behaviors could not be observed by others (N = 106). The results of this conjoint experiment demonstrate that participants under both the agent and observed conditions valuated fair-trade products higher than those under the non-observed condition, although participants both in the agent and the non-observed conditions were instructed that their responses would remain anonymous. These findings imply that implications of the presence of others, such as a clerk-like agent in an unmanned purchase environment, enhance ethical purchasing behaviors as with manned purchase environments.
Can Users Live with Overconfident or Unconfident Systems?: A Comparison of Artificial Subtle Expressions with Human-like Expression - Works In Progress
Abstract » We assume that expressing the levels of confidence using human-like expressions will cause users to have a poorer impression of a system than if artificial subtle expressions (ASEs) were used when the quality of the presented information does not match the expressed level of confidence. We confirmed that this assumption was correct by conducting a psychological experiment.
Design Principles: Crowdfunding As A Creativity Support Tool - Works In Progress
Abstract » Creativity supports societal and economic prosperity. As such, HCI researchers have been concerned with creating technologies to support creativity. Crowdfunding offers a new type of creativity support tool where creators rely on the crowd to collect, create, relate, and donate creative work. With the rapid growth of crowdfunding platforms, design principles are needed to guide platform development. This paper presents design principles informed by Shneiderman’s Genex Framework for creativity support tools in order for designers to answer the call from Human Computer Interaction (HCI) to empower more people to be more creative.
Automatic Web Design Refinements based on Collective User Behavior - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper explores the following question: Could web browsing data be used to inform design refinements? An interactive tool to help website builders in the process of redesigning web layouts is introduced. The novelty of the approach is that visual modifications are generated, either completely or partially unsupervised, according to the collective behavior of the website visitors. Implications of the method and its importance for the HCI community are discussed as well.
Visual Planner: Beyond Prerequisites, Designing an Interactive Course Planner for a 21st Century Flexible Curriculum - Works In Progress
Abstract » In the 21st century knowledge economy there is a growing need for the types of creative thinkers who can bridge the engineering mindset with the creative mindset, combining multiple types of skills. New economies will need workers who have "diagonal" skill sets, who can develop systems and content as an integrative process. This requires a new type of training and curriculum. In the newly formed "Digital Culture" undergraduate program at ASU, we attempt to support new types curricula by structuring differently the way students move through courses. With a constantly shifting and changing curriculum, structuring course enrollment using class “prerequisites” leads to fixed and rigid pathways through the curriculum. Instead, Digital Culture structures course sequences based on the students accumulation of abstract "Proficiencies" which are collected by students as they complete courses, and which act as keys to unlock access to higher level course. As a student accumulates more and more of these proficiencies, they are increasingly able to unlock new courses. This system leads to more flexible and adaptive pathways through courses while ensuring that students are prepared for entrance into more advanced classes. It is however more complicated and requires that students strategically plan their route through the curriculum. In order to support this kind of strategic planning we have designed and deployed a course planning system where students can simulate various possible paths through the curriculum. In this paper, we show our design process in coming up with our "Digital Culture Visual Planner". This design process starts with a network analysis of how all the Digital Culture courses are interrelated by, visualizing the relationships between “proficiencies” and courses. A number of possible design directions result from this analysis. Finally we select a single design and refine it to be understandable, useful and usable by new undergraduate Digital Culture majors.
Super Mirror: A Kinect Interface for Ballet Dancers - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose the Super Mirror, a Kinect-based system that combines the functionality of studio mirrors and prescriptive images to provide the user with instructional feedback in real-time. In this study, we developed a working prototype of this system, which records ballet movements (also called “positions” and “poses”), captures live motion, and shows the difference between the two.
Using Visual Website Similarity for Phishing Detection and Reporting - Works In Progress
Abstract » Phishing is a severe threat to online users, especially since attackers improve in impersonating other websites. With websites looking visually the same, users are fooled more easily. However, the close visual similarity can also be used to counteract phishing. We present a framework that uses visual website similarity: (1) to detect possible phishing websites and (2) to create better warnings for such attacks. We report first results together with the three step process planned for the project. We expect the detection results to be comparable to previously published work which would allow for new kinds of phishing warnings with better coverage, less false positives and explicit user recommendations how to avoid these critical situation.
Video Call, or Not, that is the Question - Works In Progress
Abstract » New technologies have made video calling in vehicles
possible. Results from a driving simulator experiment
indicate that video calling reduces visual attention on
the road. While in some situations drivers would refrain
from engaging in this activity, our results should serve
as a warning to interface designers, lawmakers,
transportation officials, and drivers that video calling
presents a real distraction from driving.
eInclusion @ Cyprus Universities: Provision and Web Accessibility - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents part of a work-in-progress that aims
to discuss issues of accessibility in higher education
regarding equal opportunities in the use and access of
information and technology for students with disabilities
in Cyprus. All Cypriot university Websites have been
examined using accessibility evaluation techniques and the
provisions made by the higher education officers for equal
access to their university websites have been reviewed.
The results showed that all university pages show
accessibility problems, with the public ones having the
least errors. With respect to provisions, results showed
that internal regulations and policy of universities did not
include any speci c provisions for web or other technology
accessibility.
Towards Stress-less User Interfaces: 10 Design Heuristics Based on the Psychophysiology of Stress - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we identify 10 design heuristics used to minimize the number of stressors in an interface. They are meant to complement other interface design heuristics. The heuristics are based on characteristics of stressors drawn from decades of empirical study. These include both evolutionary (survival) and psychosocial sources of stressors. The list is followed by the results of an exploratory heuristic evaluation conducted on four different mobile Twitter clients. It shows how the heuristics complement Nielsen’s usability heuristics by enabling designers to evaluate and differentiate interfaces along two dimensions: usability and potential for stress. The results of the paper are useful for designers and scholars interested in systems that induce, or mitigate the risk of inducing, negative psychophysiological state change. Current methods of evaluating interfaces on this dimension require user interviews and physiological monitoring.
MammiBelli: Sharing Baby Activity Levels Between Expectant Mothers and Their Intimate Social Groups - Works In Progress
Abstract » Many expectant mothers desire to share information about their pregnancy with family and friends in their intimate social group. This includes details about baby growth and activity (e.g., kicks). Based on interviews with new and expectant mothers, we have designed an initial prototype called MammiBelli that allows pregnant women to share baby activity information with family and friends over distance.
Hands-Up: Motion Recognition using Kinect and a Ceiling to Improve the Convenience of Human Life - Works In Progress
Abstract » Now we display information everywhere, but ceiling is the last place we haven’t used extensively. A ceiling at home, an overhead surface ordinarily used for structural and aesthetic purpose and less used compared to other interior surfaces, is expected to be a perfect screen when people lay on the bed. In this paper, we present Hands-Up system, our novel way to utilize ceiling to display information and to interact with by using Microsoft Kinect, which could give commands to the computer through a minimum hands motion. The Hands-Up system has been created by a combination of the specific situation on the bed and a smart device, Kinect, which can read human movements. We made a prototype and designed User Interface (UI) suitable for the system.
Touch & Detach: Physics-based Unbinding and Observation of Complex Virtual Objects in 3D Space - Works In Progress
Abstract » The main contribution of this study is the stable and intuitive detach method, named “Touch & Detach,” for 3D complex virtual objects using gesture-based operations in mixed reality space. In general modeling software, parts of a complex 3D object are grouped in a multi-level hierarchy for efficient operation and ungrouping is necessary for observing or manipulating a part in detail. Our method uses real-world bond metaphors (such as glue or a joint) to prevent incorrect operations and improve the system’s operational feeling and responsiveness. This paper presents the details of our proposed method and an informal user study.
VizDeck: A Card Game Metaphor for Fast Visual Data Exploration - Works In Progress
Abstract » Scientists in all fields are acquiring data at a rate that is challenging the limits of human cognitive capacity. At the same time, researchers’ attention is increasingly claimed by ever more diverse demands on their time. Visual perception is the highest bandwidth channel into the human brain, yet many existing visualization tools require a period of training rendering them inaccessible from a practical standpoint for many users. In addition, appropriate visualizations for cognitively overloaded users may differ from those optimized for analysis.
We present VizDeck, a web-based visualization system for relational data that uses a card game metaphor and automatic visualization techniques to assist scientists and researchers in creating interactive visual dashboard applications in seconds with no programming necessary.
What’s the Best Music You Have? Designing Music Recommendation for Group Enjoyment in GroupFun - Works In Progress
Abstract » Satisfaction and enjoyment are essential in group entertaining domains in which individuals share their preferences and actively participate in group decisions. Group recommender systems (GRS) do not yet employ methods and features allowing users to discover others’ interests in an enjoyable fashion. Based on an in-depth user study and a user-centered design approach, we created GroupFun, a collaborative environment that help groups of friends’ arrive at a common decision fostering group enjoyment and offering them a unique, fun music experience. We also conducted a user evaluation consisting in: system usage, questionnaires and open interviews to collect user feedback about our algorithms and interaction. Our results present GroupFun as an enjoyable and entertaining group decision platform which highly motivates users.
Has NFC the potential to revolutionize self-reported electronic data capture? - An empirical comparison of different interaction concepts - Works In Progress
Abstract » The objective of this paper is to analyze and assess different electronic data capture (EDC) interaction concepts regarding usability, hedonistic and pragmatic quality. We designed an application (app) for self-reported nutrition documentation and developed three different interaction concepts: an iPhone app, a computer based app and an app for a near field communication (NFC)-enabled phone with a smart poster. A plain paper protocol was used as a reference object. The prototype was evaluated in a laboratory setting with (n=206) participants. Our results show the potential of NFC for self-reported EDC. NFC outperformed the other solutions on pragmatic and hedonistic aspects, while the prototypes of iPhone and PC underperformed. The results provide initial findings for the design of such systems.
Knoby: Pet-like Interactive Door Knob - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present pet-like characteristics as a useful interactivity model for future products that could be more usable, emotional and sustainable. We investigated this issue by designing Knoby, a pet-like interactive door knob. Dogs’ emotional and behavioral characteristics were applied to a product concept in the design development process. The main features of Knoby include i) emotional expression of welcoming through its tail movement, ii) locking and unlocking interface similar to people’s interaction with a dog, and iii) continuous dynamic interaction for long term product attachment. Preliminary evaluation has showed that users perceive Knoby to be alive and to support emotional and playful interaction. This research provides a new perspective on the development of complex and intelligent products, and this model can be used as a design method for considering different pets and associated characteristics.
Photocation: Tangible Learning System for DSLR Photography - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present Photocation, a tangible photography education system that invites people to explore and learn about the technical settings involved in a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The basic DSLR camera elements such as aperture, ISO and shutter speed are represented in tangible forms so that people can physically manipulate and explore how these settings interact with one another to produce different types of photographic expressions. A built-in physical diorama further provides a controlled environment to test their photographic settings against. By physically exploring with Photocation, aspiring photographers can familiarize themselves with the interactive linkages of the basic DSLR elements and take exemplary photos before transferring their knowledge to full-fledged DSLR cameras. We present the design rationale, a prototype, and a preliminary evaluation of our prototype.
A Platform for Large-Scale Machine Learning on Web Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » The Web is an enormous and diverse repository of design examples. Although people often draw from extant designs to create new ones, existing Web design tools do not facilitate example reuse in a way that captures the scale and diversity of the Web. To do so requires using machine learning techniques to train computational models which can be queried during the design process. In this work-in-progress, we present a platform necessary for doing such large-scale machine learning on Web designs, which consists of a Web crawler and proxy server to harvest and store a lossless and immutable snapshot of the Web; a page segmenter that codifies a page’s visual layout; and an interface for augmenting the segmentations with crowdsourced metadata.
How to Use Behavioral Research Insights on Trust for HCI System Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » Trust has been shown to be a major antecedent of technology acceptance and usage. Consequently, behavioral research has created vast insights on trust building. However, only a small fraction of the existing literature also shows ways of systematically including these insights into system design. Hence, the potential of most behavioral insights on trust for developing new systems often remains only partly realized. To alleviate this problem, we present a way to systematically derive trust-supporting design elements using trust theory. Using a laboratory experiment, we show that the trust-related design elements derived from theory are regarded as being important by the participants, and significantly increased their trust in a restaurant recommendation system as well as in their intention to use it in the future.
Opportunistic Engagement by Designing on the Street - Works In Progress
Abstract » Lightweight, opportunistic participatory design exercises in public spaces have the potential to collect large volumes of candid feedback and insights from members of the public. We motivate the need for ‘designing on the street’ in terms of the time and resource requirements of traditional participatory design methods, and begin the process of unpicking the conditions for success and practical requirements. We demonstrate through a pilot study that opportunistic participatory design can be a useful tool for addressing design challenges in everyday settings, where most people have some familiarity with the design area.
Unearthing the Family Gems: Design Requirements for a Digital Reminiscing System for Older Adults - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents preliminary findings from a study investigating the reminiscing habits of older adults. We first define the concept of reminiscence, including aspects such as how, when and why it takes place. Then we present our findings from an interview study with older adults, where they reflect on their own habits related to reminiscing, and consider these reflections with respect to software that might support digital reminiscing. Finally we summarize our plan for future work.
Smart Material Interfaces: A New Form of Physical Interaction - Works In Progress
Abstract » Smart Material Interface (SMI) is the latest generation of user interface that makes use of engineered materials and leverages their special properties. SMIs are capable of changing their physical properties such as shape, size and color, and can be controlled under certain (external) conditions. We provide an example of such an SMI in the form of a prototype of a vacuum cleaner. The prototype uses schematic electrochromic polymer at the suction nozzle of the vacuum cleaner, which changes its color depending on the dust level on a floor. We emphasize on the new affordances and communication language supported by SMIs, which challenges the current metaphors of user interfaces in the field of HCI.
Investigating One-Handed Multi-digit Pressure Input for Mobile Devices - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents initial results from the design and evaluation of one-handed squeezing of a mobile phone: the application of force by each individual digit, and combinations of digits, of one hand as a means of interacting with a mobile device. As part of the evaluation we also consider how to alter the size of the interaction space to best suit the number of digits being used. By identifying which digits can accurately apply force both individually and in combination with others, we can then design one-handed, multi-channel input for mobile interaction. The results suggest that not all digits are equally accurate, and that some are more accurate when used in combination with others. Further, increasing the size of the underlying interaction space to suit the number of digits used improves user performance.
Designing For the Task: What Numbers are Really Used in Hospitals? - Works In Progress
Abstract » In the English language, the letters of the alphabet do not occur with equal frequency. Some letters occur far more often than others, for example the letter ‘e’ occurs more frequently than ‘z’. In this paper we show that as with letters, digits too suffer from unequal distributions in some situations. Here we show that the most common digits being used when programming infusion pumps to administer drugs to patients are 0, 1, 2 and 5. The digit 9 is also frequently used to set an infusion to run at the maximum rate possible. With this information, we evaluate three current forms of infusion pump input with regards to the digits that are actually being programmed into the machines. We argue that the current number interface designs used in medical devices should take into account these findings in order to produce interfaces that are both more suitable for the task, and less error prone in use.
Does Proprioception Guide Back-of-Device Pointing as Well as Vision? - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present research that investigates the amount of guidance required by users for precise back-of-device interaction. We explore how pointing effectiveness is influenced by the presence or absence of visual guidance feedback. Participants were asked to select targets displayed on an iPad device, by touching and releasing them from underneath the device. Another iPad was used to detect finger positions from the rear. Results showed that participants were able to select targets as accurately without visual feedback of finger position as they were with it. Additionally, no significant increase in workload was identified when visual feedback was removed. Our results show that users do not require complex techniques to visualize finger position on the rear of device. Visual feedback does not affect any performance parameters, such as effectiveness, perceived performance, and the number of trials needed to select a target. We also outline the implications of our findings and our future work to fully investigate the effect of visual guidance feedback.
Hold That Thought: Are Spearcons Less Disruptive than Spoken Reminders? - Works In Progress
Abstract » Speech reminders can severely disrupt list recall. Spearcons, time-compressed speech messages, might be less disruptive because they are much shorter. In this study, we asked 24 younger participants to recall 64 short lists of digit, animal, food, or furniture names. List items were presented one at a time; the number of items presented depended on individual digit spans. Spearcons affected list recall to the same extent as speech. However, people with higher digit spans had significantly worse recall. This could be due to short-term memory overload or the longer presentation time of long lists. We discuss implications for menu design.
Modeling Dwell-based Eye Pointing at Two-dimensional Targets - Works In Progress
Abstract » Zhang et al. (2010) proposed a performance model for dwell-based eye pointing. However, their model was based on a specific circular target condition, without the ability to predict the performance of acquiring conventional rectangular targets. In this paper, we extend their one-dimensional model to two-dimensional (2D) target conditions. Carrying out an experiment, we evaluate the abilities of different model candidates to find out the most appropriate one. The new index of difficulty we redefine for 2D eye pointing (IDeye) can properly reflect the asymmetrical impact of target width and height, and consequently the IDeye model can accurately predict the performance for 2D targets (R2 > 0.9). According to the results of our study, the new model can provide more useful design implications for gaze-based interactions.
Informing User Experience Design about Users: Insights from Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we explore what type of information from end-users designers find useful for early concept evaluations. We addressed the question through a study where user feedback taken from a real design project was assessed by four designers working in the project. We found that designers consider elaborate feedback indicating clear attitudes and motivations and feedback revealing past experiences of people most valuable. Finally, we discuss the methodology for evaluating the value of user feedback.
The Effects of Positive and Negative Self-Interruptions in Discretionary Multitasking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Human multitasking is often the result of self-initiated interruptions in the performance of an ongoing task. Compared to externally induced interruptions, self-interruptions have not received enough research attention. To address this gap, this paper develops a detailed classification of self-interruptions rooted in positive and negative feelings of task progress based on responses subjects provided after completing a multitasking laboratory experiment. The results suggest that multitasking due to negative feelings is associated with more self-interruptions than those triggered by positive feelings and that more self-interruptions may produce lower accuracy in all tasks. Therefore, negative internal triggers of self-interruptions seem to unleash a downward spiral that ultimately affects performance.
FlyTalk: Social Media to Meet the Needs of Air Travelers - Works In Progress
Abstract » The aviation industry plays a vital role in supporting economies and connecting people worldwide; it is a cornerstone of modern life. However, user experience of air travel is often marked by frustration, stress and confusion. Indeed, over the last decade, traveler satisfaction with air travel experiences has steadily declined. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews (using a range of user research methods) that aims to understand the needs of air travelers. Key insights from this process are presented and a conceptual system design, based on connecting travelers using existing social media systems, is introduced. Ultimately, this paper argues that applying innovation in social media technology to air travel has the potential to improve user experiences and reduce industry costs, making travelling smoother, cheaper and more satisfying.
Seamless and Continuous User Identification for Interactive Tabletops Using Personal Device Handshaking and Body Tracking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Touch-based tabletops are a form of embedded device for group collaboration. This work tackles two key problems for effective use of such tabletops: there is currently no easy way for people to identify themselves to the table; and most current hardware does not link a person's touches to their identity. This paper presents a system which tackles these problems as it can identify users and keeps track of their actions around interactive tabletops. To start the user identification, a user puts their personal device onto the interactive surface. Once this is paired with the tabletop, linking the device owner's identity to the table, the system continuously tracks any touch by that user. The system seamlessly and continuously associates each user touch with an identity.
Mobile Applications to Support Dietary Change: Highlighting the Importance of Evaluation Context - Works In Progress
Abstract » Along with the smart phone came smart phone applications, which range in functionality, complexity and price. Hugely popular are lifestyle applications which include tools for diet and exercise. Despite the popularity of these applications however, we have yet to see any form of rigorous investigation into their value, i.e. their impact on user behaviour and long term health goals. We embarked on a live clinical trial of a behavior based mobile application designed to assist users on meal replacement diet programs to judge its impact and value. Our analysis showed that users were more engaged with a fully interactive application than an information based application, and that varying analysis conditions seemed to result in varying impact.
Investigating In-car Safety Services on the Motorway: the Role of Screen Size - Works In Progress
Abstract » Today’s in-car information systems are undergoing an evolution towards device miniaturization as well as to real-time telematics services. In a road study with 26 participants, we investigated whether small smartphone-sized screens are recommendable for the communication of realtime safety services. We did not find strong overall differences between large and small screen setups in any of our investigated measures. However, when no audio was presented, safety services presentation on small screens resulted in significantly more long glances to the HMI than on large screen. Also, subjective comprehensibility of driving recommendations was best when screen size was large and audio presentation was available. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
Values in Action (ViA) - Combining Usability, User Experience and User Acceptance - Works In Progress
Abstract » The shift in HCI towards emotions, values, needs etc., (third-wave HCI) reflects the new understanding of interactions between users and technology. However, the focus on usability in the first-wave slightly got out of sight in the second-wave, which mainly addressed the user in working environments, and even more in the third-wave HCI. This wave holds a focus on emotions, experiences and values, not only at work but also during leisure time. We have identified a lack of suitable frameworks and concepts, which provide an integrated view on values on the one hand and usability, user experience and user acceptance on the other hand. For evaluating a prototype in an Ambient Assisted Living project we developed an approach for combining value- and user-centered design with factors related to usability, user experience and user acceptance.
Designing a tool for exploratory information seeking - Works In Progress
Abstract » We describe an on-going design process in building Querium, a search system for multi-session exploratory search tasks. Querium extends a conventional search interface with a sophisticated search history interface that helps people make sense of their search activity over time. Information seeking is a cognitively demanding process that can benefit from many kinds of information. Our design process has focused on creating interfaces that facilitate on-going sense-making while keeping the interaction efficient, fluid, and enjoyable.
Understanding Effects of Time and Proximity on Collaboration: Implications for Technologies to Support Collaborative Information Seeking - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present a user study involving 80 participants in 40 pairs about the implications of four time-space conditions in a collaborative information seeking task, namely: co-located, remotely located with text chat, remotely located with audio chat, and asynchronous. Results suggest that when individuals are co-located, their search behaviors tend to overlap thus affecting their ability to find diverse and useful information. On the other hand, when people are remotely located, the levels of independency and diversity depend upon the richness of the communication channel being used. Finally, when collaborative search is performed asynchronously, team members reach high levels of independency at the cost of effectiveness. These findings are particularly essential in various areas of research and application such as human-computer interaction (HCI) and information retrieval (IR), providing additional knowledge that would enable system designers to provide better support for the information search process of teams.
Using Affect to Evaluate User Engagement - Works In Progress
Abstract » User Experience (UX) emerged beyond the traditional views of usability to account for users’ emotional response to the aesthetics of an interactive product. This paper outlines the first of a series of studies on User Engagement (UE), a subset of UX, which focuses upon the quality of the within session interactive experience. The aim of this study is to explore affect through the responses to interactive features and how this impacts upon user judgment. Initial findings indicate that websites with more interactive features generate enhanced positive affect within session, which may predominate over a longer term, thus impacting on the overall user experience.
Drawing Shapes and Lines: Spawning Objects on Interactive Tabletops - Works In Progress
Abstract » In tabletop computing it is crucial to instantiate objects, such as documents or virtual containers, in an ergonomically convenient way for users. Particularly, objects need to be positioned within reach of users, need to be orientated properly, and need to be scaled appropriately for convenient interaction by touch. As the user’s location at the device is usually unknown to the system, objects are typically spawned at a default position and with a default orientation and size in tabletop user interfaces. Thus, users typically need to manipulate objects after instantiation until they are properly aligned and scaled, which can be a cumbersome and time-consuming process. We designed two gesture-based interaction techniques to instantiate objects with a convenient orientation, size, and position, making further adjustments to these properties unnecessary. We describe the functionality of both techniques and discuss insights gathered during initial evaluations.
The Routines and Social Behaviours of Frequent mCommerce Shoppers - Works In Progress
Abstract » Recently, there has been widespread growth of mobile shopping and buying, termed mCommerce. With this comes a need to understand user’s routines and social behaviours in mCommerce activities so we can understand how to design for the mobile space. To address this, we conducted a diary and interview study with regular mobile device users to explore their mobile shopping activities. Our results describe a variety of usage patterns including spontaneous purchasing and routine shopping where people gravitate to their mobile device even if a computer is nearby.
MicPen: Pressure-Sensitive Pen Interaction Using Microphone with Standard Touchscreen - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper introduces MicPen, a low-cost pressure-sensitive stylus pen interface for standard touchscreen displays that uses a microphone to estimate the amount of pressure applied to the pen. This is achieved by filtering and analyzing the acoustic signal generated when the tip of the pen is rubbed on the touchscreen. The advantage of this approach is that it is inexpensive, reliable and suitable for mobile interaction because it does not require mechanical parts to sense the input pressure. Results from a user study shows that the participants recognized five out of ten different pressure levels with perfect accuracy, and nine out of ten with minimal error.
Dream Drill: Learning Application - Works In Progress
Abstract » Some evidence indicates that sleep supports memory consolidation. Items studied before sleeps are memorized more efficiently than those not followed by sleep. Consequently, we propose a learning management system based on these findings. The system includes an alarm clock, whose alarm is set only if a user answers some questions. The user also has to answer the same questions once the clock has awakened him or her in the morning. We implemented a prototype and conducted a user study with five participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the system.
The Usefulness of an Immersion Questionnaire in Game Development - Works In Progress
Abstract » It would be in the interest of game developers to be able to design for immersive player experiences and to verify that their design iterations have succeeded. We conducted playtest evaluations for two versions of a new mobile game in development (Foozles) and one version of a commercially available benchmark game (Angry Birds) to assess the usefulness of an established immersion questionnaire in game development. Our results on Foozles were unexpected: we measured a decrease in players’ basic attention and emotional involvement between playing sessions although the intention of the developers was to improve the game.
Towards a Combined Method of Web Usability Testing: An Assessment of the Complementary Advantages of Lab Testing, Pre-Session Assignments, and Online Usability Services - Works In Progress
Abstract » Lab-based testing is one of the key methods employed for evaluating web site usability. Yet the artificial conditions of the setting, including surveillance and stylized tasks, can distort user behavior and limit the data that can be obtained. This paper reports on the effectiveness of this standard method compared against two complementary methods which involve more natural, user-driven evaluation contexts, namely, pre-session homework assignments and online usability testing. Using illustrations from recent studies of online shopping sites we detail the advantages and limitations of each method and claim that employing them in combination could improve the quantity and quality of findings. We then propose that future work should focus on optimizing this combined method through sequencing, so that one evaluation approach would inform the design of subsequently used ones.
Kinetic Device: Designing Interactions with a Deformable Mobile Interface - Works In Progress
Abstract » We introduce the user-centered research that we are conducting using functional deformable research prototypes. This work has recently crystallized in the demonstration of the Nokia Kinetic Device (figure 1). In the large design space that opens before us around deformable user interfaces (DUIs), we have chosen to focus on mobile personal interfaces. We aim to investigate how human factors should influence the transition from rigid to deformable hardware. In this paper, we propose the topics that a research agenda should cover, and we discuss our research methodology. We also describe the functional deformable research prototype (called Kinetic DUI-RP) that we are using to conduct our research. Finally, we present an initial set of design guidelines that future research will develop further.
Ghost Fingers: A Hybrid Approach to the Interaction with Remote Displays - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we describe a novel interaction method called Ghost Fingers, which enables efficient and intuitive switching between keyboard and multi-touch input on systems where the display is out of arm’s reach. In addition, Ghost Fingers provides a translucent real-time visualization of the fingers and hands on the remote display, creating a closed interaction loop that enables direct manipulation even on remote displays. Our solution includes a wireless keyboard with attached imaging sensor that is used to both determine the position of the user’s hand and fingers, and to provide a real-time translucent overlay of hand and fingers over the remote UI.
Cooking Together: A Digital Ethnography - Works In Progress
Abstract » Cooking together is an important part of everyday life, a social event in which people enhance their relationships through shared stories and swapping ideas on food preparation. We present a new methodology for studying human interaction to inform the design of interactive systems. In our digital ethnography we study a selection of YouTube videos and use Kendon’s theory of F-formations to catalogue a set of spatial patterns created between cooks, kitchen spaces and cameras that influence the social aspects of cooking together. A new F-formation specific to this domain is identified and used to suggest design opportunities for a digitally enhanced kitchen space for sharing the social experience of “cooking together” for people living in different homes.
Care Robot Able to Show the Order of Service Provision through Bodily Actions in Multi-Party Settings - Works In Progress
Abstract » Service robots, such as tea-serving robots, should be
designed to show the order of service provision in
multi-party settings. An ethnographic study we
conducted at an elderly care center revealed that the
gaze and bodily actions of care workers can serve this
function. To test this, we developed a robot system
able to utilize its gaze and other gestures in this way.
Experimental results demonstrated that the robot could
effectively display the order of service provision using
this method, and highlighted the benefits of employing
the gaze for robots working in multi-party settings.
Applying Participatory Design Theory to Designing Evaluation Methods - Works In Progress
Abstract » System evaluators face several challenges in designing evaluation methods, including measurement and relevance, context, establishing common ground with users, and eliciting users’ tacit knowledge. To address these challenges, we propose applying participatory design theory to designing evaluation methods by increasing user involvement and by integrating this process into the overall process of system design.
rainBottles: Gathering Raindrops of Data from the Cloud - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper introduces a design for a new way of managing the flow of information in the age of overflow. The devices, rainBottle, collect virtual data and converts it into a virtual liquid that fills up specially designed glass bottles. The bottles then serve as an ambient interface displaying the quantity of information in a queue as well as a tangible controller for opening the applications associated with the data in the bottles. With customizable data relevance metrics, the bottles can also serve as filters by letting less relevant data overflow out of the bottle.
The meanings of music sharing in tween life - Works In Progress
Abstract » The effects of digitalization for music sharing have been debated vastly. However, the new practices of making widely available music meaningful for those who share it remain largely uncovered. We set out to study this through exploring how the tweens of early 2010’s face this challenge. In a qualitative exploration with Finnish children aged 10-13 years, we identified practices of making digital music meaningful: socially considerate sharing, modification and associations outside music, and consideration for the difficulties of infrastructure. We find that the content gains value in the socio-technical network of sharing practices. This observation challenges the notions of digital music as a “mass” format lacking personal or social value.
Shape Your Body: Control a Virtual Silhouette Using Body Motion - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we propose to use our body as a puppetry controller, giving life to a virtual silhouette through acting. A framework was deployed based on Microsoft Kinect using OpenNI and Unity to animate in real-time a silhouette. This was used to perform a set of experiments related to the user’s interaction with human and non-human like puppets. We believe that a performance-driven silhouette can be just as expressive as a traditional shadow puppet with a high degree of freedom, making use of our entire body as an input. We describe our solution that allows real-time interactive control of virtual shadow puppets for performance animation based on body motion. We show through our experiment, performed by non-expert artists, that using our body to control puppets is like mixing the performance of an actor with the manipulation of a puppeteer.
The Hankie Probe: a Materialistic Approach to Mobile UX Research - Works In Progress
Abstract » Mobile user experience (UX) research can benefit from unexplored opportunities from theory and practice. Contemporary sociology has developed sophisticated understandings of mobilities that can expand the scope of mobile HCI research. At the same time, we need to extend the scope of mobile experience beyond its current main foci on the portable device and moments of experience. We report the interim results of exploratory pilot studies of a fabric based probe that has been developed to extend the scope of mobile experience research both theoretically and in the range of insights that can be collected in mobile user studies. We report our initial experiences with a 'hankie' (handkerchief) probe that aims to gather rich usage and experience insights for early stages of design.
GestureCommander: Continuous Touch-based Gesture Prediction - Works In Progress
Abstract » GestureCommander is a touch-based gesture control system for mobile devices that is able to recognize gestures as they are being performed. Continuous recognition allows the system to provide visual feedback to the user and to anticipate user commands to possibly decrease perceived response time. To achieve this goal we employ two Hidden Markov Model (HMM) systems, one for recognition and another for generating visual feedback. We analyze a set of geometric features used in other gesture recognition systems and determine a subset that works best for HMMs. Finally we demonstrate the practicality of our recognition HMMs in a proof of concept mobile application for Google’s Android mobile platform that has a recognition accuracy rate of 96% over 15 distinct gestures.
Test-driven Development for the Web – Increasing Efficiency of Web Development - Works In Progress
Abstract » With the rapid growth of World Wide Web, demands on
website developers have increased dramatically. At the
same time new web development challenges have
emerged. These challenges include enabling web
developers with a low level of experience, fast paced
development cycles and a disconnect between different
phases of web development. In this paper we present
algorithms which address some of these challenges.
Our algorithms lower the barrier of expertise and
experience required to transform development
requirements into web pages, bridge the divide
between web testing and development as well as
improve test case maintenance. We also present a
survey we conducted among web developers to
understand their problems, experiments to
demonstrate the performance of our algorithms and a
user study that shows the value of our approach.
Participatory Design of Social Search Experiences - Works In Progress
Abstract » Social search engines connect users with content created or recommended by social contacts. A new participatory design methodology was created to understand user needs for social search and propose solutions to these needs. The method involved participants interacting with a mock-up of a social search experience and co-creating solutions with the researchers. We present two key findings highlighting specific user needs and corresponding design solutions. The participatory design methodology was useful in bridging the gap between the research and design phases of the development project.
Turtledove: A Tangible Grain Interface for Image Organization - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interfaces supporting bi-manual interaction offer great benefits. In recent years, a variety of multi-touch systems have even shown new possibilities for multi-finger input. However, multi-finger interactions do not always show better performance. We propose an interface consisting of a large amount of minimal tangible objects called tangible grains combined with a visual projection. The system is intended to add passive physical feedback to increase performance and improve the quality of the interface. In this paper we present the concept, the implementation and first small-scale user studies of a tangible grain interface for the organization and, especially, the sorting and tagging of images.
ResEval Mash: A Mashup Tool that Speaks the Language of the User - Works In Progress
Abstract » End-user development (i.e., enabling end-users without programming skills to build their own applications) is undergoing a revolution, as mashups are widely considered to be the most appealing development tool for the situational, short-span applications. Plain technology (e.g., SOAP/WSDL web services) or simple modeling languages (e.g., Yahoo! Pipes) don't convey enough meaning to non-programmers. In this paper, we propose a domain-specific approach to mashups that speaks the language of the user", i.e., that is aware of the terminology, concepts, rules, and conventions (the domain) the user is comfortable with. We exemplify the approach by implementing a mashup tool for a specific domain (research evaluation) and describe the respective user study. The results of a first user study confirm that domain-specific mashup tools indeed lower the entry barrier to mashup development.
A Sensemaking Environment for Literary Text - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present a sensemaking environment for literary text analysis. Literature study is a cycle of reading, interpretation, exploration, and understanding. While there is now abundant technological support for reading and interpreting literary text in new ways through text-processing algorithms, the other parts of the cycle -- exploration and understanding -- have been relatively neglected. Motivated by the literature on sensemaking, we are developing a software system that integrates tools for algorithmic processing of text with interaction techniques that support the interpretive, exploratory, and note-taking aspects of scholarship. At present, our project supports grammatical search and contextual similarity determination, visualization of patterns of word context, and examination and organization of the source material for comparison and hypothesis-building. This article illustrates its capabilities by analyzing language-use differences between male and female characters in Shakespeare's plays. We find that when love is a major plot point, the language Shakespeare uses to refer to women becomes more physical, and the language referring to men becomes more sentimental. Future work will incorporate additional sensemaking tools to aid comparison, exploration, grouping, and pattern recognition.
EyeRing: A Finger-worn Assistant - Works In Progress
Abstract » Finger-worn interfaces are a vastly unexplored space for interaction design. It opens a world of possibilities for solving day-to-day problems, for visually impaired people and sighted people. In this work we present EyeRing, a novel design and concept of a finger-worn device. We show how the proposed system may serve for numerous applications for visually impaired people such as recognizing currency notes and navigating, as well as helping sighted people to tour an unknown city or intuitively translate signage. The ring apparatus is autonomous, however it is counter parted by a mobile phone or computation device to which it connects wirelessly, and an earpiece for information retrieval. Finally, we will discuss how finger worn sensors may be extended and applied to other domains.
A Security Assessment of Tiles: A New Portfolio-Based Graphical Authentication System - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we propose Tiles, a graphical authentication system in which users are assigned a target image and subsequently asked to select segments of that image. We assess the extent to which this system provides protection against two security threats: observation attacks and sharing of authentication credentials in two laboratory-based studies. We note some of the vulnerabilities of the new system but provide evidence that automated manipulation of the similarity of the decoy images can help mitigate the threat from verbal sharing and observation attacks.
Couch Mobility – The Cell Phone’s Most Important Feature at Home is Mobility - Works In Progress
Abstract » A preliminary analysis of diary study of cell phone use in the home shows that mobility is an important feature at home and phones are more mobile than laptop computers with wifi. The phone adds functionality to the home, such as text messaging, reminders and integrated picture taking and sending. The needs of mobile phone use in the home are similar to the needs in traditional mobile use situations: mobility, quick access, ease of use.
In Search of Theoretical Foundations for UX Research and Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we point out the relevance of and the need for a theoretical discussion around UX research and practice. Although there is a good coverage of methodological and design related topics in the HCI literature, there is still a lack of theoretical focus in the rapidly increasing work on user experience (UX). We analyzed 122 individual items on theories collected in a CHI’11 special interest group session on UX theories and theoretical frameworks. The data set was filtered and categorized in several iterations, resulting in 56 items distributed over 7 major theory categories and related to 9 relevant disciplines. The categories are an initial mapping of the field and point towards the directions for further conceptual and theoretical clarification. Our results help to explore the multi-disciplinary nature of UX and to build a more solid foundation for UX research and practice.
Kinect in the Kitchen: Testing Depth Camera Interactions in Practical Home Environments - Works In Progress
Abstract » Depth cameras have become a fixture of millions of living rooms thanks to the Microsoft Kinect. Yet to be seen is whether they can succeed as widely in other areas of the home. This research takes the Kinect into real-life kitchens, where touchless gestural control could be a boon for messy hands, but where commands are interspersed with the movements of cooking. We implement a recipe navigator, timer and music player and, experimentally, allow users to change the control scheme at runtime and navigate with other limbs when their hands are full. We tested our system with five subjects who baked a cookie recipe in their own kitchens, and found that placing the Kinect was simple and that subjects felt successful. However, testing in real kitchens underscored the challenge of preventing accidental commands in tasks with sporadic input.
Multitasking in e-Learning Environments: Users’ Multitasking Strategies and Design Implications - Works In Progress
Abstract » The purpose of this study is to better understand users’ multitasking behavior patterns and to extract design implications based on user experience and user testing evaluation. To understand users’ multitasking strategies, we conducted a user testing and post-session interviews. Our preliminary results show that each user has different strategies for multitasking efficiently. Four main themes emerged as characteristics of users’ multitasking strategies in e-Learning environments, including: tiling windows, customizing shortcut keys, switching windows one by one, and utilizing visual notifications.
"Check out where I am!": Location-Sharing Motivations, Preferences, and Practices - Works In Progress
Abstract » Rapid growth in the usage of location-aware mobile phones has enabled Location Sharing Services (LSS) to gain mainstream adoption. Integration with social networking services has further accelerated LSS usage. We conducted an online study (N = 401) to uncover the impact of recent changes in the underlying social and technological landscape on the preferences and practices of LSS users in the US. We found that the main motivations for location sharing were to connect with one's social circle, to project an interesting image of oneself, and to receive rewards offered for "checking in." Respondents overwhelmingly preferred sharing location only upon explicit action. More than 25% of the respondents recalled at least one instance of regret over having shared location. These findings highlight the tension between the utility of location sharing and concerns with invasions of privacy. Empowering users to resolve this tension effectively can potentially drive further growth in adoption and utility of LSS.
Emotion as an Indicator for Future Interruptive Notification Experiences - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper explores the relationship between emotion and the notification experience. We found a strong relationship between the user emotions used to describe interruptive notification experiences and whether the users wanted similar interruptive notifications again in the future. Participants were likely to want similar future interruptive notifications if they described their interruptive notification experiences using positive words. They were likely to not want similar future interruptive notifications if they described their interruptive notification experiences using negative words. The implications for the use of this knowledge in the design of intelligent systems and potential for future work are also discussed.
Phonetic Shapes: An Interactive, Sonic Guest Book - Works In Progress
Abstract » Sound exists only in the moment, and cannot be referenced or searched, except in the mutable memories of people. Because of this, it has been an overlooked modality and social information channel, particularly where nonverbal communication cues and identity are concerned. Yet, it encapsulates a person’s identity as effectively as a fingerprint or signature. Sound is even more useful when combined with other modalities, like the visual and gestural. In order to use the modality of sound effectively, however, we need tools that simultaneously analyze, persist, and present the important information in sound. What if you could capture identity and meaning in sound, and give it additional affordances, that go beyond those of written communication? In this paper, we explore the voice as identity and as the carrier of nonverbal information in the context of a sonic guest book.
Display Blocks: Cubic Displays for Multi-Perspective Visualization - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose the design, implementation and evaluation of a set of tangible cubic displays. This novel approach to display technology consists of arranging six organic light emitting diode screens in a cubic form factor. We explore the possibilities that this type of display holds for data visualization, manipulation and exploration. We are especially interested in exploring how the physicality of the screen can be perceived as a cue to better interpret its contents. To this end, we propose a series of applications that leverage the affordances of this technology.
HCI Professions: Differences & Definitions - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we present findings from a pilot survey in which we investigated how industry practitioners who create interactive technologies discuss their work and include end users, (e.g. user research methods used). We also explored measures of empathy (a key concept for ‘walking in end-user’s shoes’) among HCI professionals. We found that there were distinct and significant differences among individuals who claimed user-centric job titles (e.g. usability engineer) from those who claimed design-centric job titles (e.g. interaction designer, developer). Differences included how job-title groups considered end-users in their work and their empathetic profiles. We used results from this pilot study to inform a more comprehensive study we are currently undertaking.
Point-and-Shoot Data - Works In Progress
Abstract » We explore the use of visible light as a wireless communication medium for mobile devices. We discuss the advantages of a human perceptible communication medium in regards to user experience and create tools for direct manipulation of the communication channel.
Webbox+Page Blossom: Exploring Design for AKTive Data Interaction - Works In Progress
Abstract » We give away our data to multiple data services without, for the most part, being able to get that data back to reuse in any other way, leaving us, at best, to re-find, re-cover, retype, remember and re-manage this material. In this work in progress, we hypothesize that if we facilitate easy interaction to store, access and reuse our personal, social and public data, we will not only decrease time spent to recreate it for multiple walled data contexts, but in particular, we will develop novel interactions for new kinds of knowledge building. To facilitate exploration of this hypothesis, we propose Page Blossom an exemplar of such dynamic data interaction that is based on data reuse via our open data platform Webbox + Active (active knowledge technology) lenses
Initial Approaches for Extending Sketch Recognition to Beyond-Surface Environments - Works In Progress
Abstract » Sketch recognition researchers have long concentrated their energies on investigating issues related to computer systems' difficulties in recognizing hand-drawn diagrams, but the focus has largely been on recognizing sketches on physical surfaces. While beyond-surface sketching actively takes place in diverse forms and in various activities, directly applying existing on-surface sketch recognition techniques beyond physical surfaces is far from trivial. In this paper, we investigate initial approaches for locating corners and extracting primitive geometric shapes in beyond-surface sketches, which are important ingredients of subsequent higher-level interpretations for building richer sketching interfaces. Moreover, we investigate preliminary challenges of sketch recognition in beyond-surface environments and discuss possible solutions for achieving successful next-step extensions of this work.
Video Increases the Perception of Naturalness During Remote Interactions with Latency - Works In Progress
Abstract » Visual telecommunication systems support natural interaction by allowing users to remotely interact with one another using natural speech and movement. Network connections and computation cause delays that may result in interactions that feel unnatural or belabored. In an experiment using an audiovisual telecommunications device, synchronized audio and video delays were added to participants' conversations to determine how delay would affect conversation. To examine the effects of visual information on conversation, we also compared the audiovisual trials to trials in which participants were presented only the audio information. We present self-report data indicating that delay had a weaker impact when both audio and video channels were available, for delays up to 500 ms, than when only the audio channel was available.
Slant Menu: Novel GUI Widget with Ergonomic Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we propose a new GUI design method based on ergonomics and describe our new menu widget named Slant Menu. Natural human hand movements on a table are reflected in this menu, which appears in an inclined direction with a curved form, rather than a conventional vertical, linear GUI menu. We have developed the prototype and conducted usability testing.
Increasing the reliability and validity of quantitative Laddering data with LadderUX - Works In Progress
Abstract » Laddering is an interview technique that provides rich qualitative data, and subsequent content analysis allows crossing over from qualitative to a quantitative measurement. However, the method is not tailored to data coming from user experience studies, and result-ing data analysis of UX Laddering studies risks to lack scientific rigor with respect to the reliability and validity of the data. Therefore, we present LadderUX and point out the design rationale for its special features that help UX resear¬ch¬ers measure what they actually set out to measure, ensuring that the resulting dominant means-end chains form an accurate representation of the populat¬ion under study.
Tagging Might not be Slower than Filing in Folders - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tagging is a promising method for organising and refinding
information. However, studies comparing tagging mechanisms to
organising information in folder hierarchies are relatively
scarce. A study with the software framework tagstore shows
that tagging does not necessarily mean slower filing
performance. For experienced users, tagging required less time,
fewer mouse clicks, and had very high acceptance rates.
Keyword Clouds: Having Very Little Effect on Sensemaking in Web Search Engines - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tag clouds are typically presented so that users can actively utilize community-generated metadata to query a collection. This research investigates whether such metadata representations also provide passive support for sensemaking without any direct interaction. Previous work reported potentially significant results from a pilot study of three variations of keyword cloud support (interactive, non-interactive, and absent), built from related query terms. Our full study, however, found no significant differences in learning across the three conditions. We concluded that the sensemaking and learning mainly occurred outside of the search engine, where the keyword cloud no longer provided support. Our future work will study the passive support that may be provided by keyword clouds in more integrated systems like digital libraries.
Reinforcement of Spatial Perception for Stereoscopic 3D on Mobile Handsets - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we propose reinforcement of spatial perception on stereoscopic 3D user interfaces. We design basic stereoscopic 3D components that can maximize reinforcement of spatial perception in user interfaces for mobile handsets. Prior works do not make sufficient use of the stereoscopic effect with autostereoscopic displays. We also investigate design methods that provide a comfortable 3D user interface on mobile handsets. Existing stereoscopic 3D technology focuses on entertainment value and emphasizes graphical effects. However, these 3D experiences require excessive parallax resulting in discomfort and visual fatigue. We propose basic design methods to reduce such negative effects.

In this paper, we try to approach stereoscopic 3D not as a technology or a function, which was the case in previous examples, but as an additional spatial experience for the users, moving closely to the original meaning of 3D space.