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Workshops and Courses are listed separately.

Monday, May 07, 2012

8:30 - 11:00: Welcome and info from Chairs, Opening Keynote and Madness
Breaks are from 11:00 - 11:30 and 15:50 - 16:30
Lunch Break is 12:50 - 14:30
Conference Reception & Exhibits Grand Opening starting at 18:00
11:30 - 12:5014:30 - 15:5016:30 - 17:50
Special EventsInvited lecture: Richard ShustermanRoom: Ballroom D Special EventsLifetime Practice Achievement: Joy MountfordRoom: Ballroom D PanelThe Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel)Room: Ballroom D
Invited Talk: Somaesthetics and its Implications for CHI - Special Events
Abstract » Somaesthetics is an interdisciplinary research product devoted to the critical study and meliorative cultivation of the experience and use of the living body (or soma) as site of sensory appreciation (aesthesis) and creative self-stylization. An ameliorative discipline of both theory and practice, somaesthetics seeks to enrich not only our discursive knowledge of the body but also our lived somatic experience and performance; it aims to improve the meaning, understanding, efficacy, and beauty of our movements and of the environments to which our actions contribute and from which they also derive their energies and significance. To pursue these aims, somaesthetics is concerned with a wide diversity of knowledge forms and discourses, social practices and institutions, cultural traditions, values, and bodily disciplines that structure (or could improve) such somatic understanding and cultivation. As an interdisciplinary project that is not confined to one dominant academic field, professional vocabulary, cultural ideology, or particular set of bodily disciplines, somaesthetics aims to provide an overarching theoretical structure and a set of basic and versatile conceptual tools to enable a more fruitful interaction and integration of the very diverse forms of somatic knowledge currently being practiced and pursued. My talk at CHI will present the fundamental principles of the somaesthetic, examine some of its interdisciplinary impact and then explore its possible applications to the field of interactive design.

BIO: Richard Shusterman is the Dorothy F. Schmidt Eminent Scholar in the Humanities at Florida Atlantic University, where he is also Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Body, Mind, and Culture: His primary research focus is the field of somaesthetics, which evolved in the late nineties from his work in pragmatist philosophy and aesthetics. Author of Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics (Cambridge University Press, 2008), Shusterman has also written Surface and Depth (2002); Performing Live (2000); Practicing Philosophy (1997); Sous l’interprétation (1994), Soma-esthétique et architecture: une alternative critique (2010), and Pragmatist Aesthetics (1992, 2000, and translated into fourteen languages). Formerly chair of the Philosophy Department of Temple University (Philadelphia), he has held academic appointments in France, Germany, Israel, Italy, and Japan, and has been awarded research grants from the NEH, Fulbright, ACLS, Humboldt Foundation, and UNESCO. In 2008 the French government awarded him the rank of Chevalier in the Order of Academic Palms for his cultural contributions. His exploratory research in somaesthetics is informed by his professional practice as a somatic educator and therapist in the Feldenkrais Method.
Chair: Brad A. Myers, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Award Talk: Joy Mountford, Innovation: when is early too early? - Special Events
Abstract » Every company wants and needs to innovate to produce competitive products. This is particularly critical now in the US. Many of these prototype product ideas are quite good, but never see the light of day. At different times and within alternate companies they later become excellent products. There are many factors that contribute to good ideas apparently 'failing' to be released. Rarely are there papers or discussions held to dissect what factors led to their apparent rejection. Companies often repeat innovation mistakes, without benefitting from the hindsight from others. I will illustrate many media based products I have been involved with and were left on the shelf, only to come to life later. Although innovative enough, I will share the insights that probably led them not to come to market.

BIO: S. Joy Mountford is currently a consultant to eBay on the future of ecommerce. Through her long career in human-computer interaction she has been an internationally recognized leader in the field. She has designed and led teams designing a wide variety of systems. She has led teams designing and developing a wide variety of computer systems. She was a VP of User Experience Design at Yahoo!, a VP of Digital User Experience and Design at Barnes and Noble and an Osher Fellow at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, CA. She was a senior project lead at Interval Research, and continues to consult to a variety of companies and to present innovative talks world-wide. She headed the acclaimed Human Interface Group at Apple in the late '80s and '90s; beginning her career as a designer at Honeywell and a project leader in the Interface Research Group at Microelectronics Computer Consortium (MCC). Her impact continues through the International Design Expo, which she created over 20 years ago to challenge the next generation of interdisciplinary graduates.
Chair: Jill Fantauzzacoffin,
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
PaperCurves and Mirages: Gestures and Interaction with Nonplanar SurfacesRoom: Ballroom E
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: user experience
PaperBrain and BodyRoom: Ballroom E
Community: designCommunity: engineering
PaperHot Moves: Shape-changing and Thermal InterfacesRoom: Ballroom E
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Chair: Per Ola Kristensson, University of St Andrews, UK
LightGuide: Projected Visualizations for Hand Movement Guidance - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new approach to movement guidance, where visual hints are digitally projected on a user's hand. Can help users perform complex movements such as in exercise or playing an instrument.
Abstract » LightGuide is a system that explores a new approach to gesture guidance where we project guidance hints directly on a user�s body. These projected hints guide the user in completing the desired motion with their body part which is particularly useful for performing movements that require accuracy and proper technique, such as during exercise or physical therapy. Our proof-of-concept implementation consists of a single low-cost depth camera and projector and we present four novel interaction techniques that are focused on guiding a user�s hand in mid-air. Our visualizations are designed to incorporate both feedback and feedforward cues to help guide users through a range of movements. We quantify the performance of LightGuide in a user study comparing each of our on-body visualizations to hand animation videos on a computer display in both time and accuracy. Exceeding our expectations, participants performed movements with an average error of 21.6mm, nearly 85% more accurately than when guided by video.
Understanding Flicking on Curved Surfaces - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates flicking gestures on curved interactive surfaces. It provides a mathematical model to estimate the error users will make when flicking across a curve.
Abstract » Flicking is a common interaction technique to move objects across large interactive surfaces, but little is known about its suitability for use on non-planar, curved surfaces.Flicking consists of two stages: First, visually determining the direction in which to flick the object, then planning and executing the corresponding gesture. Errors in both stages could influence flicking accuracy. We investigated flicking interactions on curved interactive surface to evaluate which type of error influences accuracy. Therefore, we carried out three user studies to analyze how each stage of flicking on a curved surface is influenced. Our main findings are: 1) Flicking gestures are more accurate if horizontal and vertical surface are joined by a continuous curve than if they are separated by an edge or gap. 2) Flicking gestures on curved surfaces are mostly influenced by the motor execution stage of the gesture rather than the visual perception stage. 3) Flicking accuracy decreases as the starting point of the gesture is moved closer to the curve. 4) We conclude with a first mathematical model to estimate the error users will make when flicking across a curve.
MirageTable: Freehand Interaction on a Projected Augmented Reality Tabletop - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: MirageTable is a novel augmented reality system which enables instant digitization of physical objects, correct 3D perspective views, and interaction using bare hands without gloves or trackers.
Abstract » Instrumented with a single depth camera, a stereoscopic projector, and a curved screen, MirageTable is an interactive system designed to merge real and virtual worlds into a single spatially registered experience on top of a table. Our depth camera tracks the user�s eyes and performs a real-time capture of both the shape and the appearance of any object placed in front of the camera (including user�s body and hands). This real-time capture enables perspective stereoscopic 3D visualizations to a single user that account for deformations caused by physical objects on the table. In addition, the user can interact with virtual objects through physically-realistic freehand actions without any gloves, trackers, or instruments. We illustrate these unique capabilities through three application examples: virtual 3D model creation, interactive gaming with real and virtual objects, and a 3D teleconferencing experience that not only presents a 3D view of a remote person, but also a seamless 3D shared task space. We also evaluated the user�s perception of projected 3D objects in our system, which confirmed that the users can correctly perceive such objects even when they are projected over different background colors and geometries (e.g., gaps, drops).
How Screen Transitions Influence Touch and Pointer Interaction Across Angled Display Arrangements - Note
Contribution & Benefit: User study investigating the effects of screen transitions on touch and pointer interaction across angled display arrangements. Can assist developers in understanding how to design novel interactive display arrangements.
Abstract » Digital office environments often integrate multiple displays in a variety of arrangements. We investigated the combination of a horizontal and a directly connected vertical display, which together form a digital workspace. In particular, we were interested in the effect of the physical transition (bezel, edge or curve) on dragging. In a study participants performed dragging tasks across both display planes with direct touch as well as a pointing device. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect on task completion time. Only regarding accuracy the curved transition performed better than edge and bezel. Interestingly, the subjective judgment did generally not match the objective results. These findings suggest that we need to rethink our understanding of display continuities in terms of usability as well as user satisfaction.
How Small Can You Go? Analyzing the Effect of Visual Angle in Pointing Tasks - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents results of a study on pointing performance for targets occupying small visual angles. Suggests a steep performance degradation for targets occupying a visual angle below 3 minutes of arc.
Abstract » People are increasingly using wireless mice from across rooms as they use computers as entertainment centers. As a consequence, they often have to point at targets occupying small visual angles. In this note we present the results of a study on pointing performance for targets occupying small visual angles. Our results suggest there is a steep degradation of pointing performance in both accuracy and speed for targets occupying a visual angle below 3 minutes of arc.
Chair: Eve Hoggan, University of Helsinki, Finland
Touché: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Touché uses a novel Swept Frequency Capacitive Sensing technique that can easily add rich touch and gesture sensitivity to a wide variety of objects, including the human body and water.
Abstract » Touché proposes a novel Swept Frequency Capacitive Sensing technique that can not only detect a touch event, but also recognize complex configurations of the human hands and body. Such contextual information significantly enhances touch interaction in a broad range of applications, from conventional touchscreens to unique contexts and materials. For example, in our explorations we add touch and gesture sensitivity to the human body and liquids. We demonstrate the rich capabilities of Touché with five example setups from different application domains and conduct experimental studies that show gesture classification accuracies of 99% are achievable with our technology.
Detecting Error-Related Negativity for Interaction Design - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Demonstrate the capabilities of an off-the-shelf headset in detecting Error Related Negativity on a single trial basis. Show that the detection accuracies are sufficient for use in real-time interactive applications.
Abstract » This paper examines the ability to detect a characteristic brain potential called the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) using off-the-shelf headsets and explores its applicability to HCI. ERN is triggered when a user either makes a mistake or the application behaves differently from their expectation. We first show that ERN can be seen on signals captured by EEG headsets like Emotiv� when doing a typical multiple choice reaction time (RT) task � Flanker task. We then present a single-trial online ERN algorithm that works by pre-computing the coefficient matrix of a logistic regression classifier using some data from a multiple choice reaction time task and uses it to classify incoming signals of that task on a single trial of data. We apply it to an interactive selection task that involved users selecting an object under time pressure. Furthermore the study was conducted in a typical office environment with ambient noise. Our results show that online single trial ERN detection is possible using off-the-shelf headsets during tasks that are typical of interactive applications. We then design a Superflick experiment with an integrated module mimicking an ERN detector to evaluate the accuracy of detecting ERN in the context of assisting users in interactive tasks. Based on these results we discuss and present several HCI scenarios for use of ERN.
Implanted User Interfaces - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the effect of skin on traditional components for sensing input, providing output, and for communicating, synchronizing and charging wirelessly.
Abstract » We investigate implanted user interfaces that small devices provide when implanted underneath human skin. Such devices always stay with the user, making their implanted user interfaces available at all times. We discuss four core challenges of implanted user interfaces: how to sense input through the skin, how to produce output, how to communicate amongst one another and with external infrastructure, and how to remain powered. We investigate these four challenges in a technical evaluation where we surgically implant study devices into a specimen arm. We find that traditional interfaces do work through skin. We then demonstrate how to deploy a prototype device on participants, using artificial skin to simulate implantation. We close with a discussion of medical considerations of implanted user interfaces, risks and limitations, and project into the future.
EEG Analysis of Implicit Human Visual Perception - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Explores use of EEG as an implicit measure of video quality. Can be used to derive a new perception-based quality metric for use in image-based rendering and optimization of IBR techniques
Abstract » Image Based Rendering (IBR) allows interactive scene
exploration from images alone. However, despite
considerable development in the area, one of the main
obstacles to better quality and more realistic visualizations
is the occurrence of visually disagreeable artifacts. In this
paper we present a methodology to map out the perception
of IBR-typical artifacts. This work presents an alternative to
traditional image and video quality evaluation methods by
using an EEG device to determine the implicit visual
processes in the human brain. Our work demonstrates the
distinct differences in the perception of different types of
visual artifacts and the implications of these differences.
Development and Evaluation of Interactive System for Synchronizing Electric Taste and Visual Content - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes apparatuses to add electric taste to food or drink and the latencies for electric taste and visual stimuli to develop an interactive system synchronizing those contents.
Abstract » Electric taste is a characteristic taste produced when the tongue is electrically stimulated. We have proposed apparatuses to add electric taste to food and drink. An interactive system could be developed to synchronize video contents using the reversibility and instantaneity of electric taste. However, to do so, the presentation time must be determined based on the different latency for the perception of each sense. We measured the latencies for electric taste and visual stimuli as a basic evaluation for a content presentation system in which electric taste and visual content are synchronized.
Chair: Lars Erik Holmquist, Yahoo!
"Baby It's Cold Outside": The Influence of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on Thermal Feedback - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the impact of ambient temperature and humidity on the use of thermal interfaces. The outcome of our evaluations are a set of design recommendations.
Abstract » Thermal feedback is a new area of research in HCI and, as such, there has been very little investigation of the impact of environmental factors on its use for interaction. To address this shortcoming we conducted an experiment to investigate how ambient temperature and humidity could affect the usability of thermal feedback. If environmental conditions affect perception significantly, then it may not be suitable for mobile interactions. Evaluations were conducted outdoors in varying environmental conditions over a period of 5 months. Results showed that the ambient temperature has a significant impact on people's ability to detect stimuli and also their perception of these stimuli. Humidity has a negligible effect for most humidity values. Despite this, previous thermal feedback design recommendations still hold in varying temperatures and humidities showing that thermal feedback is a useful tool for mobile interaction.
PINOKY: A Ring That Animates Your Plush Toys - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: PINOKY is a wireless ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs.
Abstract » PINOKY is a wireless ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs. A user is thus able to instantly convert any plush toy into a soft robot. The user can control the toy remotely or input the movement desired by moving the plush toy and having the data recorded and played back. Unlike other methods for animating plush toys, PINOKY is non-intrusive, so alterations to the toy are not required. In a user study, 1) the roles of plush toys in the participants' daily lives were examined, 2) how participants played with plush toys without PINOKY was observed, 3) how they played with plush toys with PINOKY was observed, and their reactions to the device were surveyed. On the basis of the results, potential applications were conceptualized to illustrate the utility of PINOKY.
Shape-Changing Interfaces: A Review of the Design Space and Open Research Questions - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reviews work on physical interfaces that use shape change as input or output, so-called shape-changing interfaces. Provide an overview of the design space of such interfaces and identify open research questions.
Abstract » Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important.
MimicTile: A Variable Stiffness Deformable User Interface for Mobile Devices - Note
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a user interface that can recognize deformation-based gestures and provide haptic feedback. Presents engineers and researchers with the methods to control SMAs and to recognize gestures.
Abstract » MimicTile is a novel variable stiffness deformable user interface for mobile devices that implements two key features. The first feature is an input interface that accepts a variety of deformation-based gestures, providing a user with several ways of interacting with a small mobile device. The other feature is the ability to provide information to the user through haptic feedback by varying the stiffness of the interface. The features are suitable for enhancing mobile applications. They were implemented using only shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as the actuator. SMA wire is extremely flexible, making it ideal for deformable user interfaces. In MimicTile, SMA wires act as both actuators and external input sensors. The actuator function works by altering stiffness based on user input. This study also discusses ideas for further development of deformable user interfaces.
Animating Paper Using Shape Memory Alloys - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents mechanisms and design guidelines for using shape memory alloys to actuate paper. We believe that blending paper with electronics is promising for engaging diverse audiences in building electronics.
Abstract » Our aim is to make shape memory alloys (SMAs) accessi- ble and visible as creative crafting materials by combining them with paper. In this paper, we begin by presenting mech- anisms for actuating paper with SMAs along with a set of design guidelines for achieving dramatic movement. We then describe how we tested the usability and educational potential of one of these mechanisms in a workshop where participants, age 9 to 15, made actuated electronic origami cranes. We found that participants were able to successfully build con- structions integrating SMAs and paper, that they enjoyed do- ing so, and were able to learn skills like circuitry design and soldering over the course of the workshop.
PaperLeveraging the CrowdRoom: Ballroom F
Community: management
PanelWomen in UX Leadership in BusinessRoom: Ballroom F PanelInvited Panel: Creating Great User Experience: Facing the Challenges AheadRoom: Ballroom F
Chair: Andrea Forte, Drexel University, USA
Human Computation Tasks with Global Constraints - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system for crowdsourcing itinerary planning called Mobi. Illustrates a novel crowdware concept for tackling complex tasks with global constraints by using a shared, collaborative workspace.
Abstract » An important class of tasks that are underexplored in current
human computation systems are complex tasks with global constraints.
One example of such a task is itinerary planning, where solutions
consist of a sequence of activities that meet requirements specified
by the requester. In this paper, we focus on the crowdsourcing of such
plans as a case study of constraint-based human computation tasks and
introduce a collaborative planning system called Mobi that illustrates
a novel crowdware paradigm. Mobi presents a single interface
that enables crowd participants to view the current solution context
and make appropriate contributions based on current needs. We conduct
experiments that explain how Mobi enables a crowd to effectively and
collaboratively resolve global constraints, and discuss how the design
principles behind Mobi can more generally facilitate a crowd to tackle
problems involving global constraints.
Strategies for Crowdsourcing Social Data Analysis - Paper
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: Introduces a workflow in which data analysts enlist crowds to help explore data visualizations and generate hypotheses, and demonstrates seven strategies for eliciting high-quality explanations of data at scale.
Abstract » Web-based social data analysis tools that rely on public discussion to produce hypotheses or explanations of the patterns and trends in data, rarely yield high-quality results in practice. Crowdsourcing offers an alternative approach in which an analyst pays workers to generate such explanations. Yet, asking workers with varying skills, backgrounds and motivations to simply "Explain why a chart is interesting" can result in irrelevant, unclear or speculative explanations of variable quality. To address these problems, we contribute seven strategies for improving the quality and diversity of worker-generated explanations. Our experiments show that using (S1) feature-oriented prompts, providing (S2) good examples, and including (S3) reference gathering, (S4) chart reading, and (S5) annotation subtasks increases the quality of responses by 28% for US workers and 196% for non-US workers. Feature-oriented prompts improve explanation quality by 69% to 236% depending on the prompt. We also show that (S6) pre-annotating charts can focus workers' attention on relevant details, and demonstrate that (S7) generating explanations iteratively increases explanation diversity without increasing worker attrition. We used our techniques to generate 910 explanations for 16 datasets, and found that 63% were of high quality. These results demonstrate that paid crowd workers can reliably generate diverse, high-quality explanations that support the analysis of specific datasets.
Direct Answers for Search Queries in the Long Tail - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce Tail Answers: a large collection of crowdsourced search results that are unpopular individually but together address a large proportion of search traffic.
Abstract » Web search engines now offer more than ranked results. Queries on topics like weather, definitions, and movies may return inline results called answers that can resolve a searcher's information need without any additional interaction. Despite the usefulness of answers, they are limited to popular needs because each answer type is manually authored. To extend the reach of answers to thousands of new information needs, we introduce Tail Answers: a large collection of direct answers that are unpopular individually, but together address a large proportion of search traffic. These answers cover long-tail needs such as the average body temperature for a dog, substitutes for molasses, and the keyboard shortcut for a right-click. We introduce a combination of search log mining and paid crowdsourcing techniques to create Tail Answers. A user study with 361 participants suggests that Tail Answers significantly improved users' subjective ratings of search quality and their ability to solve needs without clicking through to a result. Our findings suggest that search engines can be extended to directly respond to a large new class of queries.
Distributed Sensemaking: Improving Sensemaking by Leveraging the Efforts of Previous Users - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We show that 'distributed sensemaking' -sensemaking while leveraging the sensemaking efforts of previous users- enables schema transfer between users, leading to improved sensemaking quality and helpfulness.
Abstract » We examine the possibility of distributed sensemaking: improving a user's sensemaking by leveraging previous users' work without those users directly collaborating or even knowing one another. We asked users to engage in sensemaking by organizing and annotating web search results into "knowledge maps," either with or without previous users' maps to work from. We also recorded gaze patterns as users examined others' knowledge maps. Our findings show the conditions under which distributed sensemaking can improve sensemaking quality; that a user's sensemaking process is readily apparent to a subsequent user via a knowledge map; and that the organization of content was more useful to subsequent users than the content itself, especially when those users had differing goals. We discuss the role distributed sensemaking can play in schema induction by helping users make a mental model of an information space and make recommendations for new tool and system development.
Women in UX Leadership in Business - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership in business. Our panelists of women leaders will share their insights with the UX community.
Abstract » The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership. Despite ongoing progress toward equality, women still haven’t reached significant representation in leadership positions in the high-tech industry. Is the field of User Experience an exception to this norm? Does the interdisciplinary nature of UX play a role in making it easier or more difficult for women in our field? Does a career in UX, regardless of gender place a glass ceiling on upward mobility into “C” level positions? Our accomplished panel of UX managers will share their professional journeys, their observations on advantages and disadvantages, and their advice for the next generation.
Chair: #N/A,
Invited Panel: Creating Great User Experience: Facing the Challenges Ahead - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel provides practicing user experience professionals a chance to ask questions to and hear from a diverse set of leading user experience consultants.
Abstract » Creating products and systems that deliver exceptional user experience is a challenge faced by product managers, user experience specialists, and product designers. The challenge has grown keener as users expect to interact seamlessly across a variety of platforms, as computing completes its move from being about computers to being integrated into life activities, and as businesses continue to expand their reach and address diverse user populations with different cultural expectations and norms. This panel brings together three experienced consultants to share their thoughts and answer your questions.
PaperGetting Around: Menus, Scrolling, and Advanced NavigationRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study & PaperEmpathy and Technology: Focus on the End UserRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
PaperIntimacy and ConnectionRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Emmanuel Pietriga, INRIA, France
Improving Command Selection with CommandMaps - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Introduces CommandMap interfaces for mouse-based command invocation. Theoretically and empirically demonstrates that their defining properties - spatially stable command locations and a flat command hierarchy - improve user performance.
Abstract » Designers of GUI applications typically arrange commands in hierarchical structures, such as menus, due to screen space limitations. However, hierarchical organisations are known to slow down expert users. This paper proposes the use of spatial memory in combination with hierarchy flattening as a means of improving GUI performance. We demonstrate these concepts through the design of a command selection interface, called CommandMaps, and analyse its theoretical performance characteristics. We then describe two studies evaluating CommandMaps against menus and Microsoft's Ribbon interface for both novice and experienced users. Results show that for novice users, there is no significant performance difference between CommandMaps and traditional interfaces -- but for experienced users, CommandMaps are significantly faster than both menus and the Ribbon.
Improving Scrolling Devices with Document Length Dependent Gain - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a method for applying document-length-dependent gain to events reported by scrolling input devices such as scroll wheels. Empirically demonstrates the method's benefits.
Abstract » We describe a method for applying gain to events reported by scrolling input devices such as scroll wheels. By treating document length as an input to our gain functions, the method allows rapid document traversal regardless of document length; it also allows slow and precise scroll control at shorter distances. An initial experiment characterises four diverse scrolling input devices -- a standard 'notched' scroll wheel, a high performance 'inertial' wheel, an isometric scrolling joystick, and a trackpad -- and the results are used to calibrate several gain function parameters. A second experiment validates the method, showing that it allows faster scrolling in long and short documents than current scrolling-device gain methods, and that subjective preferences favour it.
Aural Browsing On-The-Go: Listening-based Back Navigation in Large Web Architectures - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Listening to a mobile site while on-the-go can be challenging. This paper introduces and evaluates topic- and list-based back, two strategies to enhance mobile navigation while aurally browsing the web.
Abstract » Mobile web navigation requires highly-focused visual attention, which poses problems when it is inconvenient or distracting to continuously look at the screen (e.g., while walking). Aural interfaces support more eyes-free experiences, as users can primarily listen to the content and occasionally look at the device. Yet, designing aural information architectures remains a challenge. Specifically, back navigation is inefficient in the aural setting, as it forces users to listen to each previous page to retrieve the desired content. This paper introduces topic- and list-based back: two navigation strategies to enhance aural browsing. Both are manifest in Green-Savers Mobile (GSM), an aural mobile site. A study (N=29) compared both solutions to traditional back mechanisms. Our findings indicate that topic- and list-based back enable faster access to previous pages, improve the navigation experience and reduce perceived cognitive load. The proposed designs apply to a wide range of content-intensive, ubiquitous web systems.
PolyZoom: Multiscale and Multifocus Exploration in 2D Visual Spaces - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We present PolyZoom, a navigation technique for 2D-multiscale visual spaces that allows users to build a hierarchy of focus regions, thereby maintaining awareness of multiple scales at the same time.
Abstract » The most common techniques for navigating in multiscale visual spaces are pan, zoom, and bird's eye views. However, these techniques are often tedious and cumbersome to use, especially when objects of interest are located far apart. We present the PolyZoom technique where users progressively build hierarchies of focus regions, stacked on each other such that each subsequent level shows a higher magnification. Correlation graphics show the relation between parent and child viewports in the hierarchy. To validate the new technique, we compare it to standard navigation techniques in two user studies, one on multiscale visual search and the other on multifocus interaction. Results show that PolyZoom performs better than current standard techniques.
Chair: Jettie Hoonhout, Philips Research Europe, Netherlands
Empathy, Participatory Design and People with Dementia - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present a participatory design approach for people with dementia focusing on their experiences by developing an empathic relationship with them illustrated through the design of a safe walking aid.
Abstract » We describe the development, application and evaluation of a design method tailored for working with people with mild to moderate dementia. Our experiences with the approach highlighted areas where designers and participants held radically different views. The tenet of our approach was that to overcome these differences we needed to create an empathic relationship between participants and designers. To achieve this we modified participatory design techniques to foster respectful engagement with participants in the development of a digital aid to facilitate �safe walking‟. The process begins with broad qualitative scoping and design work then moves to developing personally tailored, individual designs to further exploration of the experiential elements of the domain while reducing the need for the participants to engage in abstract thought. Reflection highlights a number of important areas that demand consideration when undertaking research in this area and, more generally, when performing design work with people with dementia.
From Death to Final Disposition: Roles of Technology in the Post-Mortem Interval - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes technology roles in collaborative processes, in the time from user death to final disposition. Provides insights into design for end of life and repurposing of data.
Abstract » In this paper, we describe collaborative processes and stakeholders involved in the period from when a person dies until they are laid to rest: the funeral, final disposition of the body, and (in some circumstances) victim identification. The rich mixture of technologies currently deployed during this brief period are categorized and critically analyzed. We then reflect on the implications of our findings, both for the design of technology that takes the end of life into account, and for the wider HCI community.
On Saliency, Affect and Focused Attention - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Study how saliency of relevant information impacts user engagement metrics, namely, focused attention and affect. Of interest to website owner, entertainment-oriented or other, interested in understanding user engagement.
Abstract » We study how the visual catchiness (saliency) of relevant information impacts user engagement metrics such as focused attention and emotion (affect). Participants completed tasks in one of two conditions, where the task-relevant information either appeared salient or non-salient. Our analysis provides insights into relationships between saliency, focused attention, and affect. Participants reported more distraction in the non-salient condition, and non-salient information was slower to find than salient. Lack-of-saliency led to a negative impact on affect, while saliency maintained positive affect, suggesting its helpfulness. Participants reported that it was easier to focus in the salient condition, although there was no significant improvement in the focused attention scale rating. Finally, this study suggests user interest in the topic is a good predictor of focused attention, which in turn is a good predictor of positive affect. These results suggest that enhancing saliency of user-interested topics seems a good strategy for boosting user engagement.
The Way I Talk to You: Sentiment Expression in an Organizational Context - Note
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically identifies the relationships between sentiment expression and the four primary dimensions of social interactions in organizations: involvement, tie strength, network size, and performance.
Abstract » Sentiment is a rich and important dimension of social interaction. However, its presence in computer-mediated communication in corporate settings is not well understood. This paper provides a preliminary study of people�s expression of sentiment in email conversations in an organizational context. The study reveals that sentiment levels evolve over time during the process of newcomers� socialization, that sentiment varies according to tie-strength with the recipient, and that sentiment patterns can be indicative of one�s position in the corporate social network as well as job performance. These findings shed light on the complex and dynamic nature of sentiment patterns, and would inspire further explorations and applications of sentiment analysis in organizations.
Eustressed or Distressed? Combining Physiology with Observation in User Studies - Short Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study presents method that enables quantification and disambiguation of emotional arousal states. Emotional analysis in human-centered computing can benefit from this method that efficiently combines quantitative and qualitative information.
Abstract » In this article the authors describe a novel way to conduct user studies via the combination of a physiological and an observational information channel. The method enables not only the quantification of arousing emotional states but also their disambiguation into positive or negative instances. The physiological channel targets sympathetic responses and is materialized as a perspiratory signal extracted from thermal imagery of the perinasal area. The observational channel is materialized via decoding of facial expressions. However, while such decoding is usually performed in the visible spectrum, the authors have developed an algorithm to carry this out in thermal imagery instead. Thus, thermal imaging is used for both physiological and observational analysis. The potential of this dual unobtrusive methodology is demonstrated with some examples from a stress study, where users (surgeons in this case) interact with laparoscopic training boxes.
Chair: Mary Czerwinski, Microsoft Research, USA
Intimacy in Long-Distance Relationships over Video Chat - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an interview study of how couples in long distance relationships use video chat systems for shared living and intimacy over distance. Provides suggestions for future video chat system design.
Abstract » Many couples live a portion of their lives in a long-distance relationship (LDR). This includes a large number of dating college students as well as couples who are geographically-separated because of situational demands such as work. We conducted interviews with individuals in LDRs to understand how they make use of video chat systems to maintain their relationships. In particular, we have investigated how couples use video to "hang out" together and engage in activities over extended periods of time. Our results show that regardless of the relationship situation, video chat affords a unique opportunity for couples to share presence over distance, which in turn provides intimacy. While beneficial, couples still face challenges in using video chat, including contextual (e.g., location of partners, time zones), technical (e.g., mobility, audio/video quality, networking), and personal (e.g., a lack of physicality needed by most for intimate sexual acts) challenges.
How Do Couples Use CheekTouch over Phone Calls? - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes how romantic couples use a novel audio-tactile communication technique called CheekTouch over phone calls. Shows a possibility of enriching emotions with touch over phone calls.
Abstract » In this paper we introduce CheekTouch, an affective audio-tactile communication technique that transmits multi-finger touch gestures applied on a sender's mobile phone to a receiver's cheek in real time during a call. We made a pair of CheekTouch prototypes each with a multi-touch screen and vibrotactile display to enable bidirectional touch delivery. We observed four romantic couples in their twenties using our prototype system in a lab setting over five consecutive days, and analyzed how CheekTouch affected their non-verbal and emotional communication. The results of the user study showed that CheekTouch could effectively support audio-tactile communication in various ways - persuading, conveying status, delivering information, emphasizing emotion/words, calling for attention, and being playful.
The Spread of Emotion via Facebook - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Correlational study showing that emotions (defined as posts with emotional words) spread through Facebook. Also addresses two confounds in the Emotional Contagion literature.
Abstract » In this paper we study large-scale emotional contagion through an examination of Facebook status updates. After a user makes a status update with emotional content, their friends are significantly more likely to make a valence-consistent post. This effect is significant even three days later, and even after controlling for prior emotion expressions by both users and their friends. This indicates not only that emotional contagion is possible via text-only communication and that emotions flow through social networks, but also that emotion spreads via indirect communications media.
It's Complicated: How Romantic Partners Use Facebook - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A qualitative study exploring how romantic partners make Facebook-related decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them. Provides examples/ideas for thinking about designs and theorizing about ways people manage privacy and relationships.
Abstract » Romantic partners face issues of relational development including managing information privacy, tension between individual and relational needs, and accountability to existing friends. Prior work suggests that affordances of social media might highlight and shape these tensions; to explore this, we asked 20 people to reflect daily for two weeks on feelings and decisions around their own and others' Facebook use related to their relationships. Most generally, we find that tensions arise when romantic partners must manage multiple relationships simultaneously because Facebook audiences are so present and so varied. People also engage in subtle negotiation around and appropriation of Facebook's features to accomplish both personal and relational goals. By capturing both why people make these decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them, we expect our findings to generalize to many other social media tools and to inform theorizing about how these tools affect relational development.
Lost in Translation: Understanding the Possession of Digital Things in the Cloud - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents and interprets field evidence related to people's perceptions of personal digital things kept in Cloud Computing environments. Findings are interpreted to detail design and research opportunities.
Abstract » People are amassing larger and more diverse collections of digital things. The emergence of Cloud computing has enabled people to move their personal files to online places, and create new digital things through online services. However, little is known about how this shift might shape people�s orientations toward their digital things. To investigate, we conducted in depth interviews with 13 people comparing and contrasting how they think about their possessions, moving from physical ones, to locally kept digital materials, to the online world. Findings are interpreted to detail design and research opportunities in this emerging space.
SIG MeetingCurrent Issues in Assessing and Improving Information Usability (Invited SIG of the UX Community)Room: 11B
Community: user experience
SIG MeetingInvited: Child Computer Interaction SIG - Postcards and ConversationsRoom: 11B
SIG MeetingInvited SIG: Designing for the living room TV experienceRoom: 11A
Community: design
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Information Usability (Invited SIG of the UX Community) - SIG Meeting
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG will help UX practitioners and educators create and/or research more effectively a wide variety of information, including user assistance, blogs, menus, onscreen messaging, and website content.
Abstract » The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This meeting is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators’ list of topics, augmented by attendees’ suggestions.
Invited: Child Computer Interaction SIG - Postcards and Conversations - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The networking event for the Child Computer Interaction community, especially designed to welcome new comers in the field, and to allow lots of informal and personal interaction.
Abstract » This special interest group provides the forum for an unofficial gathering of the Child-Computer Interaction community for CHI 2012. Its aim is to provide a venue for structured discussions and networking. Particularly, it aims to support newcomers to this community and to CHI 2012, to acquire an overview of people, topics, and trends that are active in the area. Further, it aims to attract participants with an active interest in the topic of child computer interaction to engage in the various activities of this community, in and outside CHI 2012.
Invited SIG: Designing for the living room TV experience - SIG Meeting
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG brings together practitioners and academic user researchers and designers who are interested in or working on defining both the software and hardware aspects of the user experience for TV.
Abstract » This SIG brings together practitioners and academic user researchers and designers who are interested in or working on defining both the software and hardware aspects of the user experience for TV. This SIG will be useful to people at all stages ranging from early research to released products. We especially welcome people from product labs.
PaperAI & Machine-Learning & TranslationRoom: 12AB
alt.chialt.chi: Reflections and TransgressionsRoom: 12AB
Community: design
SIG MeetingCHI2012 Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Shaping the FutureRoom: 11B
Chair: Tessa Lau, IBM Almaden Research Center, USA
Tell Me More? The Effects of Mental Model Soundness on Personalizing an Intelligent Agent - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A user study exploring the effects of mental model soundness on end users personalizing an intelligent agent. Can help designers understand the impact of providing structural information about intelligent agents.
Abstract » What does a user need to know to productively work with an intelligent agent? Intelligent agents and recommender systems are gaining widespread use, potentially creating a need for end users to understand how these systems operate in order to fix their agent's personalized behavior. This paper explores the effects of mental model soundness on such personalization by providing structural knowledge of a music recommender system in an empirical study. Our findings show that participants were able to quickly build sound mental models of the recommender system's reasoning, and that participants who most improved their mental models during the study were significantly more likely to make the recommender operate to their satisfaction. These results suggest that by helping end users understand a system's reasoning, intelligent agents may elicit more and better feedback, thus more closely aligning their output with each user's intentions.
Pay Attention! Designing Adaptive Agents that Monitor and Improve User Engagement - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a novel technique to monitor and improve user attention in real-time using passive brain-computer interfaces and embodied agents. Will inform designers of adaptive interfaces, particularly for educational applications.
Abstract » Embodied agents hold great promise as educational assistants, exercise coaches, and team members in collaborative work. These roles require agents to closely monitor the behavioral, emotional, and mental states of their users and provide appropriate, effective responses. Educational agents, for example, will have to monitor student attention and seek to improve it when student engagement decreases. In this paper, we draw on techniques from brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and knowledge from educational psychology to design adaptive agents that monitor student attention in real time using measurements from electroencephalography (EEG) and recapture diminishing attention levels using verbal and nonverbal cues. An experimental evaluation of our approach showed that an adaptive robotic agent employing behavioral techniques to regain attention during drops in engagement improved student recall abilities 43% over the baseline regardless of student gender and significantly improved female motivation and rapport. Our findings offer guidelines for developing effective adaptive agents, particularly for educational settings.
ReGroup: Interactive Machine Learning for On-Demand Group Creation in Social Networks - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents ReGroup, a novel end-user interactive machine learning system for helping people create custom, on-demand groups in online social networks. Can facilitate in-context sharing, potentially encouraging better online privacy practices.
Abstract » We present ReGroup, a novel end-user interactive machine learning system for helping people create custom, on demand groups in online social networks. As a person adds members to a group, ReGroup iteratively learns a probabilistic model of group membership specific to that group. ReGroup then uses its currently learned model to suggest additional members and group characteristics for filtering. Our evaluation shows that ReGroup is effective for helping people create large and varied groups, whereas traditional methods (searching by name or selecting from an alphabetical list) are better suited for small groups whose members can be easily recalled by name. By facilitating on demand group creation, ReGroup can enable in-context sharing and potentially encourage better online privacy practices. In addition, applying interactive machine learning to social network group creation introduces several challenges for designing effective end-user interaction with machine learning. We identify these challenges and discuss how we address them in ReGroup.
An Automatically Generated Interlanguage Tailored to Speakers of Minority but Culturally Influenced Languages - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique to compensate for resource-scarce languages in machine translation. Can assist in developing UIs tailored to speakers of minority languages.
Abstract » Automatic localization of cultural resources and UIs is crucial for the survival of minority languages, for which there are insufficient parallel corpora (or no corpus at all) to build machine translation systems. This paper proposes a new way to compensate for such resource-scarce languages, based on the fact that most languages share a common vocabulary. Concretely, our approach leverages a family of languages closely related to the speaker's native language to construct translations in a coherent mix of these languages. Experimental results indicate that these translations can be easily understood, being also a useful aid for users who are not proficient in foreign languages. Therefore this work significantly contributes to HCI in two ways: it establishes a language that can improve how applications communicate to their users, and it reports insights on the user acceptance towards the method.
"Then Click 'OK!'" Extracting References to Interface Elements in Online Documentation - Note
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents a recognizer for identifying references to user interface components in online documentation. We enumerate various challenges, and discuss how informal conventions in tutorial writing can be leveraged.
Abstract » This paper presents a recognizer for identifying references to user interface components in online documentation. The recognizer first extracts phrases matching a list of known components, then employs a classifier to reject coincidental matches. We describe why this seemingly straightforward problem is challenging, then show how informal conventions in documentation writing can be leveraged to perform classification. Using the features identified in this paper, our approach achieves an average F1 score of 0.81, and can correctly distinguish between actual command references and coincidental matches in 93.7% of test cases.
Chair: Daniela Rosner, UC Berkeley, USA
UCD: Critique via Parody and a Sequel - alt.chi
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This alt.chi paper abandons technical writing conventions to parody user-centred design, and having predicted its imminent demise, more seriously derives a position (BIG design) on what could follow.
Abstract » User-Centred Design (UCD) can’t and doesn’t design on its own. Parasitic on software design, and appropriating participatory design, UCD is legitimated by what other design traditions allegedly do not do, rather than what UCD actually does make happen. Much Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research doesn’t design, proudly rejecting any need for implications for design. UCD is strong on problems, but weak on solutions. Such weaknesses have become masked by orthodoxy and disciplinary ideology. Direct challenges to UCD are not welcome within HCI research. As a step towards finding something new and better to believe in, this alt.chi paper parodies UCD as a basis for a critique of HCI values that identifies one possible way forward.
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
What is the Object of Design? - alt.chi
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes design as accessing, aligning, and navigating “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents, combining creativity, participation and experience in drawing-things-together.
Abstract » In this paper we reflect upon design at a conceptual level, discussing how creativity can be coupled with participation and experience, dialoguing with philosophers and social theorists, and looking for the experiential grounds of our understanding of the very nature of design. Three words: ‘drawing’, ‘thing’ and ‘together’, are at the center of our discourse. We propose a view of design as accessing, aligning, and navigating among the “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents. The object of design is to draw things together.
Designing Collaborative Media: A Challenge for CHI? - alt.chi
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: A retrospective on 10+ years of experimentation with designing collaborative media. Implications for the CHI community are significant, in terms of design process as well as designer roles.
Abstract » Collaborative media refers to digital media where people outside the traditional media industries participate in production as well as infrastructural design. We argue that (1) people’s use of computers today increasingly comprise communicating in collaborative media, and that (2) designing collaborative media implies fundamental changes to design processes and designer roles, which in turn (3) forms a challenge to the proactive position of the CHI community in shaping future computer use.
Ethics and Dilemmas of Online Ethnography - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Describes methodological issues related to online ethnography, particularly recruiting strategies and member checks.
Abstract » Using the example of research conducted in the body modification community, this paper considers some of the methodological issues of researching online communities, especially when those communities are marginalized or non-dominant. Drawing on texts that address ethical ethnographies of subcultures, I focus on boundaries between insiders and outsiders issues of recruitment, and measures of validity.
CHI2012 Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Shaping the Future - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The Games and Entertainment SIG will explore where to take this community in future at CHI, including identifying researchers and commercial practitioners interested in leadership of the group.
Abstract » The community of games and entertainment includes researchers and practitioners focusing on player-centered development and evaluation of all forms of games and applications that focus on entertainment. Games and entertainment have been represented in all CHI venues including workshops, tutorials, papers, and notes. In 2011 Games and Entertainment was selected as a Special Community at CHI, a designation that continues this year and can be taken into future CHI conferences. This year’s Games and Entertainment SIG meeting will be a venue for exploring where to take this community in future at CHI, including identifying strong research and commercial talent in our community interested in playing leadership roles.
SIG MeetingSpecial Interest Group for the CHI 2011 Management CommunityRoom: 13B
Community: management
PaperText VisualizationRoom: 16AB
Community: design
alt.chialt.chi: Physical LoveRoom: 12AB
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: user experience
Special Interest Group for the CHI 2011 Management Community - SIG Meeting
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG will serve two purposes: shaing the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Abstract » This SIG serves two purposes: sharing the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Chair: Jean-Daniel Fekete, INRIA, France
Interpretation and Trust: Designing Model-Driven Visualizations for Text Analysis - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Proposed criteria (interpretation and trust) to guide the design of model-driven visualizations. Contributed strategies (align, verify, modify, progressive disclosure) to aid designers in achieving interpretability and trustworthiness in visual analysis tools.
Abstract » Statistical topic models can help analysts discover patterns in large text corpora by identifying recurring sets of words and enabling exploration by topical concepts. However, understanding and validating the output of these models can itself be a challenging analysis task. In this paper, we offer two design considerations--interpretation and trust--for designing visualizations based on data-driven models. Interpretation refers to the facility with which an analyst makes inferences about the data through the lens of a model abstraction. Trust refers to the actual and perceived accuracy of an analyst's inferences. These considerations derive from our experiences developing the Stanford Dissertation Browser, a tool for exploring over 9,000 Ph.D. theses by topical similarity, and a subsequent review of existing literature. We contribute a novel similarity measure for text collections based on a notion of "word-borrowing" that arose from an iterative design process. Based on our experiences and a literature review, we distill a set of design recommendations and describe how they promote interpretable and trustworthy visual analysis tools.
V-Model: A New Innovative Model to Chronologically Visualize Narrative Clinical Texts - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes and verifies an innovative timeline model for narrative clinical events. Solves natural language representation problems, provides information for temporal reasoning, and is intuitive for understanding patient histories.
Abstract » Visualizing narrative medical events into a timeline can have positive effects on clinical environments. However, the characteristics of natural language and medical environments make this representation more difficult. This paper explains the obstacles and suggests a solution called the V-Model. The V-Model is a new innovative time model that was developed to represent chronological narrative events in a medical domain. Forty medical students participated in evaluating this model. The experimental results show the new model successfully solved the modeling requirements and had better usability compared to conventional timeline models. All the participants assessed the new timeline as very useful in effectively understanding a patient's history.
JigsawMap: Connecting the Past to the Future by Mapping Historical Textual Cadasters - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present an interactive visualization tool for visualizing and mapping historical textual cadasters. It can help historians understand the social/economic background of changes in land uses or ownership.
Abstract » In this paper, we present an interactive visualization tool, JigsawMap, for visualizing and mapping historical textual cadasters. A cadaster is an official register that records land properties (e.g., location, ownership, value and size) for land valuation and taxation. Such mapping of old and new cadasters can help historians understand the social/economic background of changes in land uses or ownership. With JigsawMap, historians can continue mapping older or newer cadasters. In this way, JigsawMap can connect the past land survey results to today and to the future. We conducted usability studies and long term case studies to evaluate JigsawMap, and received positive responses. As well as summarizing the evaluation results, we also present design guidelines for participatory design projects with historians.
Semantic Interaction for Visual Text Analytics - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Description of design space for user interaction for visual analytics called Semantic Interaction, coupling foraging and synthesis stages of sensemaking. The system, ForceSPIRE, supports users throughout sensemaking for text documents.
Abstract » Visual analytics emphasizes sensemaking of large, complex datasets through interactively exploring visualizations generated by statistical models. For example, dimensionality reduction methods use various similarity metrics to visualize textual document collections in a spatial metaphor, where similarities between documents are approximately represented through their relative spatial distances to each other in a 2D layout. This metaphor is designed to mimic analysts� mental models of the document collection and support their analytic processes, such as clustering similar documents together. However, in current methods, users must interact with such visualizations using controls external to the visual metaphor, such as sliders, menus, or text fields, to directly control underlying model parameters that they do not understand and that do not relate to their analytic process occurring within the visual metaphor. In this paper, we present the opportunity for a new design space for visual analytic interaction, called semantic interaction, which seeks to enable analysts to spatially interact with such models directly within the visual metaphor using interactions that derive from their analytic process, such as searching, highlighting, annotating, and repositioning documents. Further, we demonstrate how semantic interactions can be implemented using machine learning techniques in a visual analytic tool, called ForceSPIRE, for interactive analysis of textual data within a spatial visualization. Analysts can express their expert domain knowledge about the documents by simply moving them, which guides the underlying model to improve the overall layout, taking the user�s feedback into account.
Chair: Jofish Kaye, Nokia Research Center, USA
I Just Made Love: The System and the Subject of Experience - alt.chi
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: In this work, we propose a new paradigm to understand experience design by focusing on the subject of interaction as opposed to the existing paradigm which is the user.
Abstract » Experience has become increasingly relevant to the field of HCI in recent decades and a number of approaches have been drawn from multiple disciplines to engage this rich and elusive topic. In this work, we provide a critical interpretative account of the experience of using a sexually oriented social media website called I Just Made Love. We do this by critically interpreting the traces of interaction, user data populating the site, to understand the role of the systemic structures that shape the subject of interaction and in turn the experience. We approach this experience from the perspective of the “subject of interaction” as opposed to the “user” and introduce some benefits of such a strategy. Through our insights and discussion, we explore how design choices at IJML contribute to certain types of sexual performances and intimate experiences.
"It's in Love with You" - Communicating Status and Preference with Simple Product Movements - alt.chi
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: A study where users perceive a product with adaptive movements as expressing agency and it becomes part of their social context. Can assist design and understanding of automated product interaction.
Abstract » In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, interact with a TV designed to move in way that communicates the agency related attributes social status or likeability. Results show that the TV movements are perceived differently when one versus two users are present. While most single users evaluate the TV positively, most users in pairs find the differential treatment problematic.
Black-boxing the User: Internet Protocol over Xylophone Players (IPoXP) - alt.chi
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Internet Protocol over Xylophone Players inverts the traditional mode of human-computer interaction and problematizes the user/interface distinction, raising a number of conceptual issues.
Abstract » We introduce IP over Xylophone Players (IPoXP), a novel Internet protocol between two computers using xylophone-based Arduino interfaces. In our implementation, human operators are situated within the lowest layer of the network, transmitting data between computers by striking designated keys. We discuss how IPoXP inverts the traditional mode of human-computer interaction, with a computer using the human as an interface to communicate with another computer.
Design for X?: Distribution Choices and Ethical Design - alt.chi
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Sex-oriented technologies at an adult trade show prompt the authors to reframe "values in design" as a question of the choice of distribution of agency among users and designers.
Abstract » This paper investigates an especially value-laden product category: sex-oriented technologies. Reviewing four systems encountered through qualitative fieldwork at an adult entertainment trade show, we examine how designers make claims for distribution of agency in their systems, and the consequent technical choices. In the face of diverse configurations of systems, users, and designers, we suggest that designers treat their practice less as an expression of enduring or user-specific “values,” and more as a series of decisions about the ethical distribution of control and responsibility within systems.
The Machine in the Ghost: Augmenting Broadcasting with Biodata - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Explores the explicit use of biodata as part of a narrative for television and film. Raises some key research challenges about “acting” biodata and the nature of accessible biodata visualisations.
Abstract » This paper examines how ‘biodata’ – physiological information captured from the human body – might enhance television shows by giving viewers access to actors’ physiological data. We broach this challenge through a prototype-show called The Experiment Live, in which four ‘paranormal investigators’ were outfitted with sensors as they explored a ‘haunted’ basement. This experience has enabled us to probe the challenges of using biodata as part of broadcasting and formulate an agenda for future research that includes: exploring whether/how biodata can be acted and/or simulated; and developing techniques that treat biodata visualisations in similar ways to existing camera-based production processes.
PaperTouch in ContextRoom: 16AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperImmateriality as a Design FeatureRoom: 17AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study, Paper & ToCHIInteracting With Robots & AgentsRoom: 16AB
Chair: Eric Paulos, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Keep in Touch: Channel, Expectation and Experience - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a remote touch study, showing communicative touch accompanied by speech can significantly influence people's sense of connectedness. Identifies perception of communication intention as an important factor in touch communication design.
Abstract » This paper investigates whether and how digitally mediated social touch (remote touch) may influence the sense of connectedness toward a speaker and the emotional experience of what is being communicated. We employ an `augmented' storytelling methodology where we manipulate the modality of an `emotive' channel that accompanies the speech, and the contextual expectation of the listener. Comparing a remote upper-arm touch against a similarly timed flashing light, we explore the importance of the touch modality in affect conveyance. Our second manipulation involves two cover stories where the listener is told that the touch or flashing light is triggered either by the storyteller expressively squeezing a touch input device while speaking, or by measured `high points' in the mental state of the storyteller. Our results show that the story accompanied by communicative touch resulted in a significant increase in the sense of connectedness with the storyteller over the speech-only condition, and a trend toward greater affective conveyance.
TAP & PLAY: An End-User Toolkit for Authoring Interactive Pen and Paper Language Activities - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents a toolkit for authoring interactive multimodal language activities using a digital pen. We describe the system's development and a field deployment with over 70 users.
Abstract » Hybrid paper-digital interfaces are a promising approach for supporting language activities. The familiarity of pen and paper makes it a particularly attractive media for many user groups, including young children. Digital pens enhance interaction with traditional paper content by playing and recording audio and recognizing handwriting and gestures. Currently, generating custom interactive paper documents involves some programming, limiting its use by many user groups (e.g., educators and families) who might especially benefit from application of hybrid paper-digital interfaces in their practices. To address this need, we developed an end-user Toolkit for Authoring Pen and Paper Language Activities (TAP & PLAY). This paper describes the iterative development of the toolkit, its accessibility for novice non-technical users, and use in three different contexts for early language learning. We demonstrate and document the system's usability, generality, and utility for people who want to create and tailor their own custom interactive paper-based language activities.
At Home With Surface Computing - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents findings from field study of novel tabletop system, including design guidelines.
Abstract » This paper describes a field study of an interactive surface deployed in three family homes. The tabletop technology provides a central place where digital content, such as pho-tos, can be easily archived, managed and viewed. The tab-letop affords multi-touch input, allowing digital content to be sorted, triaged and interacted with using one or two-handed interactions. A physics-based simulation adds dy-namics to digital content, providing users with rich ways of interacting that borrows from the real-world. The field study is one of the first of a surface computer within a do-mestic environment. Our goal is to uncover people�s inter-actions, appropriations, perceptions and experiences with such technologies, exploring the potential barriers to use. Given these devices provide such a revolutionary shift in interaction, will people be able to engage with them in eve-ryday life in the ways we intend? In answering this ques-tion, we hope to deepen our understanding of the design of such systems for home and consumer domains.
StoryCrate: Tabletop Storyboarding for Live Film Production - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity.
Abstract » Creating film content for broadcast is a high pressure and complex activity involving multiple experts and highly specialized equipment. Production teams are under continuous pressure to produce ever more creative and groundbreaking content while reducing the budgets and human resources required. While technologies are being developed for digitizing and streamlining sections of the production workflow, a gap remains between creative decisions made on location, and those made during digital editing and post-production. We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface to be deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity. We define creativity in terms of team production, discuss our implementation and describe a deployment in which the prototype was used by a professional production team during a film shoot. Finally we describe a number of interesting interactions that were observed and consider the implications of our design decisions on the creative process of film making and the benefits of tangible, tabletop collaborative interactive displays in live film production.
Chair: Joonhwan Lee, Seoul National University, Korea
Investigating the Presence, Form and Behavior of Virtual Possessions in the Context of a Teen Bedroom - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents and interprets findings from user enactments with teenagers investigating 4 design concepts that advance the form and behavior of virtual possessions.
Abstract » Over the past several years, people have acquired more and more virtual possessions. While virtual possessions have become ubiquitous, little work exists to inform designers on how these growing collections should be displayed and how they should behave. We generated four design concepts that changed the form and behavior of these digital things, making them more present within a teen bedroom. We then conducted speed dating sessions to investigate how these new forms and behaviors influence perceptions of value. Sessions revealed how new technologies might better support self-exploration and reflection, as well as how they could complicate identity construction processes. Findings are interpreted to detail opportunities and tensions that can guide future research and practice in this emerging space.
Technology Heirlooms? Considerations for Passing Down and Inheriting Digital Materials - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes new knowledge about the design of technologies to support (and potentially complicate) inheriting, living with and passing down treasured digital content among family members and across generations.
Abstract » Material artifacts are passed down as a way of sustaining relationships and family history. However, new issues are emerging as families are increasingly left with the digital remains of their loved ones. We designed three devices to investigate how digital materials might be passed down, lived with and inherited in the future. We conducted in-home interviews with 8 families using the devices to provoke discussion about how technology might support (or complicate) their existing practices. Sessions revealed families desired to treat their archives in ways not fully supported by technology as well as potential tensions that could emerge. Findings are interpreted to detail design considerations for future work in this emerging space.
Digitality and Materiality of New Media: Online TV Watching in China - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presenting an analysis of the use of traditional vs. new TV media in China, highlighting the interplay between digitality and materiality in shaping experiences. Contributes a better understanding of media phenomena.
Abstract » This paper examines issues of digitality and materiality of new media, grounded in a study of online TV watching in China. Particularly, by looking at how people make choices and decisions regarding TV watching in everyday life, we highlight material and digital properties of new media TV, and how they support and condition actions and interactions around them. The study illustrates that materiality and digitality are complementary, instead of one substituting the other, and are highly intertwined in the hybrid media environment around which meaningful experiences are conditioned and produced. It also suggests that an analytic distinction between materiality and digitality is fruitful in unpacking the complex relations between media technologies and social experiences.
Writing the Experience of Information Retrieval: Digital Collection Design as a Form of Dialogue - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a process in which designers "write" a resource collection as a form of rhetorical expression. Demonstrates the use of humanistic criticism as an element of collection design.
Abstract » In the context of digital libraries and other online resource collections, the substance of interaction is generated to a large degree through the selection, description, organization, and arrangement of the aggregated items. Within information studies, researchers [such as 32, 6] have shown how individual events of selection and description inevitably form judgments about the collected materials. This paper describes a process in which designers purposefully use the elements of selection, description, organization, and arrangement to "write" a resource collection as a form of rhetorical expression. The design process was implemented in two classroom settings. In the more successful second implementation, the role of the audience in structuring a rhetorical interaction was emphasized, and collection design was conceptualized as designing a dialogue between author and audience. The formalized critique of existing collection designs was a key element in enabling this dialogic orientation.
Chair: Antonello De Angeli, University of Trento, Italy
The Role of Gender on Effectiveness and Efficiency of User-Robot Communication in Navigation Tasks - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes gender differences in spatial communication and navigation in Human-Robot Interaction. Presents a novel methodology and design recommendations for dialogue and navigating systems that equally support users of both genders.
Abstract » Many studies have identified gender differences in communication related to spatial navigation in real and virtual worlds. Most of this research has focused on single-party communication (monologues), such as the way in which individuals either give or follow route instructions. However, very little work has been reported on spatial navigation dialogues and whether there are gender differences in the way that they are conducted. This paper will address the lack of research evidence by exploring the dialogues between partners of the same and of different gender in a simulated Human-Robot Interaction study. In the experiments discussed in this paper, pairs of participants communicated remotely; in each pair, one participant (the instructor) was under the impression that s/he was giving route instructions to a robot (the follower), avoiding any perception of gendered communication. To ensure the naturalness of the interaction, the followers were given no guidelines on what to say, however each had to control a robot based on the user’s instructions. While many monologue-based studies suggest male superiority in a multitude of spatial activities and domains, this study of dialogues highlights a more complex pattern of results. As anticipated, gender influences task performance and communication. However, the findings suggest that it is the interaction – the combination of gender and role (i.e., instructor or follower) – that has the most significant impact. In particular, pairs of female users/instructors and male ‘robots’/followers are associated with the fastest and most accurate completion of the navigation tasks. Moreover, dialogue-based analysis illustrates how pairs of male users/instructors and female ‘robots’/followers achieved successful communication through ‘alignment’ of spatial descriptions. In particular, males seem to adapt the content of their instructions when interacting with female ‘robots’/followers and employ more landmark references compared to female users/instructors or when addressing males (in male-male pairings). This study describes the differences in how males and females interact with the system, and proposes that any female ‘disadvantage’ in spatial communication can disappear through interactive mechanisms. Such insights are important for the design of navigation systems that are equally effective for users of either gender.
Ripple Effects of an Embedded Social Agent: A Field Study of a Social Robot in the Workplace - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describe a long-term field study of a social delivery robot in a workplace. Can assist the development of agents, avatars, and robots for individuals and organizations.
Abstract » Prior research has investigated the effect of interactive social agents presented on computer screens or embodied in robots. Much of this research has been pursued in labs and brief field studies. Comparatively little is known about social agents embedded in the workplace, where employees have repeated interactions with the agent, alone and with others. We designed a social robot snack delivery service for a workplace, and evaluated the service over four months allowing each employee to use it for two months. We report on how employees responded to the robot and the service over repeated encounters. Employees attached different social roles to the robot beyond a delivery person as they incorporated the robot's visit into their workplace routines. Beyond one-on-one interaction, the robot created a ripple effect in the workplace, triggering new behaviors among employees, including politeness, protection of the robot, mimicry, social comparison, and even jealousy. We discuss the implications of these ripple effects for designing services incorporating social agents.
Designing Effective Gaze Mechanisms for Virtual Agents - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A model for designing effective gaze mechanisms for virtual agents and its evaluation. The model will allow designers to create gaze behaviors that accomplish specific high-level outcomes.
Abstract » Virtual agents hold great promise in human-computer interaction with their ability to afford embodied interaction using nonverbal human communicative cues. Gaze cues are particularly important to achieve significant high-level outcomes such as improved learning and feelings of rapport. Our goal is to explore how agents might achieve such outcomes through seemingly subtle changes in gaze behavior and what design variables for gaze might lead to such positive outcomes. Drawing on research in human physiology, we developed a model of gaze behavior to capture these key design variables. In a user study, we investigated how manipulations in these variables might improve affiliation with the agent and learning. The results showed that an agent using affiliative gaze elicited more positive feelings of connection, while an agent using referential gaze improved participants' learning. Our model and findings offer guidelines for the design of effective gaze behaviors for virtual agents.
How Does Telenoid Affect the Communication between Children in Classroom Setting? - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the qualitative findings of a field study that revealed the effects of a tele-operated humanoid robot on facilitating schoolchildren’s cooperation. Can assist in designing effective tele-communication tools in education.
Abstract » It needs to be investigated how humanoid robots may affect people in the real world when they are employed to express the presence, a feel of being there, in tele-communication. We brought Telenoid, a tele-operated humanoid robot, into a classroom at an elementary school to see how schoolchildren respond to it. Our study is exploratory and we focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between schoolchildren. We found that Telenoid affected the way children work as group. They participated in the group work more positively, became more spontaneous, and differentiated their roles. We observed that Telenoid's limited capability led them to change their attitudes so that they could work together. The result suggests that the limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants in classroom setting.
Case Study & PaperTeaching with New InterfacesRoom: 17AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperPrivacy + Self DisclosureRoom: 18AB
Community: user experience
PaperUses of Media & Creation of Web ExperiencesRoom: 17AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Leila Takayama, Willow Garage, USA
Oh Dear Stacy! Social Interaction, Elaboration, and Learning with Teachable Agents - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Results from a think-aloud study provide insight into interaction between student rapport and learning gains with a teachable agent. Contributions include theoretical perspectives and practical recommendations for implementing rapport-building agents.
Abstract » Understanding how children perceive and interact with teachable agents (systems where children learn through teaching a synthetic character embedded in an intelligent tutoring system) can provide insight into the effects of so-cial interaction on learning with intelligent tutoring systems. We describe results from a think-aloud study where children were instructed to narrate their experience teaching Stacy, an agent who can learn to solve linear equations with the student�s help. We found treating her as a partner, primarily through aligning oneself with Stacy using pronouns like you or we rather than she or it significantly correlates with student learning, as do playful face-threatening comments such as teasing, while elaborate explanations of Stacy�s behavior in the third-person and formal tutoring statements reduce learning gains. Additionally, we found that the agent�s mistakes were a significant predictor for students shifting away from alignment with the agent.
Observational Study on Teaching Artifacts Created using Tablet PC - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This is an observational study conducted on professors using tablet PC. We attempt to find a common structure in teaching contents by finding a general behavior pattern across three professors.
Abstract » Teaching typically involves communication of knowledge in multiple modalities. The ubiquity of pen-enabled technologies in teaching has made the accurate capture of user ink data possible, alongside technologies to recognize voice data. When annotating on a white board or other presentation surface, teachers often have a specific style of structuring contents taught in a lecture. The availability of sketch data and voice data can enable researchers to analyze trends followed by teachers in writing and annotating notes. Using ethnographic methods, we have observed the structure that teachers use while presenting lectures on mathematics. We have observed the practices followed by teachers in writing and speaking the lecture content, and have derived models that would help computer scientists identify the structure of the content. This observational study motivates the idea that we can use speech and color change events to distinguish between strokes meant for drawing versus those meant for attention marks.
Employing Virtual Worlds for HCI Education: A Problem-Based Learning Approach - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: This case study documents experiences from teaching an HCI course by employing 3D virtual worlds. Problem-based learning activities and interactive tools are presented along with key findings and educational implications.
Abstract » In this paper we describe our experience focused on teaching an introductory course in HCI by employing a 3D virtual world. Our main pedagogical philosophy is presented which claims that problem-based learning activities are necessary for HCI education. To this end, appropriate new interactive media such as virtual worlds that can support these activities must be embedded in the educational procedure. The learning activities and the interactive tools that were used are presented. Key findings and educational implications are discussed.
From Participatory to Contributory Simulations: Changing the Game in the Classroom - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design and evaluation of a flexible multi-player simulation game for classroom use. Can guide the design of co-located large-group learning applications.
Abstract » There is much potential for supporting collaborative learning with interactive computer simulations in formal education and professional training. A number have been developed for single user and remote interaction. In contrast, our research is concerned with how such learning activities can be designed to fit into co-located large group settings, such as whole classrooms. This paper reports on the iterative design process and two in-the-wild evaluations of the 4Decades game, which was developed for a whole classroom of students to engage with a climate simulation. The system allows students to play and change the rules of the simulation, thereby enabling them to be actively engaged at different levels. The notion of Contributory Simulations is proposed as an instructional model that empowers groups to make informed, critical changes to the underlying scientific model. We discuss how large-group collaboration was supported through constraining an ecology of shared devices and public displays.
Chair: Manfred Tscheligi, University of Salzburg, Austria
The Mismeasurement of Privacy: Using Contextual Integrity to Reconsider Privacy in HCI - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: The paper criticizes the ways in which privacy issues have been studied within HCI and ubicomp. It provides an analysis of privacy on the basis of contextual integrity.
Abstract » Privacy is a widely studied concept in relation to social computing and sensor-based technologies; scores of research papers have investigated people's "privacy preferences" and apparent reluctance to share personal data. In this paper we explore how Ubicomp and HCI studies have approached the notion of privacy, often as a quantifiable concept. Leaning on several theoretical frameworks, but in particular Nissenbaum's notion of contextual integrity, we question the viability of obtaining universal answers in terms of people's "general" privacy practices and apply elements of Nissenbaum's theory to our own data in order to illustrate its relevance. We then suggest restructuring inquiries into information sharing in studies of state-of-the-art technologies and analyze contextually grounded issues using a different, more specific vocabulary. Finally, we provide the first building blocks to such vocabulary.
Tag, You Can See It! Using Tags for Access Control in Photo Sharing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Lab study exploring whether intuitive access-control policies can be made from photo tags created for organizational and access-control purposes. Can increase understanding of user engagement with tag-based access control systems.
Abstract » Users often have rich and complex photo-sharing preferences, but properly configuring access control can be difficult and time-consuming. In an 18-participant laboratory study, we explore whether the keywords and captions with which users tag their photos can be used to help users more intuitively create and maintain access-control policies. We find that (a) tags created for organizational purposes can be repurposed to create efficient and reasonably accurate access-control rules; (b) users tagging with access control in mind develop coherent strategies that lead to significantly more accurate rules than those associated with organizational tags alone; and (c) participants can understand and actively engage with the concept of tag-based access control.
Curation, Provocation, and Digital Identity: Risks and Motivations for Sharing Provocative Images Online - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates the phenomena of posting personal, revealing, and controversial images online. Provides recommendations for the development of systems that support these activities and directions for future work.
Abstract » Among the billions of photos that have been contributed to online photo-sharing sites, there are many that are provocative, controversial, and deeply personal. Previous research has examined motivations for sharing images online and has identified several key motivations for doing so: expression, curation of identity, maintaining social connections, and recording experiences. However, few studies have focused on the perceived risks of posting photos online and even fewer have examined the risks associated with provocative, controversial, or deeply personal images. In our work, we used photo-elicitation interviews to explore the motivations for posting these types of images and the perceived risks of doing so. In this paper, we describe our findings from those interviews.
The Implications of Offering More Disclosure Choices for Social Location Sharing - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents findings from a study that looks at how different types of disclosure options can influence users' privacy preferences for location sharing. Can help in building better privacy configuration UIs.
Abstract » We compared two privacy configuration styles for specifying rules for social sharing one's past locations. Our findings suggest that location-sharing applications (LSAs) which support varying levels of location granularities are associated with sharing rules that are less convoluted, are less likely to be negatively phrased, and can lead to more open sharing; users are also more comfortable with these rules. These findings can help inform LSA privacy designs.
Interactivity as Self-Expression: A Field Experiment with Customization and Blogging - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an experiment with a portal site varying in functional customization, cosmetic customization and active vs. filter blogging. Provides user-centered guidelines for designing interactive tools that afford self-expression.
Abstract » A paradigmatic quality of interactive interfaces is that they allow users to express themselves, thereby converting message receivers into communication sources. We define this quality as Source Interactivity [26, 29], and test its effects on user experience with a field experiment (N=141) of a portal site featuring cosmetic customization, functional customization and blogging (active versus filter). In demonstrating the psychological influence of source-based interactivity on such outcomes as user engagement, sense of agency, sense of community, intrinsic motivation and attitudes toward the interface, we discuss how designers can use them for creating interactive tools for self-expression.
Chair: Jan Gulliksen, Uppsala University, Sweden
Too Close for Comfort: A Study of the Effectiveness and Acceptability of Rich-Media Personalized Advertising - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes first study investigating how personalized rich media ads are perceived by users. Findings can help design noticeable, interesting ads that are also comfortable for the user.
Abstract » Online display advertising is predicted to make $29.53 billion this year. Advertisers believe targeted and personalized ads to be more effective, but many users are concerned about their privacy. We conducted a study where 30 participants completed a simulated holiday booking task; each page showing ads with different degrees of personalization. Participants fixated twice as long when ads contained their photo. Participants reported being more likely to notice ads with their photo, holiday destination, and name, but also increasing levels of discomfort with increasing personalization. We conclude that greater personalization in ad content may achieve higher levels of attention, but that the most personalized ads are also the least acceptable. The noticeability benefit in using someone's photo to make them look at an ad may be offset by the privacy cost. As more personal data becomes available to advertisers, it becomes important that these trade-offs are considered.
Why Johnny Can't Opt Out: A Usability Evaluation of Tools to Limit Online Behavioral Advertising - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes usability problems identified through a laboratory study to evaluate tools to limit OBA. Designers will be aware of these problems and could use our methodology to evaluate their tools.
Abstract » We present results of a 45-participant laboratory study investigating the usability of nine tools to limit online behavioral advertising (OBA). We interviewed participants about OBA and recorded their behavior and attitudes as they configured and used a privacy tool, such as a browser plugin that blocks requests to specific URLs, a tool that sets browser cookies indicating a user's preference to opt out of OBA, or the privacy settings built into a web browser.

We found serious usability flaws in all tools we tested. Participants found many tools difficult to configure, and tools' default settings were often minimally protective. Ineffective communication, confusing interfaces, and a lack of feedback led many participants to conclude that a tool was blocking OBA when they had not properly configured it to do so. Without being familiar with many advertising companies and tracking technologies, it was difficult for participants to use the tools effectively.
<Insert Image>: Helping the Legal Use of Creative Commons Images - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present an Open Media Retrieval model for searching and using Creative Commons content. The design will reduce accidental copyright infringements and the time needed for searching open content.
Abstract » Media creation applications cater poorly to one very common usage: Situations in which the users need media that they do not own and for which they are unwilling to pay. Finding and using externally produced media is currently a cumbersome process. Often, users locate the content using a search engine, copy it into their work, cross their fingers, and hope they do not infringe on any copyrights. While the authors have shared hundreds of millions of images with permissive licenses, the license terms are too complicated for other users to follow. In our studies, we found that even the well-intentioned users still fail to respect copyrights in simple image reuse situations. We therefore introduce an Open Media Retrieval (OMR) model to remedy this problem and supplement it with prototypes that access various legal image sources directly within the creative work flow and provide automatic credits to the original authors.
Fighting for My Space: Coping Mechanisms for SNS Boundary Regulation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents results from a qualitative interview-based study to identify "coping mechanisms" that Social Networking Site users devise outside explicit boundary-regulation interface features in order to manage interpersonal boundaries.
Abstract » Sharing information online via social network sites (SNSs) is at an all-time high, yet research shows that users often exhibit a marked dissatisfaction in using such sites. A compelling explanation for this dichotomy is that users are struggling against their SNS environment in an effort to achieve their preferred levels of privacy for regulating social interactions. Our research investigates users' SNS boundary regulation behavior. This paper presents results from a qualitative interview-based study to identify "coping mechanisms" that users devise outside explicit boundary-regulation interface features in order to manage interpersonal boundaries. Our categorization of such mechanisms provides insight into interaction design issues and opportunities for new SNS features.
PaperGame ExperiencesRoom: 18AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperSupporting Visually Impaired UsersRoom: 18CD
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperTools for Video + ImagesRoom: 18AB
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Chair: Katherine Isbister, NYU-Poly, USA
The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a multivariate study of tutorials in three video games with 45,000 players. Shows that tutorials may only have value for games with mechanics that cannot be discovered through experimentation.
Abstract » One of the key challenges of video game design is teaching new players how to play. Although game developers frequently use tutorials to teach game mechanics, little is known about how tutorials affect game learnability and player engagement. Seeking to estimate this value, we implemented eight tutorial designs in three video games of varying complexity and evaluated their effects on player engagement and retention. The results of our multivariate study of over 45,000 players show that the usefulness of tutorials depends greatly on game complexity. Although tutorials increased play time by as much as 29% in the most complex game, they did not significantly improve player engagement in the two simpler games. Our results suggest that investment in tutorials may not be justified for games with mechanics that can be discovered through experimentation.
Tales from the Front Lines of a Large-Scale Serious Game Project - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of an ongoing, large-scale interdisciplinary serious game project. Presents perspectives explaining the dynamics of serious game projects, highlighting under examined issues present in serious game design.
Abstract » Serious games have received much positive attention; correspondingly, many researchers have taken up the challenge of establishing how to best design them. However, the current literature often focuses on best practice design strategies and frameworks. Fine-grained details, contextual descriptions, and organisational factors that are invaluable in helping us to learn from and reflect on project experiences are often overlooked. In this paper, we present five distinct and sometimes competing perspectives that are critical in understanding factors that influence serious game projects: project organisation, technology, domain knowledge, user research, and game design. We explain these perspectives by providing insights from the design and development process of an EU-funded serious game about conflict resolution developed by an interdisciplinary consortium of researchers and industry-based developers. We also point out a set of underlying forces that become evident from viewing the process from different perspectives, to underscore that problems exist in serious game projects and that we should open the conversation about them.
Not Doing But Thinking: The Role Of Challenge In Immersive Videogames - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Three experiments manipulate challenge of a video game. Demonstrate that the challenge experienced is an interaction between level of expertise of the gamer and cognitive challenge encompassed within the game.
Abstract » Previous research into the experience of videogames has shown the importance of the role of challenge in producing a good experience. However, defining exactly which challenges are important and which aspects of gaming experience are affected is largely under-explored. In this paper, we investigate if altering the level of challenge in a videogame influences people's experience of immersion. Our first study demonstrates that simply increasing the physical demands of the game by requiring gamers to interact more with the game does not result in increased immersion. In a further two studies, we use time pressure to make games more physically and cognitively challenging. We find that the addition of time pressure increases immersion as predicted. We argue that the level of challenge experienced is an interaction between the level of expertise of the gamer and the cognitive challenge encompassed within the game.
Understanding User Experience in Stereoscopic 3D Games - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Evaluates the impact of stereoscopic vision on user experience with digital games. Helps game designers to understand how different games and target groups can potentially benefit from stereoscopic vision.
Abstract » Recent advances in digital game technology are making stereoscopic games more popular. Stereoscopic 3D graphics promise a better gaming experience but this potential has not yet been proven empirically. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study that evaluates player experience of three stereoscopic games in comparison with their monoscopic counterparts. We examined 60 participants, each playing one of the three games, using three self-reporting questionnaires and one psychophysiological instrument. Our main results are (1) stereoscopy in games increased experienced immersion, spatial presence, and simulator sickness; (2) the effects strongly differed across the three games and for both genders, indicating more affect on male users and with games involving depth animations; (3) results related to attention and cognitive involvement indicate more direct and less thoughtful interactions with stereoscopic games, pointing towards a more natural experience through stereoscopy.
Chair: Vicki Hanson, University of Dundee, UK
CrossingGuard: Exploring Information Content in Navigation Aids for the Visually Impaired - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: User study to investigate the information needs of visually impaired pedestrians at intersections. We also present a system to gather the necessary information using Google's Street View and Amazon's Mechanical Turk.
Abstract » Visually impaired pedestrians experience unique challenges when navigating an urban environment because many cues about orientation and traffic patterns are difficult to ascertain without the use of vision. Technological aids such as customized GPS navigation tools offer the chance to augment visually impaired pedestrians� sensory information with a richer depiction of an environment, but care must be taken to balance the need for more information with other demands on the senses. In this paper, we focus on the information needs of visually impaired pedestrians at intersections, which present a specific cause of stress when navigating in unfamiliar locations. We present a navigation application prototype called CrossingGuard that provides rich information to a user such as details about intersection geometry that are not available to visually impaired pedestrians today. A user study comparing content-rich information to a baseline condition shows that content-rich information raises the level of comfort that visually impaired pedestrians feel at unfamiliar intersections. In addition, we discuss the categories of information that are most useful. Finally, we introduce a micro-task approach to gather intersection data via Street View annotations that achieves 85.5% accuracy over the 9 categories of information used by CrossingGuard.
SpaceSense: Representing Geographical Information to Visually Impaired People Using Spatial Tactile Feedback - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates a mobile interface that helps people with visual impairments learn directions to a location and its spatial relationships with other locations on a map through spatial tactile feedback.
Abstract » Learning an environment can be challenging for people with visual impairments. Braille maps allow their users to understand the spatial relationship between a set of places. However, physical Braille maps are often costly, may not always cover an area of interest with sufficient detail, and might not present up-to-date information. We built a handheld system for representing geographical information called SpaceSense, which includes custom spatial tactile feedback hardware�multiple vibration motors attached to different locations on a mobile touch-screen device. It offers high-level information about the distance and direction towards a destination and bookmarked places through vibrotactile feedback to help the user maintain the spatial relationships between these points. SpaceSense also adapts a summarization technique for online user reviews of public and commercial venues. Our user study shows that participants could build and maintain the spatial relationships between places on a map more accurately with SpaceSense compared to a system without spatial tactile feedback. They pointed specifically to having spatial tactile feedback as the contributing factor in successfully building and maintaining their mental map.
The User as a Sensor: Navigating Users with Visual Impairments in Indoor Spaces using Tactile Landmarks - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an indoor navigation system that appropriates the user to be a sensor. The system can improve mobility for users with visual impairments and can be installed at low cost.
Abstract » Indoor navigation systems for users who are visually impaired typically rely upon expensive physical augmentation of the environment or expensive sensing equipment; consequently few systems have been implemented. We present an indoor navigation system called Navatar that allows for localization and navigation by exploiting the physical characteristics of indoor environments, taking advantage of the unique sensing abilities of users with visual impairments, and minimalistic sensing achievable with low cost accelerometers available in smartphones. Particle filters are used to estimate the user's location based on the accelerometer data as well as the user confirming the presence of anticipated tactile landmarks along the provided path. Navatar has a high possibility of large-scale deployment, as it only requires an annotated virtual representation of an indoor environment. A user study with six blind users determines the accuracy of the approach, collects qualitative experiences and identifies areas for improvement.
Guidelines are Only Half of the Story: Accessibility Problems Encountered by Blind Users on the Web - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: An empirical study of 1383 problems encountered on 16 websites by 32 blind users. These problems were analysed for whether they were covered by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines version 2.0
Abstract » This paper describes an empirical study of the problems encountered by 32 blind users on the Web. Task-based user evaluations were undertaken on 16 websites, yielding 1383 instances of user problems. The results showed that only 50.4% of the problems encountered by users were covered by Success Criteria in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0). For user problems that were covered by WCAG 2.0, 16.7% of websites implemented techniques recommended in WCAG 2.0 but the techniques did not solve the problems. These results show that few developers are implementing the current version of WCAG, and even when the guidelines are implemented on websites there is little indication that people with disabilities will encounter fewer problems. The paper closes by discussing the implications of this study for future research and practice. In particular, it discusses the need to move away from a problem-based approach towards a design principle approach for web accessibility.
Chair: Michael Rohs, University of Munich, Germany
TeleAdvisor: A Versatile Augmented Reality Tool for Remote Assistance - Note
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a hands-free transportable augmented reality system, consisting of a camera and a pico projector mounted on a tele-operated robotic arm. Can support remote assistance tasks around physical objects.
Abstract » TeleAdvisor is a novel solution designed to support remote assistance tasks in many real-world scenarios. It consists of a video camera and a small projector mounted at the end of a tele-operated robotic arm. This enables a remote helper to view and interact with the workers� workspace, while controlling the point of view. It also provides the worker with a hands-free transportable device to be placed anywhere in his or her environment. Active tracking of the projection space is used in order to reliably correlate between the camera�s view and the projector space.
DragLocks: Handling Temporal Ambiguities in Direct Manipulation Video Navigation - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses possible interaction breakdowns in direct manipulation video navigation systems in the presence of objects pausing in the video. Presents and evaluates two solutions that modify the trajectory geometry.
Abstract » Direct manipulation video navigation (DMVN) systems allow to navigate inside video scenes by spatially manipulating objects in the video. Problems arise when dealing with temporal ambiguities where a time span is projected onto a single point in image space, e.g., when objects stop moving. Existing DMVN systems deal with these cases by either disabling navigation on the paused object or by allowing jumps in the timeline. Both of these workarounds are undesirable as they introduce inconsistency or provoke loss of context. We analyze current practices regarding temporal ambiguities and introduce two new methods to visualize and navigate object pauses. User tests show that the new approaches are better suited for navigation in scenes containing temporal ambiguities and are rated higher in terms of user satisfaction.
CamBlend: An Object Focused Collaboration Tool - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: New panoramic focus+context video collaboration system designed to facilitate the interaction with and around objects. Exploratory study showed several successful new uses & existing problems in fractured spaces.
Abstract » CamBlend is a new focus-in-context panoramic video collaboration system designed to facilitate the interaction with and around objects in a lightweight, flexible package. As well as the ability to view very high resolution local and remote video that covers a full 180° field of view, the system contains a number of tools which facilitate bi- directional pointing between two remote spaces. In the first quasi-naturalistic exploratory study on a focus-in-context video system, we show a number of unique object referencing behaviours, including un-intentional or 'implicit' pointing and a number of scenarios where this was advantageous. Additionally the study highlighted some of the problems inherent in aligning between screen-based and real-world perspectives.
Swift: Reducing the Effects of Latency in Online Video Scrubbing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes two experiments to test the effects of latency on video navigation tasks and the Swift technique which is designed to mitigate these effects.
Abstract » We first conduct a study using abstracted video content to measure the effects of latency on video scrubbing performance and find that even very small amounts of latency can significantly degrade navigation performance. Based on these results, we present Swift, a technique that supports real-time scrubbing of online videos by overlaying a small, low resolution copy of the video during video scrubbing, and snapping back to the high resolution video when the scrubbing is completed or paused. A second study compares the Swift technique to traditional online video players on a collection of realistic live motion videos and content-specific search tasks which finds the Swift technique reducing completion times by as much as 72% even with a relatively low latency of 500ms. Lastly, we demonstrate that the Swift technique can be easily implemented using modern HTML5 web standards.
Video Summagator: An Interface for Video Summarization and Navigation - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a 3D video visualization-based interface for video summarization and navigation. Allows a user to quickly look into the video cube, understand the video, and navigate to the content of interest.
Abstract » This paper presents Video Summagator (VS), a volume-based interface for video summarization and navigation. VS models a video as a space-time cube and visualizes the video cube using real-time volume rendering techniques. VS empowers a user to interactively manipulate the video cube. We show that VS can quickly summarize both the static and dynamic video content by visualizing the space-time information in 3D. We demonstrate that VS enables a user to quickly look into the video cube, understand the content, and navigate to the content of interest.
Video as memorabilia: User needs for collaborative automatic mobile video production - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines for designers of collaborative video production tools based on a field study of automatic remixing of audience captured video. Can assist in considering memorabilia, control and acknowledgement issues.
Abstract » Digital memorabilia, such as video remixes, can increase the value of attending music events. Remixes can be made using video clips recorded by attendees during the event; however, producing them is a laborious task. In this paper we study the prospects of an automatic video remixing and present the results of a study on users' perceptions and attitudes towards collaborative automatic mobile video production. The three findings are as follows: People assess automatic video remix memorabilia as fairly equal to amateur-made manual ones, even if the manually-created video remixes are better in overall quality; as a remixing actor, a computer can be perceived to be more trustworthy than a human remixer; and, the quality of the video remix and the publication forum of the remix outcome plays a significant role when people are deciding whether or not they need public acknowledgement for their contribution. We conclude by discussing the design implications for collaborative automatic mobile video production.
PaperEating + CookingRoom: 18CD
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Case Study & PaperWorkplaceRoom: 19AB
Community: designCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
PaperSustainability and Behavior ChangeRoom: 18CD
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Wendy Ju, California College of the Arts, USA
Health Promotion as Activism: Building Community Capacity to Effect Social Change - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the design and evaluation of a tool that supports community-based health advocacy. Provides recommendations for HCI research focused on health inequalities and the ecological influences on behaviors and attitudes.
Abstract » As HCI researchers have designed tools to promote wellness, disease has often been approached as a general problem. In contrast, public health research argues for an activist approach focused on how certain groups disproportionately experience disease and eliminating these disparities. Taking this activist stance, we examine how technology can reduce health inequalities by disrupting power relationships and helping communities pursue social change. We discuss our tool, Community Mosaic (CM), which allows individuals to share their healthy eating ideas with one another as a means of advocating behavior change. Our results characterize how CM helped facilitate activism (i.e., collective efforts to counter local challenges to healthy living) and shift users� attitudes regarding their role as advocates for health. We contribute to the field of HCI by using our findings to present a set of recommendations for future research focused on designing and evaluating health promotion tools using an activist lens.
Augmented Perception of Satiety: Controlling Food Consumption by Changing Apparent Size of Food with Augmented Reality - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: The main contribution of this paper is to realize a method for modifying perception of satiety and controlling nutritional intake by changing the apparent size of food with augmented reality.
Abstract » The main contribution of this paper is to realize a method for modifying perception of satiety and controlling nutritional intake by changing the apparent size of food with augmented reality. As a possible method for decreasing rates of obesity, we focused on controlling food intake implicitly without any effort.
We hypothesized that ambiguous perception of satiety can be applied to control our food intake. Recent psychological studies have revealed that the amount of food consumed is influenced by both its actual volume and external factors during eating. Based on this knowledge, we sought to control perception of satiety gained from the same amount of food by changing its apparent size. We also proposed a method for food-volume augmentation using real-time shape deformation. Our results suggest that this augmentation can control the perception of satiety and food intake.
Laying the Table for HCI: Uncovering Ecologies of Domestic Food Consumption - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Study of family eating practices in the home and the artefacts and spaces involved. Provides a set of sensitizing concepts for interaction designers and technologists seeking to augment domestic eating.
Abstract » Food contributes fundamentally to our well-being: physically, mentally, and socially. Unsurprisingly then, the importance of food to our lives has long been recognized in the social sciences, and more recently, in Human-Computer Interaction. Yet, despite ongoing trends towards the digital augmentation of domestic environments, little consideration has been given to the impact of the material aspects of food consumption in the home. This paper takes an ecological approach to uncovering the role spaces, tabletops, and artefacts play in the social organization of domestic eating practices. Based on our findings of interviews with seven households in England, we discuss implications for those seeking to digitally augment domestic dining.
panavi: Recipe Medium with a Sensors-Embedded Pan for Domestic Users to Master Professional Culinary Arts - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: "panavi,'' a recipe medium utilizing a sensors-embedded frying pan, supports cooking experience for domestic users to master professional culinary arts by managing temperature and pan movement properly.
Abstract » "panavi," a recipe medium, supports cooking experience for domestic users to master professional culinary arts in their kitchens by managing temperature and pan movement properly. Utilizing a sensors-embedded fry-ing pan—providing projected images, LED indications, and vibration—wirelessly connected with a computer system that shows text messages with sounds, the panavi system analyzes sensors' data, recognizes users' conditions, and provides the users with situated instructions. Describing our vision, design process, implementation, and user study that outlines experience of challenging professional cooking, this paper introduces a design framework model of this recipe medium for domestic usage. Throughout revealing the design process—from ideation to the finished research artifact as a whole cook-ing support system—this research suggests how to design interactive systems responding to human situated actions, for use as daily commodities enriching domestic user experience.
Chair: Volkmar Pipek, University of Siegen, Germany
"A Pace Not Dictated by Electrons": An Empirical Study of Work Without Email - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Empirical study shows that when information workers' email was cut off, they multitasked less and had lower stress. Results suggest how organizations can alleviate the burden of email on employees.
Abstract » We report on an empirical study where we cut off email usage for five workdays for 13 information workers in an organization. We employed both quantitative measures such as computer log data and ethnographic methods to compare a baseline condition (normal email usage) with our experimental manipulation (email cutoff). Our results show that without email, people multitasked less and had a longer task focus, as measured by a lower frequency of shifting between windows and a longer duration of time spent working in each computer window. Further, we directly measured stress using wearable heart rate monitors and found that stress, as measured by heart rate variability, was lower without email. Interview data were consistent with our quantitative measures, as participants reported being able to focus more on their tasks. We discuss the implications for managing email better in organizations.
Designing Experiential Prototypes for the Future Workplace - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describes a successful Xerox-sponsored open innovation project that generated innovative designs and prototypes for the future of the workplace with Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT).
Abstract » In this paper, we describe a successful Xerox-sponsored open innovation project that generated innovative designs and prototypes for the future of the workplace by the future workers of tomorrow - 42 undergraduate students with a unique combination of skills in creative media design and interactive development at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). During the course of 20 weeks, through close collaborations between the Xerox research team and RIT faculty and students, we developed an experience-centric methodology for designing and developing rapid experiential prototypes. As a result, seven interactive and futuristic prototypes were created, demonstrated and also well-received at both Xerox and community events.
You've got video: Increasing clickthrough when sharing enterprise video with email - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We summarize our research on increasing the information scent of video recordings that are shared via email in a corporate setting. We report on the results of two user studies.
Abstract » In this Note we summarize our research on increasing the information scent of video recordings that are shared via email in a corporate setting. We compare two types of email messages for sharing recordings: the first containing basic information (e.g. title, speaker, abstract) with a link to the video; the second with the same information plus a set of video thumbnails (hyperlinked to the segments they represent), which are automatically created by video summarization technology. We report on the results of two user studies. The first one compares the quality of the set of thumbnails selected by the technology to sets selected by 31 humans. The second study examines the clickthrough rates for both email formats (with and without hyperlinked thumbnails) as well as gathering subjective feedback via survey. Results indicate that the email messages with the thumbnails drove significantly higher clickthrough rates than the messages without, even though people clicked on the main video link more frequently than the thumbnails. Survey responses show that users found the email with the thumbnail set significantly more appealing and novel.
Does the iPad add Value to Business Environments? - Long Case Study
Community: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing benefits and drawbacks of iPad usage in a business environment. Can assist companies in understanding how they can benefit from the use of mobile tablets.
Abstract » Mobile tablets like the iPad recently had a huge success in the consumer market. This generates the demand to use them productively in business environments. The underlying case study evaluates the introduction of iPads at an applied research company. The study gives evidence that the iPad adds value to this particular business environment especially in terms of productivity and joy of use. A detailed composition of benefits and drawbacks shows major factors that have to be considered when thinking about introducing and integrating iPads to a business environment.
Impression Formation in Corporate People Tagging - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: People tagging offers unique insight about self-presentation and concurrently the perception by others based on explicit data in the form of tags in an organizational environment. Findings suggest design implications.
Abstract » This research explores the relationship between self-presentation and perception by others as manifested explicitly through the use of tags in a people tagging system. The study provides insights relevant for the organizational context since it is based on a system implemented within IBM. We developed a detailed codebook and used it to categorize 9,506 tags assigned to a sample of taggers. Our analysis examines the use of self tags versus social tags (assigned by others) across different categories and sub-categories. While overlap exists, self tags tend to be more factual describing technology expertise, social tags augment the individual tags by adding a personal dimension.
Chair: A.J. Brush, Microsoft Research, USA
Collapse Informatics: Augmenting the Sustainability & ICT4D Discourse in HCI - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Augments the discourse on sustainable HCI and ICT4D to include notions of preparation for and adaptation to potential societal collapse, suggesting exemplars for interactivity design in response to such scenarios.
Abstract » Research in many fields argues that contemporary global industrial civilization will not persist indefinitely in its current form, and may, like many past human societies, eventually collapse. Arguments in environmental studies, anthropology, and other fields indicate that this transformation could begin within the next half-century. While imminent collapse is far from certain, it is prudent to consider now how to develop sociotechnical systems for use in these scenarios. We introduce the notion of collapse informatics - the study, design, and development of sociotechnical systems in the abundant present for use in a future of scarcity - as a complement to ICT4D and mitigation-oriented sustainable HCI. We draw on a variety of literatures to offer a set of relevant concepts and articulate the relationships among them to orient and evaluate collapse informatics work. Observing that collapse informatics poses a unique class of cross-cultural design problems, we sketch the design space of collapse informatics and provide a variety of example projects. We explore points of connection and distinction between collapse informatics and sustainable HCI, ICT4D, and crisis informatics. Finally, we discuss next steps and comment on the potential value of collapse informatics work even in the event that collapse never occurs.
Beyond Energy Monitors: Interaction, Energy, and Emerging Energy Systems - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reviews energy-related literature from within and outside of HCI. Characterizes a dominant cluster of work related to "energy consumption feedback", and points to design and research opportunities with emerging energy systems.
Abstract » Motivated by a recent surge of research related to energy and sustainability, this paper presents a review of energy-related work within HCI as well as from literature outside of HCI. Our review of energy-related HCI research identifies a central cluster of work focused on electricity consumption feedback (ECF). Our review of literature outside of HCI highlights a number of emerging energy systems trends of strong relevance to HCI and interaction design, including smart grid, demand response, and distributed generation technologies. We conclude by outlining a range of opportunities for HCI to engage with the experiential, behavioral, social, and cultural aspects of these emerging systems, including highlighting new areas for ECF research that move beyond our field�s current focus on energy feedback displays to increase awareness and motivate individual conservation behavior.
The Dubuque Water Portal: Evaluation of the Uptake, Use and Impact of Residential Water Consumption Feedback - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Evaluation of a water portal deployed to 303 homes that used feedback and social techniques to produce a 6.6% decrease in water consumption. Can assist designers of residential feedback systems.
Abstract » The Dubuque Water Portal is a system aimed at supporting voluntary reductions of water consumption that is intended to be deployed city-wide. It provides each household with fine-grained, near real time feedback on their water consumption, as well as using techniques like social comparison, weekly games, and news and chat to encourage water conservation. This study used logs, a survey and interviews to evaluate a 15-week pilot with 303 households. It describes the Portal's design, and discusses its adoption, use and impacts. The system resulted in a 6.6% decrease in water consumption, and the paper employs qualitative methods to look at the ways in which the Portal was (or wasn't) effective in supporting its users and enabling them to reduce their consumption. The paper concludes with a discussion of design implications for residential feedback systems, and possible engagement models.
Embedded interaction in a Water Fountain for Motivating Behavior Change in Public Space - Note
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an augmented water fountain with audiovisual feedback aimed at improving and motivating the water-drinking experience. Shows an inspiring way of conducting long-term in-the-wild studies that affect users and public space.
Abstract » This paper presents an interactive installation for a public space aimed at motivating new behaviors by augmenting the space with subtle and playful audiovisual interaction aesthetically integrated in a shared environment. Designed to complement an existing water fountain with projected light and sound, the embedded installation encouraged people to take a drink, increasing the proportion of people who used the water fountain by 42% to 57% approximately for nine months. Sensors evaluated the impact of multiple interaction modalities on actual water usage. We found that subtle interaction can improve the experience of a space, in particular for those that use it frequently, and lead to sustained behavior change, especially when its modalities are responsive to the level of activity in the space.
A Transformational Product to Improve Self-Control Strength: the Chocolate Machine - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The Chocolate Machine is an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength. Self-control is at the heart of many desirable behaviours, but often neglected by Persuasive Technologies.
Abstract » Lack of self-control is at the heart of many undesirable behaviors, such as overeating, overspending, and even overworking. While the field of Persuasive Technologies searches for ways to change attitudes and behaviors, it often neglects the science of self-control. We present the Chocolate Machine, an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength based upon Ego Depletion theory. A field study showed the machine to increase perceived self-control over time, while providing a sustained positive experience. This makes the machine transformational, aiming at facilitating behaviors people find worthwhile, but hard to implement.
Paper & ToCHISpectatorsRoom: 19AB
Community: design
Case Study & PaperHCI4D: BusinessRoom: 19AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Barry Brown, University of California San Diego, USA
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of Shop Windows - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a field study on how passers-by notice whether a public display is interactive. Can be useful to design public displays and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. The lab study reveals: (1) Mirrored user silhouettes and images are more effective than avatar-like representations. (2) It takes time to notice the interactivity (approx. 1.2s). In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice interactivity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows. Our findings can be used to design public display applications and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
Urban HCI: Spatial Aspects in the Design of Shared Encounters for Media Facades - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We propose a terminology and a model for large-scale screens in urban environments. This model can help future designs for Media Facades to become more balanced and of greater social value.
Abstract » Designing interactive applications for Media Facades is a challenging task. Architectural sized largescale screens can result in unbalanced installations, and meaningful interaction is easily overshadowed by the drastic size of the display. In this paper we reflect on urban technology interventions by analyzing their spatial configuration in relation to the structuring of interaction. We outline basic categories and offer a new terminology to describe these interactive situations designed for the built environment.
Chained Displays: Configurations of Public Displays can be used to influence Actor-, Audience-, and Passer-By Behavior - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a design space and a field study on interactive non-flat public displays. Examines how non-flat displays impact actor-, audience- and passer-by behavior.
Abstract » Most interactive public displays currently rely on flat screens. This form factor impacts how users (1) notice the public display (2) develop motivation and (3) (socially) interact with the public display. In this paper, we present Chained Displays, a combination of several screens to create different form factors for interactive public displays. We also present a design space based on two complementary concepts, Focus and Nimbus, to describe and compare chained display configurations. Finally, we performed a field study comparing three chained displays: Flat, Concave, and Hexagonal. Results show that Flat triggers the strongest honeypot effect, Hexagonal causes low social learning, and Concave triggers the smallest amount of simultaneously interacting users among other findings.
Creating the Spectacle: Designing Interactional Trajectories Through Spectator Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Ethnographic study reveals how artists designed and participants experienced a tabletop interface, shedding light on the design of tabletop and tangible interfaces, spectator interfaces, and trajectories through display ecologies
Abstract » An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists created a spectator interface for the interactive game Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height and materials of two tabletop interfaces before carefully arranging them in a local setting. We also show how participants experienced this interface. We consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale notion of interactional trajectory that combined trajectories through individual displays, trajectories through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories through an entire experience. Our findings shed light on discussions within HCI concerning interaction with tangible and tabletop displays, spectator interfaces, ecologies of displays, and trajectories through cultural experiences.
Chair: Batya Friedman, University of Washington, USA
Understanding Negotiation in Airtime Sharing in Low-income Microenterprises - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Paper presents a study of airtime sharing among low income, microenterprises in India. Findings and design thoughts point to lessons for bandwidth sharing in HCI and HCI4D.
Abstract » Shared access to airtime is a prominent mode of connectivity access in the developing world. We seek to understand airtime sharing among low-income microenterprises in India (small, low-capital businesses, such as flower sellers and milkmen), that constitute 90% of the total enterprises in India. We introduce social negotiation as the foundation of airtime sharing. We highlight negotiation mechanisms in the microenterprise, showing how shared resources are used towards personal interests amidst tensions and value conflicts, by adapting, modifying, subverting, and repurposing airtime. We then explore the design space of airtime and bandwidth sharing in low-income communities, including designing for negotiation and improving readability of airtime.
Taking Micro-Enterprise Online: The Case of Kenyan Businesses - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents findings, of Kenyan micro-entrepreneurs' need for websites. It highlights need for technology to work with existing practices rather than enforce its own form of usage onto users.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the findings of a research study recently carried out amongst micro-entrepreneurs and freelance web developers in Kenya. The objective was to understand the level of need for website creation by such entrepreneurs for their businesses and further, the challenges associated with website design and maintenance. The study was inspired by the phenomenal uptake of Internet use in the country coupled with a need to explore how micro-entrepreneurs are faring in this space, what potential exists, and how it could be realized. The findings of the study show that the Internet can be the new frontier for many micro-entrepreneurs who want to take their businesses to the next level. The study also provides critical insights into the realities of micro-enterprise, and hence relevant issues to take into consideration in seeking to take micro-enterprise online. The insights therein cover such issues as affordability of solutions, quick return on investment, convergence of current business methods and practices with those presented by an online environment for greater impact, and need for very simple, intuitive web design tools and platforms. Innovation may be required so as to come up with more website options that are better suited to the needs of micro-entrepreneurs and that are cost-effective. Alternatively other internet-based tools or platforms could be developed to help micro-entrepreneurs conduct business online. This is because the typical websites of today are not necessarily suitable for their needs.
Experiences with Bulk SMS for Health Financing in Uganda - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Analyzes the deployment and use of a Bulk SMS system for a health financing project in Uganda over 6 months. Can assist designers in understanding organizational use of SMS platforms.
Abstract » Short message service (SMS, aka text messaging) is a low-cost and effective means of communication for organizations attempting to maintain contact with many people. In this paper we look at the deployment and of a bulk mobile text-messaging platform (Bulk SMS), conceived and commissioned by a health non-governmental organization (NGO) for use in communicating with the 100+ private health facilities. We show how the platform emerged from existing practices, the features and expectations of the system, and the ways in which it was used. Common failure points include infrastructural limitations, human error, and unexpected use cases. We find that 1) the use of SMS as a media enables new types of communication, and 2) SMS alone is not sufficient for maintaining relationships within the NGO program.
Design Re-thinking for the Bottom of the Pyramid: A Case Study Based on Designing Business Software for SMEs in India - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study highlighting design factors considered while adapting enterprise software for Indian consumers. Can be useful for those building technology solutions for developing markets.
Abstract » Breaking out of the traditional notion that affordability and mass consumption are the most important pre-requisites for entering a large and developing market like India, we elicit alternate and equally critical factors to design products that can provide instant and long-term value to Indian consumers. These factors from a design thinking perspective are: a) sustainability cost for business viability, b) micro-localization needs for human desirability and c) infrastructure considerations for technical feasibility. Our research insights are based on experiences from designing business analytics software for small and midsized enterprises in India. However, our findings are broadly applicable to design thinkers, researchers and designers creating technology solutions for any developing market.

Tuesday, May 08, 2012

Madness is 8:30 - 9:20
Breaks are from 10:50 - 11:30 and 15:50 - 16:30
Poster interactions focusing on Work in Progress: Design and User Experience will start at 10:50 in the Exhibition Hall
Lunch Break is 12:50 - 14:30
Interactivity session will be in the evening starting at 15:50
Job Fair at 17:00
Videos will be shown again in the evening in Ballroom D starting at 19:00
09:30 - 10:5011:30 - 12:5014:30 - 15:50
Special EventsTown Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHIRoom: Ballroom D VideosVideoRoom: Ballroom D
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Student Game CompetitionStudent Game CompetitionRoom: Ballroom D
Chair: Joseph "Jofish" Kaye, Nokia Research
Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - Special Events
Contribution & Benefit: In this Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss how to improve and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation.
Abstract » The CHI community is vibrant, growing, and interdisciplinary, and peer review is at the heart of what it means to be a community of researchers. In this Special Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss the question of how to grow and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation. Our community has seen a wide variety of explorations of the best way to change and improve our practices: alt.chi’s open reviewing, CSCW’s revise & resubmit process and UIST’s removal of page limits are all ways to address the changing nature of this research. This Town Hall will provide an opportunity to discuss and address this ongoing question.
Communication Technologies for the Zombie Apocalypse: New Educational Initiatives - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The zombie apocalypse will present a unique challenge as communication technologies fail. This video describes STEM initiatives that will prepare children to communicate when the undead hordes are upon us.
Abstract » The threat of the zombie apocalypse has finally begun to reach a level of popular concern, both in the media and in government organizations like the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The zombie apocalypse and subsequent destruction of modern communication technologies will present a unique challenge to future generations. This video describes new STEM initiatives that will enable today's children to maintain vital information links once the undead hordes are upon us.
Pet Video Chat: Monitoring and Interacting with Dogs over Distance - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We designed a pet video chat system that augments a Skype audio-video connection with remote interaction features and evaluated it with pet owners to understand its usage.
Abstract » Companies are now making video-communication systems that allow pet owners to see, and, in some cases, even interact with their pets when they are separated by distance. Such ‘doggie cams’ show promise, yet it is not clear how pet video chat systems should be designed (if at all) in order to meet the real needs of pet owners. To investigate the potential of interactive dog cams, we then designed our own pet video chat system that augments a Skype audio-video connection with remote interaction features and evaluated it with pet owners to understand its usage. Our results show promise for pet video chat systems that allow owners to see and interact with their pets while away.
Designing Visualizations to Facilitate Multisyllabic Speech with Children with Autism and Speech Delays - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: VocSyl is a real-time voice visualization system to help teach multisyllabic speech to children with autism and speech delays.
Abstract » The ability of children to combine syllables represents an important developmental milestone. This ability is often delayed or impaired in a variety of clinical groups including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and speech delays (SPD). This video illustrates some of the features of VocSyl, a real-time voice visualization system to shape multisyllabic speech. VocSyl was designed using the Task Centered User Interface Design methodology from the beginning to the end of the design process. Children with Autism and Speech Delays, targeted users of the software, were directly involved in the development process, thus allowing us to focus on what these children demonstrate they require.
TimeBlocks: “Mom, can I have another block of time?” - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children.
Abstract » Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children. TimeBlocks consists of a set of cubic blocks that function as a physical progress bar. Parents and children can physically manipulate the blocks to represent the concept of time. We evaluated TimeBlocks through a field study in which six families tried TimeBlocks for four days at their homes. The results indicate that TimeBlocks played a useful role in facilitating the often challenging task of time-related communication between parents and children. We also report on a range of observed insightful novel uses of TimeBlocks in our study.
An Augmented Multi-touch System Using Hand and Finger Identification - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce a multitouch system capable of identifying the finger and hand corresponding to each touch, and show how we use it in a multitouch 3D authoring tool.
Abstract » With the advent of devices such as smart phones and tablet computers, multi-touch applications are rapidly becoming commonplace. However, existing multi-touch sensors are not able to report which finger, or which hand, is responsible for each of the touches. To overcome this deficiency we introduce a multi-touch system that is capable of identifying the finger and hand corresponding to each touch. The system consists of a commercially available capacitive multi-touch display augmented with an infrared depth camera mounted above the surface of the display. We performed a user study to measure the accuracy of the system and found that our algorithm was correct on 92.7% of the trials.
TEROOS: A Wearable Avatar to Enhance Joint Activities (Video Preview) - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The video shows what communication style a wearable robot avatar offers to daily life situations. Two users can communicate by sharing their vision via the robot avatar.
Abstract » This video shows a wearable avatar named TEROOS, which is mounted on the shoulder of a person. TEROOS allows the users who wear it and control it to remotely share a vision. Moreover, the avatar has an anthropomorphic face that enables the user who controls it to communicate with people that are physically around the user who wears it. We have conducted a eld test by using TEROOS and observed that the wearable avatar innovatively assisted the users to communicate during their joint activities such as route navigating, and buying goods at a shop. In addition, both users could easily identify objects that they discussed. Moreover, shop's staf s members communicated with the user controlling TEROOS and they exhibited a typical social behavior.
The Design Evolution of LuminAR: A Compact and Kinetic Projected Augmented Reality Interface - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: LuminAR is kinetic projected augmented reality interface, in everyday objects, namely a light bulb and a task light. This video presents the design evolution iterations of the various LuminAR prototypes.
Abstract » LuminAR is a new form factor for a compact and kinetic projected augmented reality interface. This video presents the design evolution iterations of the LuminAR prototypes. In this video we document LuminAR’s design process, hardware and software implementation and demonstrate new kinetic interaction techniques. The work presented is motivated through a set of applications that explore scenarios for interactive and kinetic projected augmented reality interfaces. It also opens the door for further explorations of kinetic interaction and promotes the adoption of projected augmented reality as a commonplace user interface modality.
EyeRing: An Eye on a Finger - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: EYERING: a finger-worn personal assistant with visual analysis capabilities, that aid visually impaired people as well as the sighted.
Abstract » Finger-worn devices are a greatly underutilized form of interaction with the surrounding world. By putting a camera on a finger we show that many visual analysis applications, for visually impaired people as well as the sighted, prove seamless and easy. We present EyeRing, a ring mounted camera, to enable applications such as identifying currency and navigating, as well as helping sighted people to tour an unknown city or intuitively translate signage. The ring apparatus is autonomous, however our system also includes a mobile phone or computation device to which it connects wirelessly, and an earpiece for information retrieval. Finally, we will discuss how different finger worn sensors may be extended and applied to other domains.
Which Book Should I Pick? - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This research suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of large book data.
Abstract » This video proposes readability visualization, genre visualization, and combined visualization to provide unconventional information for book selection. Data visualization was initiated for the practical purpose of delivering information, as it efficiently links visual perception and data so that readers are able to instantly recognize patterns in overcrowded data. In this interdisciplinary research we used the strength of data visualization, and this paper suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of a large volume of book data.
Video Mediated Recruitment for Online Studies - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We illustrate that videos can support online research by driving the recruitment process. They can also help build an online community which in turn can provide many long term benefits.
Abstract » More than ever, researchers are turning to the internet as a means to conduct HCI studies. Despite the promise of a worldwide audience, recruiting participants can still be a difficult task. In this video we discuss and illustrate that videos - through their sharable and entertaining nature - can greatly assist the recruitment process. Videos can also be a crucial part in developing an online presence, which may yield a community of followers and interested individuals. This community in turn can provide many long term benefits to the research, beyond just the recruitment phase.
PINOKY: A Ring-like Device that Gives Movement to Any Plush Toy - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: PINOKY is a wireless ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs.
Abstract » Everyone has owned or have been in contact with plush toys in their life, and plush toys play an integral part in many areas, for example in a child's growing up process, in the medical field, and as a form of communication media. In order to enhance the interaction experience with plush toys, we created the PINOKY. PINOKY is a wireless, ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs. It is a non-intrusive device, and users can instantly convert their personal plush toys into soft robots. Currently, there are several interactions, such as letting the user control the toy remotely, or inputting the desired movement by moving the toy, and having the data recorded and played back.
Experience "panavi," Challenge to Master Professional Culinary Arts! - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This video introduces the user experience of "panavi" that supports cooking for domestic users to master professional culinary arts in their kitchens by managing temperature and pan movement properly.
Abstract » This video introduces the user experience of "panavi" that supports cooking for domestic users to master professional culinary arts in their kitchens by managing temperature and pan movement properly. Utilizing a sensors-embedded frying pan wirelessly connected computer system, it analyzes sensors' data, recognizes users’ conditions, and provides the users situated navigation messages. In the video, a young lady tries to cook spaghetti Carbonara using panavi, and masters this "difficult" menu by enjoying cooking process. The full paper of this work is also published in CHI '12 conference proceedings.
Ferro Tale: Electromagnetic Animation Interface - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Inspired by the expressiveness of sand drawing, we explore ways to use an electromagnetic array, camera feedback, computer vision, and ferromagnetic particles to produce animations.
Abstract » In this video we demonstrate the idea and the prototype
of an electromagnetic animation interface, ferro tale.

Ferromagnetic particles, such as iron filings, have very
fascinating characteristics. Therefore they are widely used
in art, education and as toys. Besides their potential to
enable visual and tactile feedback and to be used as a
medium for high resolution tangible input, peoples natural
desire to engage and explore the behavior of this material
makes them interesting for HCI.

Inspired by the expressiveness of sand drawing, we want to
explore ways to use an electromagnetic array, camera
feedback, computer vision, and ferromagnetic particles to
produce animations. The currently used magnetic
actuation device consists of a 3 by 3 coil array. Even with
such a small number of actuators, we are able
demonstrate several animation examples.
Supporting children with autism to participate throughout a design process - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This short film portrays a representative participatory design session involving children with autism collaborating to generate ideas for user interface characters or personas, as active participants within a design team.
Abstract » A deficit in social communication is one of a number of core features of autism that can result in the exclusion of individuals with autism from the design process. Individuals with autism can be highly motivated by new technology, and the design of technologies for individuals with autism could potentially benefit from their direct input. We structured participatory design sessions using Cooperative Inquiry specifically to support the needs of individuals with autism. This video highlights how, when appropriately supported, the challenges of the social communication deficits associated with autism can be overcome and individuals with autism can take a full and active role within the design process.
Towards a Wearable Music System for Nomadic Musicians - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This concept video shows the design of a wearable system for musicians to record their ideas while being away from their instruments, using an interactive shirt and belt.
Abstract » This concept video shows the design of a wearable system for musicians to record their ideas while being away from their instruments, using an interactive shirt and belt.
Tongueduino: Hackable, High-bandwidth Sensory Augmentation - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The tongue has an extremely dense sensing resolution and extraordinary degree of neuroplasticity. Tongueduino is an electro-tactile tongue display that uses those characteristics to interface the user's body to electronic sensors.
Abstract » The tongue is known to have an extremely dense sensing resolution, as well as an extraordinary degree of neuroplasticity, the ability to adapt to and internalize new input. Research has shown that electro-tactile tongue displays paired with cameras can be used as vision prosthetics for the blind or visually impaired; users quickly learn to read and navigate through natural environments, and many describe the signals as an innate sense. However, existing displays are expensive and difficult to adapt. Tongueduino is an inexpensive, vinyl-cut tongue display designed to interface with many types of sensors besides cameras. Connected to a magnetometer, for example, the system provides a user with an internal sense of direction, like a migratory bird. Piezo whiskers allow a user to sense orientation, wind, and the lightest touch. Through tongueduino, we hope to bring electro-tactile sensory substitution beyond the discourse of vision replacement, towards open-ended sensory augmentation that anyone can access.
Pen-in-Hand Command: NUI for Real-Time Strategy eSports - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the design of embodied interaction in the context of real-time strategy eSports. Specifically, we look at pen + multi-touch interaction using a Wacom Cintiq augmented with a ZeroTouch sensor.
Abstract » Electronic Sports (eSports) is the professional play and spectating of digital games. Real-time strategy games are a form of eSport that require particularly high- performance and precise interaction. Prior eSports HCI has been keyboard and mouse based. We investigate the real-time strategy eSports context to design novel interactions with embodied modalities, because of its rigorous needs and requirements, and the centrality of the human-computer interface as the medium of game mechanics. To sense pen + multi-touch interaction, we augment a Wacom Cintiq with a ZeroTouch multi-finger sensor. We used this modality to design new pen + touch interaction for play in real-time strategy eSports.
Plushbot: an Introduction to Computer Science - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Plushbot is a system that allows children to create their own interactive plush toys with computational elements and ideas embedded.
Abstract » We present the Plushbot project that focuses on providing a more motivating introduction of computer science to middle school students, employing tangible programming of plush toys as its central activity. About sixty students, ages 12-14, participated in a 7.5-week study in which they created and programmed their own plush toys. In order to achieve these, they learned and used several tools, including LilyPad Arduino, Modkit and a web-based application called Plushbot, which permits the user to integrate circuitry design with a pattern of plush toy pieces. Once a design is complete, the user can print the pattern and use it as a template for creating a plush toy. Plushbot is a system that allows children to create their own interactive plush toys with computational elements and ideas embedded.
Fast and Frugal Shopping Challenge - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: A fast and frugal shopping challenge looks at the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions in a grocery store.
Abstract » There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. A fast and frugal shopping challenge is presented, in the style of a humorous reality TV show, where the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions are demonstrated by shoppers in a grocery store.
Anyone Can Sketch Vignettes! - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a sketch-based application for interactive pen-and-ink illustration. The novel interaction and workflow enables to create a wide range of paintings easily and quickly, along with preserving personal artistic style.
Abstract » Vignette is an interactive system that facilitates texture creation in pen-and-ink illustrations. Unlike existing systems, Vignette preserves illustrators’ workflow and style: users draw a fraction of a texture and use gestures to automatically fill regions with the texture. Our exploration of natural work-flow and gesture-based interaction was inspired by traditional way of creating illustrations. We currently support both 1D and 2D synthesis with stitching. Our system also has interactive refinement and editing capabilities to provide a higher level texture control, which helps artists achieve their desired vision. Vignette makes the process of illustration more enjoyable and that first time users can create rich textures from scratch within minutes.
SIGCHI SPrAyCE: A Space Spray Input for Fast Shape Drawing. - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: SPrAyce is a spray-based device allowing people to design in space. It's a new way of designing objects and shapes.
Abstract » Current technological solutions that enable sharing some shape-based ideas are often time demanding and painful to use. The goal of this project is to create a new device, a new way of drawing in an intuitive way. A spray-based input is created to allow natural gestures to draw 3D objects and manipulate the drawing.
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of a Shop Window - Videos
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This video shows how passers-by interact with the Looking Glass, an interactive shop window.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice inter- activity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows (the honeypot effect).
WatchIt: Simple gestures for interacting with a watchstrap - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: WatchIt is a new way to interact with interactive wristwatch. The watchband bracelet becomes interactive, thus avoiding the fat finger problem and occlusion.
Abstract » We present WatchIt, a new interaction technique for wristwatch computers, a category of devices that badly suffers from a scarcity of input surface area. WatchIt considerably increases this surface by extending it from the touch screen to the wristband. The video shows a mockup of how simple gestures on the external and/or internal bands may allow the user to scroll a list (one-finger slide), to select an item (tap), and to set a continuous parameter like the volume of music playing (two-finger slide), avoiding the drawback of screen occlusion by the finger. Also shown is the prototype we are currently using to investigate the usability of our new interaction technique.
The Interactive Punching Bag - Videos
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The ‘interactive punching bag’ is a programmable device that adds sensors, sound, lights, and a display to a conventional punching bag.
Abstract » The ‘interactive punching bag’ transforms a conventional punching bag into a programmable ‘smart device’ enhanced to provide various forms of stimulus and feedback (sound, lights, and displayed images). The physical characteristics of each punch are captured using impact sensors and accelerometers, and LEDs, speakers and an associated display can be used to provide different prompts and responses. Interactions are logged over time for analysis. The bag was devised as a means of investigating how to design interactions in the context of a fun, physical, familiar object. Preliminary studies suggest that users are surprised and engaged, and that first-time users spend more time in their first encounter if the bag is running an ‘unexpected’ program (e.g., giggling on impact rather than grunting). However, some users are sensitive about the nature of images and sounds associated with the bag, particularly where there is a conflict with social expectations or values. So far, the interactions that hold users’ attention are those, like the musical ‘punching bag keyboard’, that combine moderate physical activity with a creative element or an intellectual challenge.
Haptic Lotus - A Theatre Experience for Blind and Sighted Audiences - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Can technologies facilitate comparable cultural experiences for both blind and sighted audiences? The Haptic Lotus is a device that changes its form as people walk through a dark immersive installation.
Abstract » How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of ‘blindness’, through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience’s journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.

During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
MAWL: Mobile Assisted Word-Learning - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Word-learning is one of the basic steps in language learning. This video demonstrates Mobile Assisted Word-Learning (MAWL): An augmented reality based collaborative interface for learning new words using a smartphone.
Abstract » Word-learning is one of the basic steps in language
learning. A general traditional approach for learning new
words is to keep a dictionary and use it whenever one
encounters a new word. This video demonstrates Mobile
Assisted Word-Learning (MAWL)[1]: an augmented
reality based collaborative social-networking interface for
learning new words using a smartphone. MAWL keeps
track and saves all textual contexts during reading process
along with providing augmented reality-based assistance
such as images, translation into native language,
synonyms, antonyms, sentence usage etc.
Hit It! - An Apparatus for Upscaling Mobile HCI Studies - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: We developed a game for mobile HCI research. The game got installed over 400,000 times and served as an apparatus to conduct six successful large-scale mobile HCI studies.
Abstract » Mobile HCI studies are often conducted in a highly controlled environment and with a small convenient sample. Such common studies can have a high internal validity but often lack external validity. The findings cannot always be generalized to the behaviour of real users in real contexts. In contrast, researchers recently started to use apps as an apparatus for mobile HCI research. Publishing apps in mobile application stores enables to study large samples in their 'natural habitat'. We present the game Hit It! that has been installed 427,255 times and, more importantly, served as a tool to conduct a number of HCI studies. The amount of collected data enabled us to study users' touch behaviour, approaches to ask for consent, the best time to deploy games, and approaches for providing tactile feedback. We discuss advantages of the approach and argue that Hit It! enabled findings that would be impossible to obtain using traditional studies.
Motion Chain: A Webcam Game for Crowdsourcing Gesture Collection - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: A game with a purpose that attempts to build a corpus of useful and original videos of human motion
Abstract » This paper describes the development and preliminary design of a game with a purpose that attempts to build a corpus of useful and original videos of human motion. This content is intended for use in applications of machine learning and computer vision. The game, Motion Chain, encourages users to respond to text and video prompts by recording videos with a web camera. The game seeks to entertain not through an explicit achievement or point system but through the fun of performance and the discovery inherent in observing other players. This paper describes two specific forms of the game, Chains and Charades, and proposes future possibilities. The paper describes the phases of game design as well as implementation details then discusses an approach for evaluating the game’s effectiveness.
Herding Nerds on your Table: NerdHerder, a Mobile Augmented Reality Game - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a casual mobile game NerdHerder that involves motion-based puzzle solving. Augmented reality interfaces are integrated to support physical and spatial aspects of gameplay.
Abstract » In this paper, we introduce NerdHerder, a mobile game with an augmented reality interface. The game’s premise is that you are hired as an IT manager, and your job is to use “management skills” to get the nerd employees back to work in their cubicles. The core game mechanic relies on the physical position and movement of the handheld device in relation to the physical-digital game world. NerdHerder creatively integrates puzzle-solving and motion-based action with a mobile Augmented Reality interface. This paper introduces the system implementation, design process and design rationales of the game.
Power Defense: A Serious Game for Improving Diabetes Numeracy - Student Game Competition
Abstract » Adolescents with T1D often have poor control of their
disease. With the knowledge that the current
generation appreciates and learns more from
interactive approaches to teaching, we have developed
Power Defense, a highly interactive video game aimed
at improving one particular skill associated with
managing diabetes – numeracy. Diabetes-related
numeracy encompasses the ability to understand and
interpret results and then appropriately apply the
results to the management of diabetes. Power Defense
employs the principals of experiential learning and
includes both implicit and explicit methods for teaching
the player the necessary diabetes numeracy skills.
BombPlus- Use NFC and Orientation Sensor to Enhance User Experience - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: BombPlus is a multi-player, multi-device game that uses two novel technologies, TouchConnect and RealSense, to enhance social gaming experience for co-located players.
Abstract » We present BombPlus, a multi-player, multi-device game that uses two novel technologies to enhance social gaming experience for co-located players. First, TouchConnect uses Near Field Communication (NFC) to enable users to simply touch two mobile phones to connect and join a game. Second, RealSense uses orientation sensing to enable directional gestures to provide spatial interaction among players during the game.
Combiform: Beyond Co-attentive Play, a Combinable Social Gaming Platform - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Combiform is a gaming console that enables players to combine their controllers, opening up a new level of collaborative and competitive experiences where body-to-body and body-to-screen interactions happen in parallel.
Abstract » Combiform is a novel digital gaming console featuring four combinable handheld controllers. It is a new and unique tangible gaming interface that stresses the importance of co-located, co-attentive social interactions among players. In particular, multiple players may freely combine and lock together their handheld game controllers, thereby creating a very flexible collective and transformable tangible interface. Combiform emphasizes social interaction through controller-to-controller contact. The platform and its 10 games introduce novel, tangible and physical co-attentive experiences that are not found in traditional co-located gaming platforms using ‘embodied’ controllers (e.g. Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect). Based on observations, this new interactive technique has successfully transformed typical co-located social play experiences into a multisensory physical activity.
Paper & ToCHII Am How I Touch: Authenticating UsersRoom: Ballroom E Paper & ToCHIKick it! Interfaces for Feet and WalkingRoom: Ballroom E
Community: designCommunity: engineering
PaperUnderstanding Online CommunicationRoom: Ballroom E
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Xiang Cao, Microsoft Research Asia, China
Homogenous Physio-Behavioral Visual and Mouse Based Biometric - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new biometric technique that uses cognitive features and mouse dynamics without the introduction of new hardware. This technique opens doors for advanced biometrics used for static authentication.
Abstract » In this research, we propose a novel biometric system for static user authentication that homogeneously combines mouse dynamics, visual search capability and short-term memory effect. The proposed system introduces the visual search capability, and short-term memory effect to the biometric-based security world for the first time. The use of a computer mouse for its dynamics, and as an input sensor for the other two biometrics, means no additional hardware is required than the standard mouse. Experimental evaluation showed the system effectiveness using variable or one-time passwords. All of these attributes qualify the proposed system to be effectively deployed as a static authentication mechanism.

Extensive experimentation was done using 2740 sessions collected from 274 users. To measure the performance, a computational statistics model was specially designed and used; a statistical classifier based on Weighted-Sum produced an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 2.11%.
Biometric-Rich Gestures: A Novel Approach to Authentication on Multi-touch Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new approach to login/authentication on multi-touch devices, using behavior-based biometrics gleaned from five-finger gestures. This approach better aligns usability with security, than is the case for text-based passwords.
Abstract » In this paper, we present a novel multi-touch gesture-based authentication technique. We take advantage of the multi- touch surface to combine biometric techniques with gestural input. We defined a comprehensive set of five-finger touch gestures, based upon classifying movement characteristics of the center of the palm and fingertips, and tested them in a user study combining biometric data collection with usability questions. Using pattern recognition techniques, we built a classifier to recognize unique biometric gesture characteristics of an individual. We achieved a 90% accuracy rate with single gestures, and saw significant improvement when multiple gestures were performed in sequence. We found user ratings of a gestures desirable characteristics (ease, pleasure, excitement) correlated with a gestures actual biometric recognition ratethat is to say, user ratings aligned well with gestural security, in contrast to typical text-based passwords. Based on these results, we conclude that multi-touch gestures show great promise as an authentication mechanism.
Touch me once and I know it's you! Implicit Authentication based on Touch Screen Patterns - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents two user studies of an implicit authentication approach for touch screen phones. Proofs that it is possible to distinguish users by the way they perform the authentication.
Abstract » Password patterns, as used on current Android phones, and other shape-based authentication schemes are highly usable and memorable. In terms of security, they are rather weak since the shapes are easy to steal and reproduce. In this work, we introduce an implicit authentication approach that enhances password patterns with an additional security layer, transparent to the user. In short, users are not only authenticated by the shape they input but also by the way they perform the input. We conducted two consecutive studies, a lab and a long-term study, using Android applications to collect and log data from user input on a touch screen of standard commercial smartphones. Analyses using dynamic time warping (DTW) provided first proof that it is actually possible to distinguish different users and use this information to increase security of the input while keeping the convenience for the user high.
WebTicket: Account Management Using Printable Tokens - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes development and evaluations of WebTicket that manages web accounts using paper-based or mobile-phone-based tickets. Demonstrates that WebTicket provides reliable and phishing-resilient user authentication.
Abstract » Passwords are the most common authentication scheme today. However, it is difficult for people to memorize strong passwords, such as random sequences of characters. Additionally, passwords do not provide protection against phishing attacks. This paper introduces WebTicket, a low cost, easy-to-use and reliable web account management system that uses "tickets", which are tokens that contain a two-dimensional barcode that can be printed or stored on smartphones. Users can log into accounts by presenting the barcodes to webcams connected to computers. Through two lab studies and one field study consisting of 59 participants in total, we found that WebTicket can provide reliable authentication and phishing resilience.
Chair: Yang Li, Google Research, USA
Walking improves your cognitive map in environments that are large-scale and large in extent - ToCHI
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: No previous studies have used an omni-directional treadmill to investigate navigation. Contrary to previous studies using small-scale spaces, we show that physical locomotion is critical for rapid cognitive map development.
Abstract » This study investigated the effect of body-based information (proprioception, etc.) when participants navigated large-scale virtual marketplaces that were either small (Experiment 1) or large in extent (Experiment 2). Extent refers to the size of an environment, whereas scale refers to whether people have to travel through an environment to see the detail necessary for navigation. Each participant was provided with full body-based information (walking through the virtual marketplaces in a large tracking hall or on an omni-directional treadmill), just the translational component of body-based information (walking on a linear treadmill, but turning with a joystick), just the rotational component (physically turning but using a joystick to translate) or no body-based information (joysticks to translate and rotate). In large and small environments translational body-based information significantly improved the accuracy of participants’ cognitive maps, measured using estimates of direction and relative straight line distance but, on its own, rotational body-based information had no effect. In environments of small extent, full body-based information also improved participants’ navigational performance. The experiments show that locomotion devices such as linear treadmills would bring substantial benefits to virtual environment applications where large spaces are navigated, and theories of human navigation need to reconsider the contribution made by body-based information, and distinguish between environmental scale and extent.
Putting Your Best Foot Forward: Investigating Real-World Mappings for Foot-based Gestures - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates real-world mappings of foot-based gestures to virtual workspaces. It conducts a series of studies exploring: user-defined mappings, gesture detection and continuous interaction parameters.
Abstract » Foot-based gestures have recently received attention as an alternative interaction mechanism in situations where the hands are pre-occupied or unavailable. This paper investigates suitable real-world mappings of foot gestures to invoke commands and interact with virtual workspaces. Our first study identified user preferences for mapping common mobile-device commands to gestures. We distinguish these gestures in terms of discrete and continuous command input. While discrete foot-based input has relatively few parameters to control, continuous input requires careful design considerations on how the user's input can be mapped to a control parameter (e.g. the volume knob of the media player). We investigate this issue further through three user-studies. Our results show that rate-based techniques are significantly faster, more accurate and result if far fewer target crossings compared to displacement-based interaction. We discuss these findings and identify design recommendations.
ShoeSense: A New Perspective on Gestural Interaction and Wearable Applications - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a novel wearable device consisting of a shoe-mounted sensor and offering a novel and unique perspective for eyes-free gestural interaction. Presents and Evaluates three novel gesture sets.
Abstract » When the user is engaged with a real-world task it can be inappropriate or difficult to use a smartphone. To address this concern, we developed ShoeSense, a wearable system consisting in part of a shoe-mounted depth sensor pointing upward at the wearer. ShoeSense recognizes relaxed and discreet as well as large and demonstrative hand gestures. In particular, we designed three gesture sets (Triangle, Radial, and Finger-Count) for this setup, which can be performed without visual attention. The advantages of ShoeSense are illustrated in five scenarios: (1) quickly performing frequent operations without reaching for the phone, (2) discreetly performing operations without disturbing others, (3) enhancing operations on mobile devices, (4) supporting accessibility, and (5) artistic performances. We present a proof-of-concept, wearable implementation based on a depth camera and report on a lab study comparing social acceptability, physical and mental demand, and user preference. A second study demonstrates a 94-99% recognition rate of our recognizers.
Bootstrapper: Recognizing Tabletop Users by their Shoes - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Reformulating the user recognition problem as a shoe recognition problem and present a prototype that recognizes tabletop users.
Abstract » In order to enable personalized functionality, such as to log tabletop activity by user, tabletop systems need to recognize users. DiamondTouch does so reliably, but requires users to stay in assigned seats and cannot recognize users across sessions. We propose a different approach based on distinguishing users� shoes. While users are interacting with the table, our system Bootstrapper observes their shoes using one or more depth cameras mounted to the edge of the table. It then identifies users by matching camera images with a database of known shoe images. When multiple users interact, Bootstrapper associates touches with shoes based on hand orientation. The approach can be implemented using consumer depth cameras because (1) shoes offer large distinct features such as color, (2) shoes naturally align themselves with the ground, giving the system a well-defined perspective and thus reduced ambiguity. We report two simple studies in which Bootstrapper recognized participants from a database of 18 users with 95.8% accuracy.
Chair: David Ayman Shamma, Yahoo! Research, USA
Profanity Use in Online Communities - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Exposes poor performance of list-based profanity detection systems through evaluation of systems and failures. Analysis of community differences regarding creation/tolerance of profanity on social news site suggests new approach.
Abstract » As user-generated Web content increases, the amount of inappropriate and/or objectionable content also grows. Several scholarly communities are addressing how to detect and manage such content: research in computer vision focuses on detection of inappropriate images, natural language processing technology has advanced to recognize insults. However, profanity detection systems remain flawed. Current list-based profanity detection systems have two limitations. First, they are easy to circumvent and easily become stale–that is, they cannot adapt to misspellings, abbreviations, and the fast pace of profane slang evolution. Secondly, they offer a one-size fits all solution; they typically do not accommodate domain, community and context specific needs. However, social settings have their own normative behaviors–what is deemed acceptable in one community may not be in another. In this paper, through analysis of comments from a social news site, we provide evidence that current systems are performing poorly and evaluate the cases on which they fail. We then address community differences regarding creation/tolerance of profanity and suggest a shift to more contextually nuanced profanity detection systems.
Consensus Building in Open Source User Interface Design Discussions - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reports on a study of consensus building in user interface design discussions in open source software. Provides design implications for promoting consensus in distributed discussions of user interface design issues.
Abstract » We report results of a study which examines consensus
building in user interface design discussions in open source
software communities. Our methodology consisted of
conducting interviews with designers and developers from
the Drupal and Ubuntu communities (N=17) and analyzing
a large corpus of interaction data collected from Drupal.
The interviews captured user perspectives on the challenges
of reaching consensus, techniques employed for building
consensus, and the consequences of not reaching consensus.
We analyzed the interaction data to determine how different
elements of the content, process, and user relationships in
the design discussions affect consensus. Our main result
shows that design discussions engaging participants with
more experience and prior interaction history are more
likely to reach consensus. Based on all of our results, we
formulated design implications for promoting consensus in
distributed discussions of user interface design issues.
"I can't get no sleep": Discussing #insomnia on Twitter - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Examines the disclosure of insomnia over twitter, recognising two themes: description of experience, and coping mechanisms. Design implications for social media based mental health interventions are inferred.
Abstract » Emerging research has shown that social media services are being used as tools to disclose a range of personal health information. To explore the role of social media in the discussion of mental health issues, and with particular reference to insomnia and sleep disorders, a corpus of 18,901 messages - or Tweets - posted to the microblogging social media service Twitter were analysed using a mixed methods approach. We present a content analysis which revealed that Tweets that contained the word �insomnia� contained significantly more negative health information than a random sample, strongly suggesting that individuals were making disclosures about their sleep disorder. A subsequent thematic analysis then revealed two themes: coping with insomnia, and describing the experience of insomnia. We discuss these themes as well as the implications of our research for those in the interaction design community interested in integrating online social media systems in health interventions.
Introducing the Ambivalent Socialiser - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes four approaches to introduce sociality to people who are simultaneously keen but also reluctant to participate in social media. Can assist designers of persuasive technology to utilise social influence.
Abstract » Social interaction can be a powerful strategy for persuasive technology interventions, yet many users are reluctant to engage with others online because they fear pressure, failure and shame. We introduce the �ambivalent socialiser�, a person who is simultaneously keen but also reluctant to engage with others via social media. Our contribution is to identify four approaches to introducing sociality to ambivalent socialisers: structured socialising, incidental socialising, eavesdropping and trace sensing. We discuss the rationale for these approaches and show how they address recent critiques of persuasive technology. Furthermore, we provide actionable insights for designers of persuasive technology by showing how these approaches can be implemented in a social media application.
Twitter and the Development of an Audience: Those Who Stay on Topic Thrive! - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a longitudinal study examining how initial topical focus influences communities' ability to attract a critical mass. Can assist in understanding the development of online social networking structures.
Abstract » Although economists have long recognized the importance of a critical mass in growing a community, we know little about how it is achieved. This paper examines how initial topical focus influences communities' ability to attract a critical mass. When starting an online community, organizers need to define its initial scope. Topically narrow communities will probably attract a homogeneous group of interested in its content and compatible with each other. However, they are likely to attract fewer members than a diverse one because they offer only a subset of the topics. This paper reports an empirical analysis of longitudinal data collected from Twitter, where each new Twitter poster is considered the seed of a potential social collection. Users who focus the topics of their early tweets more narrowly ultimately attract more followers with more ties among them. Our results shed light on the development of online social networking structures.
PanelMusic Interaction Research - Let's Get the Band Back TogetherRoom: Ballroom F PanelTangible Interfaces for Children: Cognitive, Social, & Physical Benefits and ChallengesRoom: Ballroom F PanelHunting for Fail Whales: Lessons from Deviance and Failure in Social ComputingRoom: Ballroom F
Music Interaction Research - Let's Get the Band Back Together - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel discusses music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become marginal in HCI and how to revive it.
Abstract » The ubiquity of music consumption is overarching. Statistics for digital music sales, streaming video videos, computer games, and illegal sharing all speak of a huge interest. At the same, an incredible amount of data about every day interactions (sales and use) with music is accumulating through new cloud services. However, there is an amazing lack of public knowledge about everyday music interaction. This panel discusses the state of music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become so marginal in HCI and discuss how to revive it. Our two discussion themes are: orientation towards design vs. research in music related R&D, and the question if and how private, big data on music interactions could enlighten our understanding of ubiquitous media culture.
Tangible Interfaces for Children: Cognitive, Social, & Physical Benefits and Challenges - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Presentation and discussion of children using a variety of tangible interfaces, the challenges and benefits they encountered, and the importance of looking at the connection between psychological factors and design.
Abstract » With the rise of prevalence of tangible interfaces of all kinds for children, this panel will present diverse perspectives on the benefits and challenges of these interfaces. These will include: exergames, mobile applications, and using digitally enhanced feedback for non-digital environments
Hunting for Fail Whales: Lessons from Deviance and Failure in Social Computing - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel discusses how social behaviors like theft, anonymity, deviance, and polarization contribute to both the failure and success in diverse online communities.
Abstract » Social computing technologies are pervasive in our work, relationships, and culture. Despite their promise for transforming the structure of communication and human interaction, the complex social dimensions of these technological systems often reproduce offline social ills or create entirely novel forms of conflict and deviance. This panel brings together scholars who study deviance and failure in diverse social computing systems to examine four design-related themes that contribute to and support these problematic uses: theft, anonymity, deviance, and polarization.
PaperVisionary Models + ToolsRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study, Paper & ToCHIMusic Across CHIRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: user experience
Paper & ToCHIPerformative Emergency SimulationRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Duncan Brumby, University College London, UK
Color Naming Models for Color Selection, Image Editing and Palette Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes methods for constructing probabilistic models of color naming from unconstrained color-name judgments. These models enable new ways for users to express colors and evaluate their designs.
Abstract » Our ability to reliably name colors provides a link between visual perception and symbolic cognition. In this paper, we investigate how a statistical model of color naming can enable user interfaces to meaningfully mimic this link and support novel interactions. We present a method for constructing a probabilistic model of color naming from a large, unconstrained set of human color name judgments. We describe how the model can be used to map between colors and names and define metrics for color saliency (how reliably a color is named) and color name distance (the similarity between colors based on naming patterns). We then present a series of applications that demonstrate how color naming models can enhance graphical interfaces: a color dictionary & thesaurus, name-based pixel selection methods for image editing, and evaluation aids for color palette design.
The Untapped Promise of Digital Mind Maps - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Existing mind mapping software applications have been evaluated, ethnographic research performed, and a framework of principles has been developed to inform the design of future tools for collaborative knowledge management.
Abstract » Digital mind mapping tools present a fertile area for research on human-computer interaction. We evaluated numerous existing mind mapping software applications, performed ethnographic research with a variety of users, and developed a framework of principles to inform the design of future tools for collaborative knowledge management. Our findings suggest an opportunity to advance digital mind mapping beyond the existing state-of-the-art, particularly in the areas of improving workflow, facilitating collaboration, and supporting information storage and retrieval. We conclude with suggestions for how to improve digital mind mapping systems, specifically with regard to real-time collaborative thinking.
Delta: A Tool For Representing and Comparing Workflows - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system that aids users in comparing workflows, specifically those used in image-editing tasks. Can assist designers in developing tools for comparing workflows in various domains.
Abstract » Tutorials and sample workflows for complicated, feature-rich software packages are widely available online. As a result users must differentiate between workflows to choose the most suitable one for their task. We present Delta, an interactive workflow visualization and comparison tool that helps users identify the tradeoffs between workflows. We conducted an initial study to identify the set of attributes users attend to when comparing workflows, finding that they consider result quality, their knowledge of commands, and the efficiency of the workflow. We then designed Delta to surface these attributes at three granularities: a high-level, clustered view; an intermediate-level list view that contains workflow summaries; and a low-level detail view that allows users to compare two individual workflows. Finally, we conducted an evaluation of Delta on a small corpus of 30 workflows and found that the intermediate list view provided the best information density. We conclude with thoughts on how such a workflow comparison system could be scaled up to larger corpora in the future.
QuickDraw : Improving Drawing Experience for Geometric Diagrams - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: QuickDraw is a pen-based prototype diagramming that uses constraint inference and a novel beautification algorithm to enable the drawing of precise geometric diagrams
Abstract » We present QuickDraw, a prototype sketch-based drawing
tool, that facilitates drawing of precise geometry diagrams
that are often drawn by students and academics in several
scientific disciplines. Quickdraw can recognize sketched dia-
grams containing components such as line segments and cir-
cles, infer geometric constraints relating recognized compo-
nents, and use this information to beautify the sketched dia-
gram. Beautification is based on a novel algorithm that iter-
atively computes various sub-components of the components
using an extensible set of deductive rules. We conducted a
user study comparing QuickDraw with four state-of-the-art
diagramming tools: Microsoft PowerPoint, Cabri II Plus, Ge-
ometry Expressions and Geometer�s SketchPad. Our study
demonstrates a strong interest among participants for the use
of sketch-based software for drawing geometric diagrams.
We also found that QuickDraw enables users to draw precise
diagrams faster than the majority of existing tools in some
cases, while having them make fewer corrections.
Chair: Rebecca Fiebrink, Princeton University, USA
Using Rhythmic Patterns as an Input Method - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the use of Rhythmic Patterns for Interaction. Reports the results of two experiments showing that users can reliably reproduce and memorize rhythmic patterns.
Abstract » While interaction techniques that use the temporal dimension have been used for a long time, such as multiple clicks or spring-loaded widgets, more advanced uses of rhythmic patterns have received little attention in HCI. Using such temporal structures to convey information can be particularly useful in situations where the visual channel is overloaded or even not available. In this paper we introduce Rhythmic Interaction as the use of rhythms for input. We report the results of two experiments that show that (i) rhythmic patterns can be efficiently reproduced by novice users and recognized by computer algorithms, and (ii) rhythmic patterns can be memorized as efficiently as traditional shortcuts when associating them with visual commands. Overall, these results demonstrate the potential of Rhythmic Interaction and open the way to a richer repertoire of interaction techniques.
PULSE: The Design and Evaluation of an Auditory Display to Provide a Social Vibe - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates the use of ambient audio to present collocated geo-social media as a user moves through the environment. Provides guidance on re-integrating geo-social media into physical environment.
Abstract » We present PULSE, a mobile application designed to allow users to gain a `vibe', an intrinsic understanding of the people, places and activities around their current location, derived from messages on the Twitter social networking site. We compared two auditory presentations of the vibe. One presented message metadata implicitly through modification of spoken message attributes. The other presented the same metadata, but through additional auditory cues. We compared both techniques in a lab and real world study. Additional auditory cues were found to allow for smaller changes in metadata to be more accurately detected, but were least preferred when PULSE was used in context. Results also showed that PULSE enhanced and shaped user understanding, with audio presentation allowing a closer coupling of digital data to the physical world.
Experiencing coincidence during digital music listening - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes technology-mediated experiences of coincidences during digital music listening and the elements involved. Demonstrates the use of McCarthy and Wright's experience framework to an empirical investigation of user experience.
Abstract » People have reported encountering coincidences when using particular technologies to interact with personal digital content.
However, to date, there is a paucity of research to understand these experiences. This paper applies McCarthy and Wright’s
experiential framework to analyze these kinds of technology-mediated coincidences. By focusing upon encounters of
coincidence during people’s digital music listening, we identified the elements at play, elucidated the properties of the
individual elements, their inter-relationships, and an understanding of how coincidences can arise. We also reveal how under
particular conditions, such elements provide people with opportunities to encounter coincidence. This understanding of
coincidence demonstrates how McCarthy and Wright’s framework can be usefully applied to an empirical investigation of user
Designing Virtual Instruments with Touch-Enabled Interface - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes designing a virtual percussion instrument system on a multi-touch tabletop. Can be adopted by users collaboratively to emulate real-world percussive music playing and offer advantages of digital instruments.
Abstract » We present and discuss the design of a virtual musical instrument system that can be used by a collaborative group of users to emulate playing percussive music. An optical multi-touch tabletop serves as the input device for multiple users, and an algorithmic pipeline interprets users' interactions with this touch-sensing table and provides control signals to activate the coupled physics-based sound simulation system. The musical tunes can be modulated by our numerical acoustic simulator to create believable acoustic effects generated due to cavity in instruments such as drums. It further allows the users to change the materials, shapes, and sizes of the instruments, thereby offering the capability for both rapid prototyping and active exploration of sound effects by altering various physical parameters. We discuss some of key design principles and what such a system can offer.
Listening Factors: A Large-Scale Principal Components Analysis of Long-Term Music Listening Histories - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a principal component analysis of automatically collected music listening histories. Groups and derives the impact of 48 listening behavior variables based on this analysis.
Abstract » There are about as many strategies for listening to music as there are music enthusiasts. This makes learning about overarching patterns and similarities difficult. In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of long-term music listening histories from the web service. It gives insight into the most distinguishing factors in music listening behavior. Our sample contains 310 histories with up to six years duration and 48 associated variables describing various user and music characteristics. Using a principal components analysis, we aggregated these variables into 13 components and found several correlations between them. The analysis especially showed the impact of seasons and a listener's interest in novelty on music choice. Using this information, a sample of a user's listening history or even just demographical data could be used to create personalized interfaces and novel recommendation strategies. We close with derived design considerations for future music interfaces.
Chair: Olav W. Bertelsen, Aarhus University, Denmark
The Team Coordination Game: Zero-Fidelity Simulation Abstracted from Emergency Response Practice - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Zero-fidelity simulation develops and invokes the principle of abstraction, focusing on human-information and human-human transfers of meaning, to derive design from work practice.
Abstract » Crisis response engenders a high-stress environment in which teams gather, transform, and mutually share information. Prior educational approaches have not successfully addressed these critical skills. The assumption has been that the highest fidelity simulations result in the best learning. Deploying high-fidelity simulations is expensive and dangerous; they do not address team coordination. Low-fidelity approaches are ineffective because they are not stressful.

Zero-fidelity simulation develops and invokes the principle of abstraction, focusing on human-information and human-human transfers of meaning, to derive design from work practice. Our principal hypothesis is that crisis responders will experience zero-fidelity simulation as effective simulation of team coordination. We synthesize the sustained iterative design and evaluation of the Team Coordination Game. We develop and apply new experimental methods to show that participants learn to cooperate and communicate, applying what they learn in practice. Design implications address how to employ the abstraction principle to develop zero-fidelity simulations.
“Act Natural”: Instructions, Compliance and Accountability in Ambulatory Experiences - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents an ethnographic study of instruction compliance in an ambulatory experience. Four levels of compliance are uncovered of broad relevance to instruction design.
Abstract » This paper uses a detailed ethnographic study of an ambulatory experience, where participants were invited to explore the perspective of two notorious terrorists, in order to discuss the nature of instruction-giving and, most particularly, the methodical ways in which such instructions are complied with. Four distinct layers of compliance are identified, as are three different kinds of accountability, all of which stand potentially at odds with one another. The paper examines the tensions created by this, tensions that are further aggravated by instructions usually being delivered down a thin channel, with considerable surrounding contextual complexity and little opportunity for repair, and uncovers some core challenges for future design in relation to providing instructions for, and orchestrating a range of possible activities.
Supporting Improvisation Work in Inter-organizational Crisis Management - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present an empirical study about the improvisation work during medium to large power outages in Germany. We examined the cooperation of firefighters, police, public administration, electricity providers and citizens.
Abstract » Improvisation is necessary when planned decision-making
as the main managerial activity does not fit the conditions
the practice provides. In these cases, information
technology should not just automate planned and structured
decisions, but support improvisational practice. In this
contribution we present an empirical study about the
improvisation work in scenarios of medium to large power
outages in Germany. Our focus is on inter-organizational
cooperation practices, thus we examined the cooperation of
fire departments, police, public administration, electricity
infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material
allows to describe reasons and conditions for improvisation.
Our resulting recommendations address the support of
aggregation and visualization of information, a necessary
individualization of information compositions, options for
collaborative situation assessment, requirements for
informal and formal communication, and accessibility of
information resources.
Supporting Knowledge Sharing and Activity Awareness in Distributed Emergency Management Planning: A Design Research Project - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Design research project on knowledge sharing and activity awareness in distributed emergency management planning. Discusses how the designs enhanced aspects of distributed group performance, in some respects beyond face-to-face groups.
Abstract » We present a design research project on knowledge sharing and activity awareness in distributed emergency management planning. In three experiments we studied groups using three different prototypes, respectively: a paper-prototype in a collocated work setting, a first software prototype in a distributed setting, and a second, enhanced software prototype in a distributed setting. In this series of studies we tried to better understand the processes of knowledge sharing and activity awareness in complex cooperative work by developing and investigating new tools that can support these processes. We explicate the design rationale behind each prototype and report the results of each experiment investigating it. We discuss how the results from each prototyping phase brought us closer to defining properties of a system that facilitate the sharing and awareness of both content and process knowledge. Our designs enhanced aspects of distributed group performance, in some respects beyond that of comparable face-to-face groups.
Paper & ToCHIPen + TouchRoom: 12AB
Community: designCommunity: engineering
SIG MeetingArticulating Lines of Research in Digital Arts, HCI, and Interaction (Invited SIG)Room: 11B
Community: design
SIG MeetingCHI 2012 Sustainability Community Invited SIG: Inventory of Issues and OpportunitiesRoom: 11B
Chair: Carman Neustaedter, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Natural Use Profiles for the Pen: An Empirical Exploration of Pressure, Tilt, and Azimuth - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: This is the first study to investigate the natural profiles of pen pressure, tilt, and azimuth (PTA) and their inter-relationships, providing fundamental data for efficient natural UI design.
Abstract » Inherent pen input modalities such as tip pressure, tilt and azimuth (PTA) have been extensively used as additional input channels in pen-based interactions. We conducted a study to investigate the natural use profiles of PTA, which describes the features of PTA in the course of normal pen use such as writing and drawing. First, the study reveals the ranges of PTA in normal pen use, which can distinguish pen events accidently occurring in normal drawing and writing from those used for mode switch. The natural use profiles also show that azimuth is least likely to cause false pen mode switching while tip pressure is most likely to cause false pen mode switching. Second, the study reveals correlations among various modalities, indicating that pressure plus azimuth is superior to other pairs for dual-modality control.
Evaluating and Understanding the Usability of a Pen-based Command System for Interactive Paper - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: User studies on a pen-gesture-based interactive paper system for Active Reading. Can help understand how such a system is learned and used in typical scenarios and how researchers evaluate it.
Abstract » To combine the affordance of paper and computers, prior research has proposed numerous interactive paper systems that link specific paper document content to digital operations such as multimedia playback and proofreading. Yet, it remains unclear to what degree these systems bridge the inherent gap between paper and computers when compared to existing paper-only and computer-only interfaces. In particular, given the special properties of paper, such as limited dynamic feedback, how well does an average novice user learn to master an interactive paper system? What factors affect the user performance? And how does the paper interface work in a typical use scenario?

To answer these questions, we conducted two empirical experiments on a generic pen-gesture-based command system, called PapierCraft [Liao, et al., 2008], for paper-based interfaces. With PapierCraft, people can select sections of printed documents and issue commands such as copy and paste, linking and in-text search. The first experiment focused on the user performance of drawing pen gestures on paper. It proves that users can learn the command system in about 30 minutes and achieve a performance comparable to a Table PC-based interface
supporting the same gestures. The second experiment examined the application of the command system in active reading tasks. The results show promise for seamless integration of paper and computers in active reading for their combined affordance. In addition, our study reveals some key design issues, such as the pen form factor and feedback of gestures. This paper contributes to better understanding on pros and cons of paper and computers, and sheds light on the design of future interfaces for document interaction.
A-Coord Input: Coordinating Auxiliary Input Streams for Augmenting Contextual Pen-Based Interactions - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We explore a-coord input, a technique that involves coordinating two auxiliary pen channels in conjunction. Experiments demonstrate a-coord input's effectiveness for both discrete-item selection, and multi-parameter selection and manipulation tasks.
Abstract » The human hand can naturally coordinate multiple finger joints, and simultaneously tilt, press and roll a pen to write or draw. For this reason, digital pens are now embedded with auxiliary input sensors to capture these actions. Prior research on auxiliary input channels has mainly investigated them in isolation of one another. In this work, we explore the coordinated use of two auxiliary channels, a class of interaction techniques we refer to as a-coord input. Through two separate experiments, we explore the design space of a-coord input. In the first study we identify if users can successfully coordinate two auxiliary channels. We found a strong degree of coordination between channels. In a second experiment, we evaluate the effectiveness of a-coord input in a task with multiple steps, such as multi-parameter selection and manipulation. We find that a-coord input facilitates coordination even with a complex, aforethought sequential task. Overall our results indicate that users can control at least two auxiliary input channels in conjunction which can facilitate a number of common tasks can on the pen.
Personalized Input: Improving Ten-Finger Touchscreen Typing through Automatic Adaptation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce and evaluate two novel personalized keyboard interfaces. Results show that personalizing the underlying key-press classification model improves typing speed, but not when accompanied by visual adaptation.
Abstract » Although typing on touchscreens is slower than typing on physical keyboards, touchscreens offer a critical potential advantage: they are software-based, and, as such, the keyboard layout and classification models used to interpret key presses can dynamically adapt to suit each user�s typing pattern. To explore this potential, we introduce and evaluate two novel personalized keyboard interfaces, both of which adapt their underlying key-press classification models. The first keyboard also visually adapts the location of keys while the second one always maintains a visually stable rectangular layout. A three-session user evaluation showed that the keyboard with the stable rectangular layout significantly improved typing speed compared to a control condition with no personalization. Although no similar benefit was found for the keyboard that also offered visual adaptation, overall subjective response to both new touchscreen keyboards was positive. As personalized keyboards are still an emerging area of research, we also outline a design space that includes dimensions of adaptation and key-press classification features.
Bimanual Marking Menu for Near Surface Interactions - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We describe a mouseless, near-surface version of the Bimanual Marking Menu system. The system offers a large number of accessible commands and does not interfere with multi-touch interactions.
Abstract » We describe a mouseless, near-surface version of the Bimanual Marking Menu system. To activate the menu system, users create a pinch gesture with either their index or middle finger to initiate a left click or right click. Then they mark in the 3D space near the interactive area. We demonstrate how the system can be implemented using a commodity range camera such as the Microsoft Kinect, and report on several designs of the 3D marking system.

Like the multi-touch marking menu, our system offers a large number of accessible commands. Since it does not rely on contact points to operate, our system leaves the non-dominant hand available for other multi-touch interactions.
Articulating Lines of Research in Digital Arts, HCI, and Interaction (Invited SIG) - SIG Meeting
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG initiates an essential step in establishing the Digital Arts at CHI by working with the audience to articulate traditions of contribution.
Abstract » The establishment of a Digital Arts Featured Community at CHI 2012 indicates the general acceptance of mutually beneficial synergies between digital arts and HCI. At this juncture, the Digital Arts Community has an opportunity to build upon this established community platform to begin articulating lines of research. This SIG initiates this essential step in establishing traditions of contribution.
CHI 2012 Sustainability Community Invited SIG: Inventory of Issues and Opportunities - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This year’s CHI Sustainability Community’s SIG is designed to broaden participation and collect an inventory of issues and opportunities to broaden HCI’s role in securing a sustainable future.
Abstract » This year’s CHI Sustainability Community’s SIG is designed to broaden participation and also designed to collect an inventory of issues and opportunities to broaden the reach and scope of HCI’s role in securing a sustainable future.
PaperCritical Perspectives on DesignRoom: 16AB
Community: design
Case Study & PaperTools and Stats in Evaluation StudiesRoom: 12AB
Community: designCommunity: engineering
PaperThe Tools of the TradeRoom: 12AB
Community: user experience
Chair: Peter Wright, Newcastle University, UK
What Should We Expect From Research Through Design? - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This essay characterises research through design theory as provisional and elaborative, and suggests annotated portfolios as a way forward. Will benefit those wishing to understand design's contribution to HCI.
Abstract » In this essay, I explore several facets of research through design in order to contribute to discussions about how the approach should develop. The essay has three parts. In the first, I review two influential theories from the Philosophy of Science to help reflect on the nature of design theory, concluding that research through design is likely to produce theories that are provisional, contingent, and aspirational. In the second part, I discuss three possible interpretations for the diversity of approaches to research through design, and suggest that this variation need not be seen as a sign of inadequate standards or a lack of cumulative progress in the field, but may be natural for a generative endeavour. In the final section, I suggest that, rather than aiming to develop increasingly comprehensive theories of design, practice based research might better view theory as annotation of realised design examples, and particularly portfolios of related pieces. Overall, I suggest that the design research community should be wary of impulses towards convergence and standardisation, and instead take pride in its aptitude for exploring and speculating, particularising and diversifying, and - especially - its ability to manifest the results in the form of new, conceptually rich artefacts.
Sustainably Unpersuaded: How Persuasion Narrows our Vision of Sustainability - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Critically analyzes persuasive technology as a modernist approach to solving social problems. Identifies structural limitations of persuasive technology as an approach to sustainability and offers alternatives.
Abstract » In this paper we provide a critical analysis of persuasive sustainability research from 2009-2011. Drawing on critical sociological theory of modernism, we argue that persuasion is based on a limited framing of sustainability, human behavior, and their interrelation-ship. This makes supporting sustainability easier, but leads to characteristic patterns of breakdown. We then detail problems that emerge from this narrowing of vision, such as how the framing of sustainability as the optimization of a simple metrics places technologies incorrectly as objective arbiters over complex issues of sustainability. We conclude by suggesting alternative approaches to move beyond these problems.
Undesigning Technology: Considering the Negation of Design by Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Motivates and develops the question: To what extent and in what ways should the intentional negation of technology be an acknowledged and legitimate area of design research activity within HCI?
Abstract » Motivated by substantive concerns with the limitations and negative effects of technology, this paper inquires into the negation of technology as an explicit and intentional aspect of design research within HCI. Building on theory from areas including philosophy and design theory, this paper articulates a theoretical framework for conceptualizing the intentional negation of technology (i.e., the undesign of technology), ranging from the inhibition of particular uses of technology to the total erasure or foreclosure of technology. The framework is then expanded upon to articulate additional areas of undesigning, including self-inhibition, exclusion, removal, replacement, restoration, and safeguarding. In conclusion a scheme is offered for addressing questions concerning the disciplinary scope of undesign in the context of HCI, along with suggestions for ways that undesigning may be more strongly incorporated within HCI research.
Affordances in HCI: Toward a Mediated Action Perspective - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses analyses of affordances in HCI research and outlines a mediated action perspective on affordances as a relational property of a three-way interaction between the person, mediational means, and environment.
Abstract » Interpretations of the concept of "affordances" in HCI are becoming increasingly diverse, extending well beyond the original Gibsonian meaning. We discuss some of the key analyses of affordances in HCI research and make three related claims. First, we argue that many current interpretations of the concept are essentially incompatible with Gibson. Second, we hold that the Gibsonian concept of affordances, conceptualized as interaction between animals and their environments, provides some important insights, but is, in the end, of limited relevance to HCI research. Third, we call for adopting a mediated action perspective on affordances as an alternative to Gibson's ecological psychology. We outline a view of technology affordances as possibilities for human action mediated by cultural means conceived as a relational property of a three-way interaction between the person, mediational means, and environment. We conclude with a discussion of prospects for future conceptual and empirical explorations of the meditational perspective in HCI research.
Chair: Jeff Heer, Stanford University, USA
Experiences with Collaborative, Distributed Predictive Human Performance Modeling - Long Case Study
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Case study using predictive human performance modeling in a real-world design project. Provides recommendations for avoiding pitfalls with existing modeling tools and design ideas for future collaborative modeling tools.
Abstract » Although predictive human performance modeling has been researched for 30 years in HCI, to our knowledge modeling has been conducted as a solitary task of one modeler or, occasionally, two modelers working in tight face-to-face collaboration. In contrast, we used predictive human performance modeling in a collaborative, distributed mode and reflect on that experience. We discovered that our tool for modeling, CogTool, while sufficiently functional and expressive to perform the modeling task, did not support collaborative, distributed modeling as well as we would like. We suggest process improvements in model construction, the management of assumptions, consistency, and communication, and suggest design solutions for the future of CogTool or other modeling tools. We further speculate on the generalization of our experiences to other types of usability evaluation when conducted in a distributed, collaborative environment.
Comparing Averages in Time Series Data - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper explores visualizations for efficient summarization through perceptually-motivated design and empirical assessment.
Abstract » ABSTRACT
Visualizations often seek to aid viewers in assessing the big
picture in the data, that is, to make judgments about aggregate
properties of the data. In this paper, we present an empirical
study of a representative aggregate judgment task: finding regions
of maximum average in a series. We show how a theory
of perceptual averaging suggests a visual design other than
the typically-used line graph. We describe an experiment that
assesses participants' ability to estimate averages and make
judgments based on these averages. The experiment confirms
that this color encoding significantly outperforms the standard
practice. The experiment also provides evidence for a
perceptual averaging theory.
Rethinking Statistical Analysis Methods for CHI - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Identifies fundamental problems in the statistical methods commonly used in quantitative evaluations. Proposes solutions and recommendations for best practice.
Abstract » CHI researchers typically use a significance testing approach to statistical analysis when testing hypotheses during usability evaluations. However, the appropriateness of this approach is under increasing criticism, with statisticians, economists, and psychologists arguing against the use of routine interpretation of results using "canned" p values. Three problems with current practice - the fallacy of the transposed conditional, a neglect of power, and the reluctance to interpret the size of effects - can lead us to build weak theories based on vaguely specified hypothesis, resulting in empirical studies which produce results that are of limited practical or scientific use. Using publicly available data presented at CHI 2010 [19] as an example we address each of the three concerns and promote consideration of the magnitude and actual importance of effects, as opposed to statistical significance, as the new criteria for evaluating CHI research.
A Spatiotemporal Visualization Approach for the Analysis of Gameplay Data - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a visualization system for gameplay data which can be adapted to different kind of games and queries. It helps to analyze and better understand player behavior within a game.
Abstract » Contemporary video games are highly complex systems with many interacting variables. To make sure that a game provides a satisfying experience, a meaningful analysis of gameplay data is crucial, particularly because the quality of a game directly relates to the experience a user gains from playing it. Automatic instrumentation techniques are increasingly used to record data during playtests. However, the evaluation of the data requires strong analytical skills and experience. The visualization of such gameplay data is essentially an information visualization problem, where a large number of variables have to be displayed in a comprehensible way in order to be able to make global judgments. This paper presents a visualization tool to assist the analytical process. It visualizes the game space as a set of nodes which players visit over the course of a game and is also suitable to observe time-dependent information, such as player distribution. Our tool is not tailored to a specific type of genre. To show the flexibility of our approach we use two different kinds of games as case studies.
Chair: Jennifer Thom-Santelli, IBM Research, USA
A Hybrid Mass Participation Approach to Mobile Software Trials - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes methodology for combining simultaneous 'app store' style mobile software trial with local deployment. Allows for explanation of observed behaviour, verification to prevent misleading findings and more solid ethical practice.
Abstract » User trials of mobile applications have followed a steady march out of the lab, and progressively further ‘into the wild’, recently involving ‘app store’-style releases of software to the general public. Yet from our experiences on these mass participation systems and a survey of the literature, we identify a number of reported difficulties. We propose a hybrid methodology that aims to address these, by combining a global software release with a concurrent local trial. A phone–based game, created to explore the uptake and use of ad hoc peer-to-peer networking, was evaluated using this new hybrid trial method, combining a small-scale local trial (11 users) with a ‘mass participation’ trial (over 10,000 users). Our hybrid method offers many benefits, allowing locally observed findings to be verified, patterns in globally collected data to be explained and addresses ethical issues raised by the mass participation approach. We note trends in the local trial that did not appear in the larger scale deployment, and which would therefore have led to misleading results were the application trialled using ‘traditional’ methods alone. Based on this study and previous experience, we provide a set of guidelines to researchers working in this area.
"Yours is Better!" Participant Response Bias in HCI - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Interviewer demand characteristics can lead to serious experimental biases in HCI. Our study in Bangalore, India shows that researchers should expect significant response biases, especially when interacting with underprivileged populations.
Abstract » Although HCI researchers and practitioners frequently work with groups of people that differ significantly from themselves, little attention has been paid to the effects these differences have on the evaluation of HCI systems. Via 450 interviews in Bangalore, India, we measure participant response bias due to interviewer demand characteristics and the role of social and demographic factors in influencing that bias. We find that respondents are about 2.5x more likely to prefer a technological artifact they believe to be developed by the interviewer, even when the alternative is identical. When the interviewer is a foreign researcher requiring a translator, the bias towards the interviewer's artifact increases to 5x. In fact, the interviewer's artifact is preferred even when it is degraded to be obviously inferior to the alternative. We conclude that participant response bias should receive more attention within the CHI community, especially when designing for underprivileged populations.
Digital Pen and Paper Practices in Observational Research - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present digital pen and paper practices and their integration with ChronoViz, documenting the co-evolution of notetaking and system features as participants used the tool during an 18-month field deployment.
Abstract » Researchers from many disciplines are taking advantage of increasingly inexpensive digital video to capture extensive records of human activity in real-world settings. The ability to record and share such data has created a critical moment in the practice and scope of behavioral research. While recent work is beginning to develop techniques for visualizing and interacting with integrated multimodal information collected during field research, navigating and analyzing these large datasets remains challenging and tools are especially needed to support the early stages of data exploration.

In this paper we describe digital pen and paper practices in observational research and their integration with ChronoViz, a tool for annotating, visualizing, and analyzing multimodal data. The goal is to better support researchers both in the field, while collecting data, and later in the lab, during analysis. We document the co-evolution of notetaking practices and system features as 28 participants used the tool during an 18-month deployment.
User See, User Point: Gaze and Cursor Alignment in Web Search - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a lab study of alignment in eye-gaze and mouse cursor positions in Web search. Studies when gaze and cursor are aligned, and presents a model for predicting visual attention.
Abstract » Past studies of user behavior in Web search have correlated eye-gaze and mouse cursor positions, and other lines of research have found cursor interactions to be useful in determining user intent and relevant parts of Web pages. However, cursor interactions are not all the same; different types of cursor behavior patterns exist, such as reading, hesitating, scrolling and clicking, each of which has a different meaning. We conduct a search study with 36 subjects and 32 search tasks to determine when gaze and cursor are aligned, and thus when the cursor position is a good proxy for gaze position. We study the effect of time, behavior patterns, user, and search task on the gaze-cursor alignment, findings which lead us to question the maxim that "gaze is well approximated by cursor." These lessons inform an experiment in which we predict the gaze position with better accuracy than simply using the cursor position, improving the state-of-the-art technique for approximating visual attention with the cursor. Our new technique can help make better use of large-scale cursor data in identifying how users examine Web search pages.
PaperAffective PresenceRoom: 17AB
Community: engineeringCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
Case Study & PaperPersonas and DesignRoom: 16AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperNeedle in the HaystackRoom: 16AB
Community: design
Chair: Albrecht Schmidt, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Group Hedonic Balance and Pair Programming Performance: Affective Interaction Dynamics as indicators of Performance - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Study examining the relationship between affective interaction dynamics and performance in pair-programming teams. Presents researchers with new methods and theory regarding the role of emotions in team interaction.
Abstract » Inspired by research on the role of affect in marital interactions, the authors examined whether affective interaction dynamics occurring within a 5-minute slice can predict pair programming performance. In a laboratory experiment with professional programmers, Group Hedonic Balance, a measure of the balance between positive and negative expressed affect, accounted for up to 35% of the variance in not only subjective but also objective pair programming performance. Implications include a new set of methods to study pair programming interactions and recommendations to improve pair programming performance.
Learning How to Feel Again: Towards Affective Workplace Presence and Communication Technologies - Paper
Community: engineeringCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique for estimating affective state and communication preferences. The technique uses non-invasive data from a presence state stream and provides more accurate predictions than humans who work together.
Abstract » Affect influences workplace collaboration and thereby impacts a workplace's productivity. Participants in face-to-face interactions have many cues to each other's affect, but work is increasingly carried out via computer-mediated channels that lack many of these cues. Current presence systems enable users to estimate the availability of other users, but not their affective states or communication preferences. This work demonstrates the feasibility of estimating affective state and communication preferences from a stream of presence states that are already being shared in a deployed presence system.
AffectAura: An Intelligent System for Emotional Memory - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present AffectAura, an emotional prosthetic, that combines a multi-modal sensor system for continuously predicting user affective states with an interface for user reflection.
Abstract » We present AffectAura, an emotional prosthetic that allows users to reflect on their emotional states over long periods of time. We designed a multimodal sensor set-up for continuous logging of audio, visual, physiological and contextual data, a classification scheme for predicting user affective state and an interface for user reflection. The system continuously predicts a user's valence, arousal and engage-ment, and correlates this with information on events, communications and data interactions. We evaluate the interface through a user study consisting of six users and over 240 hours of data, and demonstrate the utility of such a reflection tool. We show that users could reason forward and backward in time about their emotional experiences using the interface, and found this useful.
Understanding Heart Rate Sharing: Towards Unpacking Physiosocial Space - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Explores how people make sense of interpersonal heart rate feedback in everyday social settings through a technology probe deployment. Identifies two categories of effects, with implications for supporting social connectedness.
Abstract » Advances in biosensing make it possible to include heart rate monitoring in applications and several studies have suggested that heart rate communication has potential for improving social connectedness. However, it is not known how people understand heart rate feedback, or what issues need to be taken into account when designing technologies including heart rate feedback. To explore this, we created a heart rate communication probe that was used in two qualitative in-lab studies and a two-week field trial in participants' homes. Results show that heart rate feedback is a strong connectedness cue that affects the interaction in various ways, depending on a number of interrelated factors. In particular, we found two distinct categories of effects: heart rate as information and heart rate as connection. We propose two mechanisms that could explain these observations and draw out the implications they have for future use of heartbeat communication to support social connectedness or other aspects of social interaction.
Chair: Shaowen Bardzell, Indiana University, USA
Personas and Decision Making in the Design Process: An Ethnographic Case Study - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: An ethnographic case study that investigates the ways personas are invoked in design decision-making sessions. The relative value of personas considering their limited use in active decision-making is explored.
Abstract » Personas have become a well-lauded method to aid designers in keeping the needs of the intended user population at the forefront of the design process. However, few studies have ethnographically observed design teams that use personas, and fewer studies have looked specifically at how designers linguistically invoke personas in their decision-making sessions. This discourse analysis of the decision-making sessions of designers at a top tier design firm reveals that although the designers dedicate much time researching, developing, and refining personas, personas themselves make relatively few appearances in the designers� language during decision-making sessions. This study shows that, for persuasive ends, these designers, who are advocates of personas, routinely use other less precise and more designer-centric linguistic mechanisms in lieu of personas. Despite the scarcity of personas in the decision-making sessions, this ethnographic case study also explores the value of personas for this team even when the personas are not explicitly linguistically invoked.
How Do Designers and User Experience Professionals Actually Perceive and Use Personas? - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Qualitative study of how experienced user-centered design practitioners perceive and use personas for industrial software design. This paper can benefit practitioners who would like to use personas for design.
Abstract » Personas are a critical method for orienting design and development teams to user experience. Prior work has noted challenges in justifying them to developers. In contrast, it has been assumed that designers and user experience professionals--whose goal is to focus designs on targeted users--will readily exploit personas. This paper examines that assumption. We present the first study of how experienced user-centered design (UCD) practitioners with prior experience deploying personas, use and perceive personas in industrial software design. We identify limits to the persona approach in the context studied. Practitioners used personas almost exclusively for communication, but not for design. Participants identified four problems with personas, finding them abstract, impersonal, misleading and distracting. Our findings argue for a new approach to persona deployment and construction. Personas cannot replace immersion in actual user data. And rather than focusing on creating engaging personas, it is critical to avoid persona attributes that mislead or distract.
Revisiting Personas: The Making-of for Special User Groups - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a decision diagram for the creation of personas and its application. It aims at identifying the most appropriate approach taking into account different characteristics.
Abstract » The diversity of special user groups, i.e. elderly from 50 to 90 years and children from 6 to 14 years, is huge. Assessing their requirements is challenging, as it requires sensitivity in terms of choosing an appropriate approach to collect data. Furthermore, the illustration of the data for the subsequent design process can be difficult, if different partners are involved in a project. In order to overcome these difficulties, we are exploring a decision diagram for the creation of personas. It aims at identifying the most appropriate approach (i.e. qualitative and/or quantitative data collection), taking into account the characteristics of the special user groups among other aspects. In this case study we present how we applied the decision diagram in three different projects to create personas for elderly and children.
Incorporating UCD Into the Software Development Lifecycle: a Case Study - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing the application of user centered design (UCD) for a project using multiple enterprise technologies. Identifies opportunities for successfully integrating UCD into the software development process.
Abstract » This case study addresses how we applied user centered design (UCD) to the software development lifecycle for the new City of Austin Utilities Online Customer Care website. The case study focuses on the use of personas, prototypes, and user testing, discusses what worked well, and provides lessons learned.
Chair: Mark Dunlop, University of Strathclyde, UK
Representing “too small to see” as “too small to see” with Temporal Representation - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This study assessed how the interactions with a temporal representation with different supporting modalities can alter the way learners think about the sizes that are too small to see.
Abstract » Teaching and learning the vast range of the sizes of the objects that are too small to see with human eyes (called imperceptible objects) has been a challenging issue in education. Because representation is the only medium that learners can use to make sense of imperceptible phenomena, learners encounter challenges when trying to understand the range of imperceptible sizes. However, the conventional visual representations that are incorporated in many learning technologies tend to direct learners to overestimate the sizes of imperceptible objects. To address this issue, we designed a multimodal representation called “temporal-aural-visual representation (or TAVR) to provide students with an alternative way of perceiving and conceptualizing imperceptible sizes. In prior studies it was noticed that learners constructed more refined mental models of the vast range of imperceptible sizes through the TAVR-enhanced learning activity. In this paper, we introduce a recent study that explored how to best augment the temporal experience of the range of imperceptible sizes with supporting modalities.
The Case of the Missed Icon: Change Blindness on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents evidence that change blindness occurs on small displays and is affected by interface designs. Can assist mobile application developers in improving the delivery of information through visual changes.
Abstract » Insights into human visual attention have benefited many areas of computing, but perhaps most significantly visualisation and UI design [3]. With the proliferation of mobile devices capable of supporting significantly complex applications on small screens, demands on mobile UI design and the user�s visual system are becoming greater. In this paper, we report results from an empirical study of human visual attention, specifically the Change Blindness phenomenon, on handheld mobile devices and its impact on mobile UI design. It is arguable that due to the small size of the screen - unlike a typical computer monitor - a greater visual coverage of the mobile device is possible, and that these phenomena may occur less frequently during the use of the device, or even that they may not occur at all. Our study shows otherwise.

We tested for Change Blindness (CB) and Inattentional Blindness (IB) in a single-modal, mobile context and attempted to establish factors in the application interface design that induce and/or reduce their occurrences. The results show that both CB and IB can and do occur while using mobile devices. The results also suggest that the number of separate attendable items on-screen is directly proportional to rates of CB. Newly inserted objects were correctly identified more often than changes applied to existing on-screen objects. These results suggest that it is important for mobile UI designers to take these aspects of visual attention into account when designing mobile applications that attempt to deliver information through visual changes or notifications.
The Bohemian Bookshelf: Supporting Serendipitous Book Discoveries through Information Visualization - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper explores information visualizations as a means to support serendipity based on the case study of the Bohemian Bookshelf, a visualization that was designed to support serendipitous book discoveries.
Abstract » Serendipity, a trigger of exciting yet unexpected discoveries, is an important but comparatively neglected factor in information seeking, research, and ideation. We suggest that serendipity can be facilitated through visualization. To explore this, we introduce the Bohemian Bookshelf, which aims to support serendipitous discoveries in the context of digital book collections. The Bohemian Bookshelf consists of five interlinked visualizations each offering a unique overview of the collection. It aims at encouraging serendipity by (1) offering multiple visual access points to the collection, (2) highlighting adjacencies between books, (3) providing flexible visual pathways for exploring the collection, (4) enticing curiosity through abstract, metaphorical, and visually distinct representations of books, and (5) enabling a playful approach to information exploration. A deployment at a library revealed that visitors embraced this approach of utilizing visualization to support open-ended explorations and serendipitous discoveries. This encourages future explorations into promoting serendipity through information visualization.
Reactive Information Foraging: An Empirical Investigation of Theory-Based Recommender Systems for Programmers - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically investigates how programmers behave with different recommender systems based on Reactive Information Foraging Theory. Can assist tool builders in how to design recommender systems for programmers.
Abstract » Information Foraging Theory (IFT) has established itself as an important theory to explain how people seek information, but most work has focused more on the theory itself than on how best to apply it. In this paper, we investigate how to apply a reactive variant of IFT (Reactive IFT) to design IFT-based tools, with a special focus on such tools for ill-structured problems. Toward this end, we designed and implemented a variety of recommender algorithms to empirically investigate how to help people with the ill-structured problem of finding where to look for information while debugging source code. We varied the algorithms based on scent type supported (words alone vs. words + code structure), and based on use of foraging momentum to estimate rapidity of foragers' goal changes. Our empirical results showed that (1) using both words and code structure significantly improved the ability of the algorithms to recommend where software developers should look for information; (2) participants used recommendations to discover new places in the code and also as shortcuts to navigate to known places; and (3) low-momentum recommendations were significantly more useful than high-momentum recommendations, suggesting rapid and numerous goal changes in this type of setting. Overall, our contributions include two new recommendation algorithms, empirical evidence about when and why participants found IFT-based recommendations useful, and implications for the design of tools based on Reactive IFT.
Case Study & PaperGames: Community + CommunicationRoom: 18AB
Community: design
Case Study, Paper & ToCHIValues in Research PracticeRoom: 17AB
Community: designCommunity: management
Paper & ToCHIPublics and Civic VirtuesRoom: 17AB
Community: design
Chair: Steve Feiner, Columbia University, USA
Martian Boneyards: Can a Community of Players be a Community of Practice? - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of Martian Boneyards, an MMO-based science-mystery game designed to foster collaborative inquiry. Demonstrates how designers can shape an evolving game narrative, responding to players’ activities and accumulating knowledge.
Abstract » Martian Boneyards is a prototype game run in a massively-multiplayer online environment designed to entice gamers to partake in collaborative scientific inquiry. This case study examines the steps designers took to foster a community of inquiry within the game. Designers played characters in the game, allowing them to be responsive to players’ activities and accumulating knowledge. Players were drawn to the narrative and close relationships they developed with the designers’ characters and other players. An informal and communal reward system was used to further nurture collaboration among the community. Findings suggest games like this one show promise for fostering science identity and scientific inquiry.
Athletes and Street Acrobats: Designing for play as a Community Value in Parkour - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We developed a mobile community service for the Parkour community. We discuss how the successful design relied understanding the culture as a 'fun community', valuing play over achievement and competition.
Abstract » Participatory design methods face challenges when designing for a widespread youth community. In such projects, it is not enough to design in collaboration with a few selected individuals; one must also strive to understand the community at a deeper level and incorporate its values and practices into the design solution.

We report on our process of designing with, and for, an identified youth group: the Parkour and Freerunning community. We show how the successful design relied not only on employing methods of participatory observation and participatory design, but also on acquiring an understanding of the practice as a "fun community", valuing play over achievement and competition.
Communication and Commitment in an Online Game Team - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an experiment on inducing communication in online game groups. Examines the influence of communication topic and communicator role on group commitment. Extends our understanding of commitment in online groups.
Abstract » Theories about commitment in online settings and empirical evidence from offline environments suggest that greater communication in online groups should lead members to become more committed and participate longer. However, experimental evidence is sparse, in part because of difficulties inducing communication online. Moreover, previous work has not identified the route by which communication leads to increased commitment. In this paper, we investigated whether task versus social communication modeled by a leader versus a peer influenced the amount that group members talked and their willingness to continue participating in the group. We conducted an experiment within ad hoc groups in the online game World of Warcraft. Results suggest that communication early in a group�s history causes members to talk more later on and that the early communication increases their commitment through its influence on group atmosphere rather than through increased member participation. Social communication by a peer is especially valuable in increasing commitment.
Twiage: A Game for Finding Good Advice on Twitter - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Examines the feasibility of crowdsourcing the identification of "useful advice" on Twitter through a Game with a Purpose (GWAP) called Twiage.
Abstract » Millions of recommendations, opinions and experiences are shared across popular microblogging platforms and services each day. Yet much of this content becomes quickly lost in the stream shortly after being posted. This paper looks at the feasibility of identifying useful content in microblog streams so that it might be archived to facilitate wider access and reference. Towards this goal, we present an experiment with a game-with-a-purpose called
\\emph{Twiage} that we designed to determine how well the deluge of content in �raw� microblog streams could be turned into filtered and ranked collections using ratings from players. Experiments with Twiage validate the feasibility of applying human-computation to this problem, finding strong agreement about what constitutes the ``most useful'' content in our test dataset. Second, we compare the effectiveness of various methods of eliciting such ratings, finding that a �choose-best� interface and Elo rating ranking scheme yield the greatest agreement in the fewest rounds. External validation of resulting top-rated twitter content with a domain expert found that while the top Twiage-ranked �tweets� were among the best of the set, there was a tendency for players to also select what we term �weak spam� -- e.g., promotional content disguised as articles or reviews, indicating a need for more stringent content filtering.
Chair: Christian Holz, University of Potsdam, Germany
Next Steps for Value Sensitive Design - Paper
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: An essay presenting four suggestions for next steps for the evolution of Value Sensitive Design. Addresses issues that we argue have inhibited the more widespread adoption and appropriation of VSD.
Abstract » Questions of human values often arise in HCI research and practice. Such questions can be difficult to address well, and a principled approach can clarify issues of both theory and practice. One such approach is Value Sensitive Design (VSD), an established theory and method for addressing issues of values in a systematic and principled fashion in the design of information technology. In this essay, we suggest however that the theory and at times the presentation of VSD overclaims in a number of key respects, with the result of inhibiting its more widespread adoption and appropriation. We address these issues by suggesting four topics for next steps in the evolution of VSD: (1) tempering VSD�s position on universal values; (2) contextualizing existing and future lists of values that are presented as heuristics for consideration; (3) strengthening the voice of the participants in publications describing VSD investigations; and (4) making clearer the voice of the researchers. We propose new or altered approaches for VSD that address these issues of theory, voice, and reportage.
The Relationship of Action Research to Human-Computer Interaction - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes historical, theoretical, and pragmatic aspects of conducting Action Research and its application to HCI.
Abstract » Alongside the growing interest within HCI, and arguably computing more generally, in conducting research that has substantial societal benefits, there is a need for new ways to think about and to articulate the challenges of these engaged research projects as well as their results. Action Research (AR) is a class of methods and approaches for conducting democratic and collaborative research with community partners. AR has evolved over the last several decades and offers HCI researchers theoretical lenses, methodological approaches, and pragmatic guidance for conducting socially relevant, collaborative, and engaged research. In this article, I describe the historical context and origins of AR, the scientifically rigorous practice of conducting and evaluating AR projects, and the ways in which AR might meaningfully be applied to HCI research.
Being in the Thick of In-the-wild Studies: The Challenges and Insights of Researcher Participation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Applies a participant-observation methodology to two in-the-wild user studies. Shows how researcher participation can help build rapport, enhance contextual understanding, encourage empathy and stimulate reflexivity.
Abstract » We describe the insights and challenges offered by researcher participation in in-the-wild studies through the comparison of two prototype evaluations with varying levels of researcher participation. By reflecting on these studies we expose different facets of the researcher's role when interacting with participants in in-the-wild studies. We also demonstrate the value of researcher participation in contributing to the way a researcher understands participant responses: aiding rapport, promoting empathy and stimulating the researcher to reflect on their own assumptions.
The Envisioning Cards: A Toolkit for Catalyzing Humanistic and Technical Imaginations - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce the Envisioning Cards - an innovative toolkit for scaffolding value sensitive design processes in research and design activities. Early reports on their use include ideation, co-design, and heuristic critique.
Abstract » We introduce the Envisioning Cards - a versatile toolkit for attending to human values during design processes - and discuss their early use. Drawing on almost twenty years of work in value sensitive design, the Envisioning Cards are built upon a set of four envisioning criteria: stakeholders, time, values, and pervasiveness. Each card contains on one side a title and an evocative image related to the card theme; on the flip side, the card shows the envisioning criterion, elaborates on the theme, and provides a focused design activity. Reports from the field demonstrate use in a range of research and design activities including ideation, co-design, heuristic critique, and more.
Designing an Improved HCI Laboratory: A Massive Synthesis of Likes & Wishes - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing a simple design exercise called “I like, I wish.” Findings from this exercise relevant to the design of more human-centered HCI research environments are discussed.
Abstract » We have performed a simple human-centered design exercise called “I like, I wish” with all of the graduate students and some faculty in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Over 300 likes and wishes were gathered and synthesized in an all-day session by a volunteer team of students. Here we report on preliminary findings from this exercise and its implications for the design of more human-centered HCI research environments.
Chair: Ann Light, Northumbria University, UK
Participation and Publics: Supporting Community Engagement - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: In the findings reported here, I continue to develop the framing of Deweyan publics as a way to scaffold an environmental approach to technology design in contexts with diverse stakeholders.
Abstract » CHI researchers are beginning a shift from studying technology use in uncommon or exotic communities to designing and deploying technology interventions into those same settings. This paper picks up on these recent developments and further examines the impact and implication of using a bespoke technology platform within the context of providing shelter and basic social services to homeless mothers and their children. I build on findings from a previous system deployment by describing targeted changes made to the technology, the design impetus for making those changes, and the resulting impact those changes had on the relationship between shelter staff, residents, and the information they shared via the system. By way of the findings reported here, I continue to develop the framing of Deweyan publics as a way to scaffold an environmental approach to technology design in contexts with multiple and diverse stakeholders.
Towards a Framework of Publics: Re-encountering Media Sharing and its User - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: This paper proposes “publics” from media theory to stimulate reflection on prevailing interpretations of participation. Implications concern the role of digital media for collective practice and expression of values.
Abstract » Design and evaluation of user-generated media production and sharing in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) often focus on formal and informal media sharing, such as communication within social networks, automatic notifications of activities, and the exchange of digital artifacts. However, conceptual tools for understanding how people relate to the audiences they reach through these systems are limited. The increasing interest in user-generated content in HCI demands the infusion of new methods and theories that explicitly engage the construction and use of media within and among large groups of individuals and systems. In this paper, we suggest that the notion of “publics,” drawn from media theory, provides useful insights into user-driven, social, and cultural forms of technology use and digital content creation. We illustrate this by employing the notion of publics to the findings from a two-month deployment of a mobile photo sharing platform in a youth housing community. The results of this empirical work coupled with a theoretical examination of publics stimulate reflection on prevailing interpretations of user-designer-reader roles. The paper provides an outlook for potentially new and productive ways of understanding interdependencies within those activities. Implications that can be drawn from this work concern the role of digital media creation and sharing for the formation of collectives and how people position themselves collectively in relation to larger social groups and societal norms. The analysis suggests fruitful crossovers among HCI, Media Theory and New Media Research by approaching the user as both consumer and producer of digital content.
Viewpoint: Empowering Communities with Situated Voting Devices - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a public voting device designed to help empower communities and inform decision making. Experiences from deploying this device are presented as guidelines for community voting technologies.
Abstract » Viewpoint is a public voting device developed to allow residents in a disadvantaged community to make their voices heard through a simple, lightweight interaction. This was intended to open a new channel of communication within the community and increase community members' perception of their own efficacy. Local elected officials and community groups were able to post questions on devices located in public spaces, where residents could vote for one of two responses. Question authors were subsequently required to post a response indicating any actions to be taken. Following a two-month trial, we present our experiences and contribute guidelines for the design of public democracy tools and dimensions impacting their effectiveness, including credibility, efficacy and format.
Examining Technology that Supports Community Policing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates how citizens use technology to support community policing efforts. Our results suggest that technologies intended for crime prevention should be designed to support communication amongst citizens.
Abstract » This paper investigates how citizens use technology to support community policing efforts. To explore the types of conversations that are shared on the community web forum, we conducted a qualitative study. We analyzed 865 forum posts from a community crime web forum from April 2004 to June 2011. We found that residents use the forum to: 1) build relationships by strengthening social ties, 2) discuss ways to take collective action, 3) share information and advice, and 4) regulate the social norms of the neighborhood and the web forum. Results suggest that technologies intended for crime prevention should be designed to support communication and problem-solving discussions amongst residents, as opposed to simply providing information to citizens.
PaperHealthcare + Technology: Putting Patients FirstRoom: 18CD
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study & PaperLiteracy on the MarginRoom: 18AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study, Paper & ToCHIPromoting Educational OpportunityRoom: 18AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Katie Siek, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA
Findings of e-ESAS: A Mobile Based Symptom Monitoring System for Breast Cancer Patients in Rural Bangladesh - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS - the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system developed for rural BC patients.
Abstract » Breast cancer (BC) patients need traditional treatment as well as long term monitoring through an adaptive feedback-oriented treatment mechanism. Here, we present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS � the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system (RSMS) developed for rural BC patients where patients are the prime users rather than just the source of data collection at some point of time. We have also shown how �motivation� and �automation� have been integrated in e-ESAS and creating a unique motivation-persuasion-motivation cycle where the motivated patients become proactive change agents by persuading others. Though in its early deployment stages (2 months), e-ESAS demonstrates the potential to positively impact the cancer care by (1) helping the doctors with graphical charts of long symptom history (automation), (2) facilitating timely interventions through alert generation (automation) and (3) improving three way communications (doctor-patient-attendant) for a better decision making process (motivation) and thereby improving the quality of life of BC patients.
Problems of Data Mobility and Reuse in the Provision of Computer-based Training for Screening Mammography - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the problems encountered reusing clinical data to deliver training in breast cancer screening. Details how data curation processes and tools can be better designed to improve data reuse.
Abstract » This paper explores some of the problems encountered in using a data archive to build tools for training radiologists to interpret breast screening images. We detail our experiences of taking images and case notes created as part of the work of breast cancer screening and using them as resources for training. Four instances of the use of the archive in training are described in detail and the problems they reveal are discussed. We formulate some general lessons for the mobility and re-use of rich ensembles of data and artefacts drawn from complex professional settings. We argue for a richer representation of the context from which the data was taken than can be achieved through making selected relations explicit in metadata. We also conclude that facilities for correcting and elaborating data should be available at the point of use, and not separated out as distinct activities.
Supporting visual assessment of food and nutrient intake in a clinical care setting - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the mappmal application to support visual assessment of food consumption in a clinical setting. The application provides a reliable but conservative measure of nutritional intake from partially consumed meals.
Abstract » Monitoring nutritional intake is an important aspect of the care of older people, particularly for those at risk of malnutrition. Current practice for monitoring food intake relies on hand written food charts that have several inadequacies. We describe the design and validation of a tool for computer-assisted visual assessment of patient food and nutrient intake. To estimate food consumption, the application compares the pixels the user rubbed out against predefined graphical masks. Weight of food consumed is calculated as a percentage of pixels rubbed out against pixels in the mask. Results suggest that the application may be a useful tool for the conservative assessment of nutritional intake in hospitals.
Tackling Dilemmas in Supporting 'The Whole Person' in Online Patient Communities - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We discuss ways to better support patients' personal as well as medical information needs in online patient community settings.
Abstract » Online health communities that engage the patient as a whole person attend to personal and medical needs in a holistic manner. Whether current communities structure interaction between health professionals and patients to address the whole person is an open question. To gain insights into this question, we examined a sample of online patient communities to understand health professionals' involvement in bringing in medical advice into peer-patient conversations. We found the communities fall short in supporting the whole person, because (1) patient expertise and clinical expertise generated by health professionals are shared separately, and (2) patients' quantified data are separate from narrative experiences. Such separation in the design of these systems can lead to limitations in addressing patients' interwoven medical and personal concerns. We discuss dilemmas and design implications for supporting the whole person in online patient communities.
Interaction Proxemics and Image Use in Neurosurgery - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Articulates the spatial organization of collaborative work practices in neurosurgery theatres by drawing on interaction proxemics and F-formations. Discusses opportunities and difficulties relating to touchless interaction in surgical settings.
Abstract » Within medical settings there is a growing interest in exploring touchless interaction technologies. The primary motivation here is to avoid contact during interaction with data so as to maintain asepsis. However, there is another important property of touchless interaction that has significant implications for their use within such settings � namely that interaction behaviour is spatially distal from the device being interacted with. To further understand these implications we present fieldwork observations of work practice in neurosurgery theatres. Drawing on the notion of interaction proxemics and the theory of F-formations, our analysis articulates the spatial organization of collaborative work practices and interaction in these settings. From this understanding of spatial practices, we discuss opportunities and difficulties relating to the design of touchless interaction technologies for in surgical settings.
Chair: Juan Pablo Hourcade, University of Iowa, USA
Improving Literacy in Developing Countries Using Speech Recognition-Supported Games on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Field study discussing the extent to which productive training - enabled by speech-recognition-supported games - is superior to receptive vocabulary training for reading skills. Benefits development of speech-user interfaces for literacy.
Abstract » Learning to read in a second language is challenging, but highly rewarding. For low-income children in developing countries, this task can be significantly more challenging because of lack of access to high-quality schooling, but can potentially improve economic prospects at the same time. A synthesis of research findings suggests that practicing recalling and vocalizing words for expressing an intended meaning could improve word reading skills – including reading in a second language – more than silent recognition of what the given words mean. Unfortunately, many language learning software do not support this instructional approach, owing to the technical challenges of incorporating speech recognition support to check that the learner is vocalizing the correct word. In this paper, we present results from a usability test and two subsequent experiments that explore the use of two speech recognition-enabled mobile games to help rural children in India read words with understanding. Through a working speech recognition prototype, we discuss two major contributions of this work: first, we give empirical evidence that shows the extent to which productive training (i.e. vocalizing words) is superior to receptive vocabulary training, and discuss the use of scaffolding hints to “unpack” factors in the learner’s linguistic knowledge that may impact reading. Second, we discuss what our results suggest for future research in HCI.
Interactive Visualization for Low Literacy Users: From Lessons Learnt To Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper summarizes the problems that low literacy user's face when searching for information online, and establishes a set of design principles for interfaces suitable for low literacy users.
Abstract » This paper aims to address the problems low literacy (LL) users face when searching for information online. The first part of this paper summarizes the problems that LL user's face, and establishes a set of design principles for interfaces suitable for LL users. This is followed by a description of how these design principles are mapped to a novel interface for interactive data retrieval. The interface was realized into a working system and evaluated against a traditional web interface for both high literacy (HL) and LL users. The suitability of the designs was analyzed using performance data, subjective feedback and an observational analysis. The findings from the study suggest that LL users perform better and prefer the proposed designs over a traditional web interface.
Tale of Two Studies: Challenges in Field Research with Low-literacy Adult Learners in a Developed Country - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Report on challenges and lessons learnt from the design of a mobile application to support adult literacy and its evaluation with a marginalized, functionally illiterate, group in a developed country.
Abstract » Efforts to address the problems of literacy are often focused on developing countries. However, functional illiteracy is a challenge encountered by up to 50% of adults in developed countries. In this paper we reflect on the challenges we faced in trying to design and study the use of a mobile application to support adult literacy with two user groups: adults enrolled in literacy classes and carpenters without a high school education enrolled in an essential skills program. We also elaborate on aspects of the evaluations that are specific to a marginalized, functionally illiterate, group in a developed country – aspects that are less frequently present in similar studies of mobile literacy support technologies in developing countries. We conclude with presenting the lessons learnt from our evaluations and the impact of the studies' specific challenges on the outcome and uptake of such mobile assistive technologies in providing practical support to low-literacy adults in conjunction with literacy and essential skills training.
Textual Tinkerability: Encouraging Storytelling Behaviors to Foster Emergent Literacy - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of a storytelling prompt for fostering positive emergent literacy behaviors using: Detailed report of performative reading behaviors in emergent literacy. Video coding rubric for analyzing shared reading interactions.
Abstract » This paper presents textual tinkerability, a new concept for fostering early literacy skills during parent-child reading. Textual tinkerability maps storytelling gestures to changes in animation and text to assist reading exploration and demonstration of the link between text, spoken word, and concept. TinkRBooks are flexible tablet-based storybooks that allow readers to actively explore concepts in text using textual tinkerability. When reading TinkRBooks, both parents and children can alter text (character attributes and parts of speech) by manipulating story elements (props and characters) as they read. We demonstrate how textual tinkerability encourages more dialog, print referencing and dialogic questioning between parent-child dyads in shared reading as compared to paper books. In addition, our study reports observations of storytelling performance behaviors that foster playful and socially intimate shared reading behaviors that are closely mapped to the teaching and learning of emergent literacy skills.
Chair: Anthony Hornof, University of Oregon, USA
Signing on the Tactile Line: A Multimodal System for Teaching Handwriting to Blind Children - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: McSig is a multimodal system for teaching blind children to write and draw. Similar combinations of tactile, haptic, sound and stylus interaction could be useful for other non-visual interaction situations.
Abstract » We present McSig, a multimodal system for teaching blind children cursive handwriting so that they can create a personal signature. For blind people handwriting is very difficult to learn as it is a near-zero feedback activity that is needed only occasionally, yet in important situations; for example to make an attractive and repeatable signature for legal contracts. McSig aids the teaching of signatures by translating digital ink from the teacher’s stylus gestures into three non-visual forms: (1) audio pan and pitch represents the x and y movement of the stylus; (2) kinaesthetic information is provided to the student through a force-feedback haptic pen which mimics the teacher’s stylus movement; (3) a physical tactile line on the writing sheet is created by the haptic pen.
McSig has been developed over two major iterations of design, usability testing and evaluation. The final step of the first iteration was a short evaluation with eight visually impaired children. The results suggested that McSig had the highest potential benefit for congenitally and totally blind children and also indicated some areas where McSig could be enhanced. The second prototype incorporated significant modifications to the system, improving the audio, tactile and force-feedback. We then ran a detailed, longitudinal evaluation over 14 weeks with three of the congenitally blind children to assess McSig’s effectiveness in teaching the creation of signatures. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of McSig – they all made considerable progress in learning to create a recognizable signature. By the end of ten lessons two of the children could form a complete, repeatable signature unaided, the third could do so with a little verbal prompting. Furthermore, during this project we have learnt valuable lessons about providing consistent feedback between different communications channels (by manual interactions, haptic device, pen correction) that will be of interest to others developing multimodal systems.
Collaboration in Cognitive Tutor Use in Latin America: Field Study and Design Recommendations - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes observations from a field study of children in three developing regions using adaptive educational technology. Presents guidelines for future development of technology that accounts for a collaborative use context.
Abstract » Technology has the promise to transform educational prac-tices worldwide. In particular, cognitive tutoring systems are an example of educational technology that has been ex-tremely effective at improving mathematics learning over traditional classroom instruction. However, studies on the effectiveness of tutor software have been conducted mainly in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, and little is known about how these systems might be used in other contexts with differing classroom practices and values. To understand this question, we studied the usage of mathematics tutoring software for middle school at sites in three Latin American countries: Brazil, Mexico, and Costa Rica. While cognitive tutors were designed for individual use, we found that students in these classrooms worked collaboratively, engaging in interdependently paced work and conducting work away from their own computer. In this paper we present design recommendations for how cognitive tutors might be incorporated into different classroom practices, and better adapted for student needs in these environments.
Building a Case for M-learning in Africa: African Youth Perspectives on Education - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The paper provides valuable insights into African youth in terms of education challenges and opportunities hence inspiring and informing research and development of technologies for Africa particularly for m-learning.
Abstract » This paper is based on a case study of six African countries. It takes a look at education challenges faced by African youth and the gaps that exist in the education systems. African youth have the potential to be frontrunners in socio-economic transformation in the continent. They need to be empowered to be able to play their part. The huge gaps between education policy and practice, and other problems in this sector leave many African youth out of the system. Information and communication technology (ICT) is being integrated in education in many African countries. The emphasis has been on equipping schools with computers and literacy of the same. However the progress and impact is minimal due to inadequate resources, infrastructural challenges and lack of capacity. Mobile phone penetration in the continent has increased phenomenally unlike ownership of personal computers. This paper therefore proposes m-learning using mobile phones as a logical and viable channel of delivering education to African youth.
Evaluating the Implicit Acquisition of Second Language Vocabulary Using a Live Wallpaper - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Using a novel language learning interfaces (called Vocabulary Wallpaper) we explore if second language vocabulary can be implicitly acquired through a user’s explicit interactions with her mobile phone.
Abstract » An essential aspect of learning a second language is the acquisition of vocabulary. However, acquiring vocabulary is often a protracted process that requires repeated and spaced exposure; which can be difficult to accommodate given the busyness of daily living. In this paper, we explore if a learner can implicitly acquire second language vocabulary through her explicit interactions with her mobile phone (e.g., navigating multiple home screens) using an interface we developed called Vocabulary Wallpaper. In addition, we examine if the type of vocabulary this technique exposes to the learner, whether it is contextually relevant or contextually-independent will influence the learner’s rate of vocabulary acquisition. The results of our study show participants were able to use Vocabulary Wallpaper to increase the number of second language vocabulary that they can recognize and recall and their rate of vocabulary acquisition was significantly greater when presented with a contextually relevant vocabulary than a contextually-independent vocabulary.
Case Study & PaperIt's a Big Web!Room: 19AB
Community: user experience
PaperParticipatory Design with Older PeopleRoom: 18CD
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperInterfaces for Health & Well BeingRoom: 18CD
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Wayne Lutters, UMBC, USA
Talking in Circles: Selective Sharing in Google+ - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This paper describes a mixed-methods analysis of selective sharing behavior in social networks through study of Google+. It also offers a glimpse into early behavior in a new social system.
Abstract » Online social networks have become indispensable tools for information sharing, but existing �all-or-nothing� models for sharing have made it difficult for users to target information to specific parts of their networks. In this paper, we study Google+, which enables users to selectively share content with specific �Circles� of people. Through a combination of log analysis with surveys and interviews, we investigate how active users organize and select audiences for shared content. We find that these users frequently engaged in selective sharing, creating circles to manage content across particular life facets, ties of varying strength, and interest-based groups. Motivations to share spanned personal and informational reasons, and users frequently weighed �limiting� factors (e.g. privacy, relevance, and social norms) against the desire to reach a large audience. Our work identifies implications for the design of selective sharing mechanisms in social networks.
Omnipedia: Bridging the Wikipedia Language Gap - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We present Omnipedia, a system that allows users to gain insight from 25 Wikipedia language editions simultaneously. We discuss the system, its multilingual data mining algorithms, and a 27-user study.
Abstract » We present Omnipedia, a system that allows Wikipedia readers to gain insight from up to 25 language editions of Wikipedia simultaneously. Omnipedia highlights the similarities and differences that exist among Wikipedia language editions, and makes salient information that is unique to each language as well as that which is shared more widely. We detail solutions to numerous front-end and algorithmic challenges inherent to providing users with a multilingual Wikipedia experience. These include visualizing content in a language-neutral way and aligning data in the face of diverse information organization strategies. We present a study of Omnipedia that characterizes how people interact with information using a multilingual lens. We found that users actively sought information exclusive to unfamiliar language editions and strategically compared how language editions defined concepts. Finally, we briefly discuss how Omnipedia generalizes to other domains facing language barriers.
Social Annotations in Web Search - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Surprisingly, using eyetracking and interviews, we found social annotations in web search to be neither universally useful nor noticeable. However, further experimentations show possible improvements to annotation design.
Abstract » We ask how to best present social annotations on search results, and attempt to find an answer through mixed-method eye-tracking and interview experiments. Current practice is anchored on the assumption that faces and names draw attention; the same presentation format is used independently of the social connection strength and the search query topic. The key findings of our experiments indicate room for improvement. First, only certain social contacts are useful sources of information, depending on the search topic. Second, faces lose their well-documented power to draw attention when rendered small as part of a social search result annotation. Third, and perhaps most surprisingly, social annotations go largely unnoticed by users in general due to selective, structured visual parsing behaviors specific to search result pages. We conclude by recommending improvements to the design and content of social annotations to make them more noticeable and useful.
Designing for a Billion Users: A Case Study of Facebook - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook. Highlights the perspectives of designers, engineers, UX researchers, and other product stakeholders.
Abstract » Facebook is the world’s largest social network, connecting over 800 million users worldwide. The type of phenomenal growth experienced by Facebook in a short time is rare for any technology company. As the Facebook user base approaches the 1 billion mark, a number of exciting opportunities await the world of social networking and the future of the web. We present a case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook from the perspective of designers, engineers, managers, user experience researchers, and other stakeholders at the company. Our case study illustrates various complexities and tradeoffs in design through a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) lens and highlights implications for tackling the challenges through research and practice.
Chair: Steven Dow, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Questionable Concepts: Critique as Resource for Designing with Eighty Somethings - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an exploration of critique as a participatory design method with groups of people aged over 80. Explains how critique is useful for identifying problems and iterating new ideas.
Abstract » This paper reports findings from a series of participatory design workshops with ten people over eighty years old. The focus of the workshops was new banking technologies for the older old. Participants were asked to discuss their current experiences of banking and given packs of concept cards which contained design sketches and brief outlines of concepts for new financial services. The designs on the cards were deliberately provocative and aimed to encourage criticism and debate. Participants wrote and drew on the cards and the workshops were recorded and transcribed. The participants were extremely critical of current banking practices and most of the new concepts we presented to them. Their questions and comments led to a number of insights and further iterations. The paper argues that critique is an essential resource for design, both in terms of identifying problems and iterating ideas.
Senior Designers: Empowering Seniors to Design Enjoyable Falls Rehabilitation Tools - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Our findings suggest that seniors are an integral part of the design process and should be directly involved from the concept stages of the design of tools for their rehabilitation.
Abstract » Studies have shown that functional strength and balance exercises can reduce the risk of falling in older people if they are done on a regular basis. However, the repetitive nature of these exercises; as well as the use of instructional booklets and videos for rehabilitation may discourage seniors to exercise in the home, thereby rendering such an intervention ineffective. Our work proposed that the use of multimodal games � co-designed with seniors � could be a way of making falls rehabilitation more enjoyable; thereby improving adherence to home exercise programmes. In this paper, we first explain the process by which we identified barriers to the users� effective interaction with current home rehabilitation tools. We then go on to describe how we actively involved seniors in the initial design, and improvement of useful, enjoyable games for falls rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that seniors are an integral part of the design process and should be directly involved from the concept stages of the design of tools for their rehabilitation.
Cheque Mates: Participatory Design of Digital Payments with Eighty Somethings - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the participatory design of two paper-based digital payment systems with groups of people aged over 80. Provides guidance for researchers and practitioners collaborating with extraordinary user groups.
Abstract » This paper describes a project exploring the design of digital payment services in collaboration with 16 people aged over 80. Many older people find cheques valuable as a means of payment but the UK Payments Council recently proposed their abolition. We describe two designs that simultaneously aimed to preserve and augment the paper cheque as a means of making electronic payments. These were devised during participatory design workshops through critical dialogues with our eighty something participants. Workshop discussions resulted in the creation of a real world cheque system where we issued pre-paid cheques without the involvement of banks. This work informed the development of a digital cheque book based on Anoto digital pen technology. The work illustrates the value of participatory design with �extraordinary� users, such as the eighty somethings, in HCI.
Engaging Older People through Participatory Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present a participatory approach to design work with older people, an examination of the issues that arose applying it and reflections on issues that we encountered advocating the approach.
Abstract » The use of digital technologies is increasingly proposed in health and social care to address the aging population phenomenon but, in practice, the designers of these technologies are ill equipped to design for older people. We suggest participatory design as an approach to improving the quality of design for older people but, based on previous work and our own experiences, identify four central issues that participatory design approaches need to address. We describe an approach to early engagement in design with older people that address each of these issues and some of our experiences applying the approach in a variety of different design projects. We conclude by discussing some of the issues that have been highlighted when attempting apply this approach in different design contexts and the issues that have been raised when working with partners who are less committed to the idea of engaging with older adults in participatory design.
Chair: Ian Li, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
ShutEye: Encouraging Awareness of Healthy Sleep Recommendations with a Mobile, Peripheral Display - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a field study of an application for mobile phones that uses a peripheral display to promote healthy sleep habits. Can help designers of mobile applications for behavioral awareness.
Abstract » Sleep is a basic physiological process essential for good health. However, 40 million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with sleep disorders, with many more undiagnosed. To help address this problem, we developed an application, ShutEye, which provides a peripheral display on the wall-paper of the user's mobile phone to promote awareness about recommended activities that promote good sleep quality. Based on preferences about the user's desired bed-time and activities' for example, consuming caffeine or performing vigorous exercise. ShutEye displays guidance about when engaging in those activities is likely to affect sleep without requiring any explicit interaction from the user. In this paper, we describe ShutEye and results from a four-week field study with 12 participants. Results indicate that a simple, recommendation-based peripheral display can be a very low-effort but still effective method for improving awareness of healthy sleep habits. We also provide recommendations about designing peripheral displays and extend insights for designing health-based mobile applications.
Using Mobile Phones to Present Medical Information to Hospital Patients - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We provided 25 emergency department patients with a mobile phone interface to near-real-time data about their care. Our study indicates that this is a promising approach to improving patient awareness.
Abstract » The awareness that hospital patients have of the people and events surrounding their care has a dramatic impact on satisfaction and clinical outcomes. However, patients are often under-informed about even basic aspects of their care. In this work, we hypothesize that mobile devices - which are increasingly available to patients - can be used as real-time information conduits to improve patient awareness and consequently improve patient care. To better understand the unique affordances that mobile devices offer in the hospital setting, we provided twenty-five patients with mobile phones that presented a dynamic, interactive report on their progress, care plan, and care team throughout their emergency department stay. Through interviews with these patients, their visitors, and hospital staff, we explore the benefits and challenges of using the mobile phone as an information display, finding overall that this is a promising approach to improving patient awareness. Furthermore, we demonstrate that only a small number of technology challenges remain before such a system could be deployed without researcher intervention.
Engagement with Online Mental Health Interventions: An Exploratory Clinical Study of a Treatment for Depression - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A clinical study of an online intervention for depression designed to maximise client engagement using a range of strategies. Yielded high user engagement and clinically significant improvements in depression scores.
Abstract » Online mental health interventions can benefit people experiencing a range of psychological difficulties, but attrition is a major problem in real-world deployments. We discuss strategies to reduce attrition, and present SilverCloud, a platform designed to provide more engaging online experiences. The paper presents the results of a practice-based clinical study in which 45 clients and 6 therapists used an online Cognitive Behavioural Therapy programme for depression. Pre and post-treatment assessments, using the Beck Depression Inventory, indicate a statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms, with a large effect size, for the moderate-to-severe clinical sub-sample receiving standalone online treatment (n=18). This group was the primary target for the intervention. A high level of engagement was also observed compared to a prior online intervention used within the same service. We discuss strategies for design in this area and consider how the quantitative and qualitative results contribute towards our understanding of engagement.
Best Intentions: Health Monitoring Technology and Children - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents suggestions for development of health monitoring technology intended to enhance self-care in children without creating parent-child conflict. Provides designers an understanding of the impact of emotional response to technology.
Abstract » In this paper we describe findings from two studies aimed at understanding how health monitoring technology affects the parent-child relationship, examining emotional response and barriers to using this type of technology. We present suggestions for the design of health monitoring technology intended to enhance self-care in children without creating parent-child conflict. Our recommendations integrate the study findings, developmental stage specific concerns, and prior HCI research aimed at children's health.
PaperSpace: The Interaction FrontierRoom: 19AB
Community: design
PaperCrowdsourcing and Peer Production IRoom: 19AB
Community: engineeringCommunity: user experience
Chair: Chris Harrison, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Going Beyond the Surface: Studying Multi-Layer Interaction Above the Tabletop - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines for designers of Tangible Magic Lens systems that are targeted for a tabletop environment. Can assist in developing effective multi-layer based interaction styles.
Abstract » Lightweight spatially aware displays (Tangible Magic Lenses) are an effective approach for exploring complex information spaces within a tabletop environment. One way of using the 3D space above a horizontal surface is to divide it into discrete parallel layers stacked upon each other. Horizontal and vertical lens movements are essential tasks for the style of multi-layer interaction associated with it. We conducted a comprehensive user study with 18 participants investigating fundamental issues such as optimal number of layers and their thickness, movement and holding accuracies, and physical boundaries of the interaction volume. Findings include a rather limited overall interaction height (44 cm), a different minimal layer thickness for vertical and horizontal search tasks (1 cm/4 cm), a reasonable maximum number of layers depending on the primary task, and a convenience zone in the middle for horizontal search. Derived from that, design guidelines are also presented.
A Comparative Evaluation of Finger and Pen Stroke Gestures - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: First study investigating the differences and similarities between finger and pen gestures. Can assist UI designers of finger-based gesture design in applying the principles, methods and findings in our study.
Abstract » This paper reports an empirical investigation in which participants produced a set of stroke gestures with varying degrees of complexity and in different target sizes using both the finger and the pen. The recorded gestures were then analyzed according to multiple measures characterizing many aspects of stroke gestures. Our findings were as follows: (1) Finger drawn gestures were quite different to pen drawn gestures in basic measures including size ratio and average speed. Finger drawn gestures tended to be larger and faster than pen drawn gestures. They also differed in shape geometry as measured by, for example, aperture of closed gestures, corner shape distance and intersecting points deviation; (2) Pen drawn gestures and finger drawn gestures were similar in several measures including articulation time, indicative angle difference, axial symmetry and proportional shape distance; (3) There were interaction effects between gesture implement (finger vs. pen) and target gesture size and gesture complexity. Our findings show that half of the features we tested were performed well enough by the finger. This finding suggests that "finger friendly" systems should exploit these features when designing finger interfaces and avoid using the other features in which the finger does not perform as well as the pen.
A Handle Bar Metaphor for Virtual Object Manipulation with Mid-Air Interaction - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A novel handle bar metaphor is proposed to realise a suite of intuitive and highly-controllable mid-air interaction for manipulating single/multiple virtual 3D objects with low-resolution depth sensors like Kinect
Abstract » Commercial 3D scene acquisition systems such as the Microsoft Kinect sensor can reduce the cost barrier of realizing mid-air interaction. However, since it can only sense hand position but not hand orientation robustly, current mid-air interaction methods for 3D virtual object manipulation often require contextual and mode switching to perform translation, rotation, and scaling, thus preventing natural continuous gestural interactions. A novel handle bar metaphor is proposed as an effective visual control metaphor between the user's hand gestures and the corresponding virtual object manipulation operations. It mimics a familiar situation of handling objects that are skewered with a bimanual handle bar. The use of relative 3D motion of the two hands to design the mid-air interaction allows us to provide precise controllability despite the Kinect sensor's low image resolution. A comprehensive repertoire of 3D manipulation operations is proposed to manipulate single objects, perform fast constrained rotation, and pack/align multiple objects along a line. Three user studies were devised to demonstrate the efficacy and intuitiveness of the proposed interaction techniques on different virtual manipulation scenarios.
Fly: Studying Recall, Macrostructure Understanding, and User Experience of Canvas Presentations - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a user study to investigate the effect of the canvas presentation format on recall, macrostructure understanding, and user experience.
Abstract » Most presentation software uses the slide deck metaphor to create visual presentation support. Recently, canvas presentation tools such as Fly or Prezi have begun to use a zoomable free-form canvas to arrange information instead. While their effect on authoring presentations has been evaluated previously, we studied how they impact the audience. In a quantitative study, we compared audience retention and macrostructure understanding of slide deck vs. canvas presentations. We found both approaches to be equally capable of communicating information to the audience. Canvas presentations, however, were rated by participants to better aid them in staying oriented during a talk. This makes canvas presentation tools a promising slideware alternative.
Chair: Mira Dontcheva, Adobe Advanced Technology Labs, USA
Communitysourcing: Engaging Local Crowds to Perform Expert Work Via Physical Kiosks - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Introduces communitysourcing: the use of physical kiosks to target existing crowds of expert workers with specific large-volume microtasks. Demonstrates through a deployment that communitysourcing can successfully elicit high-quality expert work.
Abstract » Online labor markets, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk, have been used to crowdsource simple, short tasks like image labeling and transcription. However, expert knowledge is often lacking in such markets, making it impossible to complete certain classes of tasks. In this work we introduce an alternative mechanism for crowdsourcing tasks that require specialized knowledge or skill: communitysourcing --- the use of physical kiosks to elicit work from specific populations. We investigate the potential of communitysourcing by designing, implementing and evaluating Umati: the communitysourcing vending machine. Umati allows users to earn credits by performing tasks using a touchscreen attached to the machine. Physical rewards (in this case, snacks) are dispensed through traditional vending mechanics. We evaluated whether communitysourcing can accomplish expert work by using Umati to grade Computer Science exams. We placed Umati in a university Computer Science building, targeting students with grading tasks for snacks. Over one week, 328 unique users (302 of whom were students) completed 7771 tasks (7240 by students). 80% of users had never participated in a crowdsourcing market before. We found that Umati was able to grade exams with 2% higher accuracy (at the same price) or at 33% lower cost (at equivalent accuracy) than traditional single-expert grading. Mechanical Turk workers had no success grading the same exams. These results indicate that communitysourcing can successfully elicit high-quality expert work from specific communities.
LemonAid: Selection-Based Crowdsourced Contextual Help for Web Applications - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present LemonAid, a new approach to help that allows users to find previously asked questions and answers by selecting a label, widget, or image within the user interface.
Abstract » Web-based technical support such as discussion forums and social networking sites have been successful at ensuring that most technical support questions eventually receive helpful answers. Unfortunately, finding these answers is still quite difficult, since users� textual queries are often incomplete, imprecise, or use different vocabularies to describe the same problem. We present LemonAid, a new approach to help that allows users to find help by instead selecting a label, widget, link, image or other user interface (UI) element that they believe is relevant to their problem. LemonAid uses this selection to retrieve previously asked questions and their corresponding answers. The key insight that makes LemonAid work is that users tend to make similar selections in the interface for similar help needs and different selections for different help needs. Our initial evaluation shows that across a corpus of dozens of tasks and thousands of requests, LemonAid retrieved a result for 90% of help requests based on UI selections and, of those, over half had relevant matches in the top 2 results.
Is This What You Meant? Promoting Listening on the Web with Reflect - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Observes that listening is under-supported in web interfaces, explores the consequences, and contributes a novel design illustrating listening support. Field deployment on Slashdot establishes potential of this design direction.
Abstract » A lack of support for active listening undermines discussion and deliberation on the web. We contribute a design frame identifying potential improvements to web discussion were listening more explicitly encouraged in interfaces. We explore these concepts through a novel interface, Reflect, that creates a space next to every comment where others can summarize the points they hear the commenter making. Deployments on Slashdot, Wikimedia's Strategic Planning Initiative, and a local civic effort suggest that interfaces for listening may have traction for general use on the web.
#EpicPlay: Selecting Video Highlights for Sporting Events using Twitter - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Explores differences between crowd-sourced (through Twitter) video highlights of broadcast sports compared to nightly sportscast highlight reels. Illustrates utility of separating home and away tweets.
Abstract » During a live sports event, many sports fans use social me-dia as a part of their viewing experience, reporting on their thoughts on the event as it unfolds. In this work, we use this information stream to semantically annotate live broadcast sports games, using these annotations to select video high-lights from the game. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to select highlights specific for fans of each team, and that these clips reflect the emotions of a fan dur-ing a game. Further, we describe how these clips differ from those seen on nightly sportscasts.

Wednesday, May 09, 2012

Madness is 8:30 - 9:20
Breaks are from 10:50 - 11:30 and 15:50 - 16:30
Poster interactions focusing on Doctoral Consortium, Student Design Competition, Student Research Competition and Workshops will start at 10:50 in the Exhibition Hall
Interactivity session will run again during lunch
ACM SIGCHI Town Hall Meeting, 12:50 - 14:30, Room 16AB
Lunch Break is 12:50 - 14:30
Joint Hospitality Reception at the Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum, 18:30 - 20:30
09:30 - 10:5011:30 - 12:5014:30 - 15:5016:30 - 17:50
Student Research CompetitionStudent Research CompetitionRoom: Ballroom D Special EventsSocial Impact Award: Batya FriedmanRoom: Ballroom D Student Design CompetitionStudent Design CompetitionRoom: Ballroom D PanelInvited Panel: Managing UX Teams: Insights from Executive LeadersRoom: Ballroom D
PartoPen: Enhancing the Partograph with Digital Pen Technology - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: PartoPen is an interactive digital pen-based system that reinforces birth-attendant training, records labor progress, validates form data, and overall, aims to improve maternal outcomes in developing countries.
Abstract » Existing paper-based systems for monitoring maternal labor have been shown to reduce life-threatening complications in low-resource environments; however, significant barriers exist to their use in developing countries. In this paper I describe a system that enhances a common labor-monitoring form, the partograph, using a digital pen. The digital partograph system provides real-time data feedback and reinforces birth attendant training, while retaining the paper-and-pen interface currently used by most healthcare workers. The system is currently being evaluated in Kenya.
SocialProof: Using Crowdsourcing for Correcting Errors to Improve Speech Based Dictation Experiences - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: SocialProof, a crowdsourcing powered automatic speech recognition (ASR) enhancement to reduce error correction efforts, is proposed to provide a powerful, accurate and cost-effective ASR dictation system.
Abstract » Though various Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) based text correction techniques have been proposed, it is still difficult to correct dictation errors using speech based commands. Inspired by the successful use of crowdsourcing to solve computation tasks, we propose SocialProof, a crowdsourcing powered ASR dictation enhancement, to provide a powerful and accurate but fairly cheap ASR dictation system. SocialProof begins with the output produced by ASR engines and enhances this output using the power of crowd intelligence via MTurk service. Our system splits one ASR dictation scenario into several smaller tasks, allowing multiple people to work on different pieces of the task at the same time. Data merging strategies are used to combine multiple responses from MTurk workers to provide improved results. An evaluation of SocialProof strongly supports the effectiveness of this approach.
A Framework for Interactive Paper-craft System - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: In this paper I present three main characteristics for paper-computing system, as an initial framework for designing paper-computing interaction, with two supportive technologies: natural-feature-based origami recognition and selective inductive power transferring.
Abstract » Paper, as a tradition medium for art and communication, shows great potential as a good candidate for organic user interface (OUI), with its intrinsic deformability and flexibility. In this paper I present the analysis of the user behaviors while playing paper-craft, such as writing, drawing, folding, cutting, gluing, etc. Then I derive three main characteristics for paper-computing system, as an initial framework for designing paper-computing interaction. Furthermore, two supportive technologies were developed: natural-feature-based origami recognition and selective inductive power transferring. With these two technologies, users could easily design and implement paper-computing systems which fullfill the three characteristics in the proposed framework. Finally, an interactive system for physical origami sharing through internet is developed by using these two technologies and the presented framework.
ScreenMatch: Providing Context to Software Translators by Displaying Screenshots - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: ScreenMatch provides software translators with visual context for each translatable message, by matching each message with a corresponding screenshot of the application.
Abstract » Translators often encounter ambiguous messages while translating software. To resolve ambiguity, the translator needs to understand the context in which the message appears. Currently, context is provided via textual descriptions, or not at all. This paper describes ScreenMatch, a system which provides translators with visual context for each translatable message. It does so by matching each message with a corresponding screenshot of the application. ScreenMatch consists of a tool to gather screenshots, an algorithm to match messages to screenshots, and an interface that presents translators with screenshots alongside messages. We evaluated the system by gathering screenshots for 3 applications, using the algorithm to match messages to screenshots, and comparing results to manual matches. We found that hard-to-reproduce error messages make it difficult to gather all the screenshots. The algorithm correctly matched messages to screenshots 80% of the time when a corresponding screenshot had been gathered.
Mobile Continuous Reading - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: This research focuses on mobile continuous reading under frequent context switching while reading web pages. This paper presents the results of a user study with 10 users.
Abstract » This research focuses on mobile continuous reading under frequent context switching while reading web pages. This paper presents the results of a user study with 10 users. Four conditions were investigated in the study: visual-reading, audio-listening, manual-switching between visual and audio, and auto-switching between them. The results showed that auto-switching not only provides the easiest reading experience, but it also results in significantly fewer missteps while walking, compared with visual-reading.
Symbolic Documentation: Toward Fashion-related Sustainable Design - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: This work focuses on exploring and identifying the role of fashion in digital consumption, and how fashion and sustainability could and might interplay in the IT industry.
Abstract » In this paper, I present ongoing research on fashion-related sustainable interaction design. This work focuses on exploring and identifying the role of fashion in people’s acquisition of objects, especially digital and electronic devices, and how fashion and sustainability could and might interplay in the IT industry. In what follows, I first describe the background and related research apropos of sustainability and fashion within HCI literature. Then, I present the early findings from an ongoing empirical study, which involves a method of symbolic documentation and collection of digital objects. I conclude by articulating several design implications that can serve as a catalyst to embed the notion of fashion in sustainable interaction design.
Impact of Platform Design on Cross-language Information Exchange - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Design affects the sharing of information between human languages on international platforms with user-generated content. This study compares off-site link sharing on Wikipedia and Twitter following the 2011 Japanese earthquake.
Abstract » This paper describes two case studies examining the impact of platform design on cross-language communications. The sharing of off-site hyperlinks between language editions of Wikipedia and between users on Twitter with different languages in their user descriptions are analyzed and compared in the context of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan. The paper finds that a greater number of links are shared across languages on Twitter, while a higher percentage of links are shared between Wikipedia articles. The higher percentage of links being shared on Wikipedia is attributed to the persistence of links and the ability for users to link articles on the same topic together across languages.
Personal Task Management: My Tools Fall Apart When I’m Very busy! - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: The material highlights three important points: factors that influence personal task management behavior; main challenges facing busy people; the adequacy of existing tools and design recommendations for improving them.
Abstract » Existing applications tend to highlight tasks that people should be doing at any given time based on the parameters of urgency (e.g. deadline), assigned priority and reminders. Our field studies demonstrate that people consider existing applications as inadequate to flexibly adapt to current changes in other essential factors, including, task size, complexity and interdependency and the unexpected situations that people face over time. Another key challenge facing busy people is that there is no mechanism that can monitor their work habits and match their tasks with their time constraints. Grounded in our data, we propose important requirements for tools that support users in managing tasks and assessing their schedules.
Third-Party Applications’ Data Practices on Facebook - Student Research Competition
Abstract » The objective of this study is to better understand the information exchange created between social networking sites and third-party applications. Toward this end, I have collected data from the 29,020 most popular social applications on Facebook. I have analyzed the general distribution patterns of applications in terms of what types of interfaces they will present to users when users wish to add them to their profile as well as the scope of information that applications can potentially collect from users of Facebook. To further explore the ways in which third-party applications collect users’ information, I am currently conducting data analysis to identify permissions that tend to bundle together, permission collecting patterns that exist in different categories of applications, and the information collecting patterns of large developers versus smaller developers.
A Multi-user Collaborative Space for Architectural Design Reviews - Student Research Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an interaction modality using depth sensors for collaboration and communication of designs. Can help architects to better interact with each other with the building design as the central theme.
Abstract » I present a multi-touch multi-user collaborative design review space for architectural practice. With the advent of 3D visual programming systems, abstract graphical representations of the algorithmic processes that generate the geometry of a building have become a subject of discussion. These discussions require collaboration among many professions. The system presented in this paper provides an interactive interface for navigation and editing of a Grasshopper visual programming “canvas” for the Rhinoceros 3D modeling program. It uses a tabletop display of the Grasshopper canvas and touch-based input for navigation and manipulation of algorithmic components. A wall-projected display provides synchronized real-time visualization of the 3D model. The aim of the interface is to facilitate dynamic decision-making, increase team understanding and provide an integrated environment for collaborative interaction with parametrically driven designs.
Chair: Loren Terveen, University of Minnesota, USA
Award Talk: Batya Friedman, Something of Value - Special Events
Abstract » Tools and technology do not stand apart from human values. Moreover, our tools, interactions, and infrastructures are tied intimately to human flourishing. In this SIGCHI Social Impact Award talk, I seek to inspire the CHI community to engage with socially significant issues. This talk will be a combination of personal reflections on building theory and method over a 20-year period, and a synthesis of core framings in value sensitive design. Along the way, I will dwell on method, examining roughly a dozen value sensitive design methods that taken as a whole can help researchers and designers account for human values in their technical endeavors. In so doing, I will expand the HCI design space beyond technical devices to infrastructure, policy, and social norms. Key to my discussion will be attention to the challenges of scale – across time, geography, cultures, and stakeholders. From method, I will make the turn to multi-lifespan information system design and concentrate my talk on the first project under that program – the Voices from the Rwanda Tribunal which supports peace-building and reconciliation in the aftermath of widespread violence. I will close this talk with openings: open questions in value sensitive and multi-lifespan information system design; and, more broadly, open challenges for the HCI community as we imagine the tools, interactions, and infrastructures that will underlie the futures of societies. We set our sights on progress, not perfection.

Biography Batya Friedman is a Professor in the Information School, Adjunct Professor in the Department of Computer Science, and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Human-Centered Design and Engineering at the University of Washington where she directs the Value Sensitive Design Research Lab. Batya pioneered value sensitive design (VSD), an approach to account for human values in the design of information systems. First developed in human-computer interaction, VSD has since been used in information management, human-robotic interaction, computer security, civil engineering, applied philosophy, and land use and transportation. Her work has focused on a wide range of values, some include privacy in public, trust, freedom from bias, moral agency, sustainability, safety, calmness, freedom of expression, and human dignity; along with a range of technologies such as web browsers, urban simulation, robotics, open source tools, mobile computing, implantable medical devices, computer security, ubiquitous computing and computing infrastructure. She is currently working on multi-lifespan information system design and on methods for envisioning – new ideas for leveraging information systems to shape our futures. Voices from the Rwanda Tribunal is an early project in this multi-lifespan information system design program. Batya received both her B.A. and Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley.
Shoji: Communicating Privacy - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: A shared living space entails certain privacy issues, making communication between roommates a prime factor of the domestic experience. Our interactive door breaks these barriers, sharing information concerning privacy needs.
Abstract » People sharing a living space in Québec City chose to do so to take advantage of various practical advantages However, this way of life is far from perfect. Indeed, the lodger’s need for
privacy is an aspect of shared accommodation that can be very hard to reconcile with the needs of the other roommates. Based on our user research, we were able to determine that this aspect
of the domestic experience is an important issue with regard to sharing accommodation. Roommates can be encouraged to communicate delicate emotions differently through Shoji, an
interactive door that acts as an ice-breaker and helps to avoid awkward situations, thus improving the quality of life and the domestic experience for everyone.
fridgeTop: Bringing home-like experience back to kitchen space - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: fridgeTop is a touch-based fridge surface application, which aims to help re-create home-like collaborative and communicative aspects of a kitchen in a shared living space.
Abstract » Owing to cultural and time zone differences, international students studying far away from their
homes struggle to re-create home-like experiences. Living in a shared accommodation with new people further adds to this struggle, since common spaces become non-conducive to home-like activities. We study kitchen space in this context, and offer a solution called fridgeTop, which seeks to reduce the threshold of a kitchen’s perceived public space in a shared accommodation by fostering familiar family interactions on a smart fridge surface.
weRemember: letting AD patients to enjoy their home and their families - Student Design Competition
Abstract » weRemember was designed to provide elderly people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) a relative independence at home and a new way to communicate and interact with their family. Our solution offers support for AD patients helping them to longer deal with the disease while living at home with their family instead of moving into a nursing home. Following an iterative design approach, a number of prototypes were evaluated with potential users and their feedback was used to enhance the family experience. During the prototype evaluation we found that the system could have a positive impact both on the relationship between the patient and the caregivers as well as on the patient home experience.
Moodcasting: Home as Shared Emotional Space - Student Design Competition
Abstract » The home experience revolves around an intangible yet pervasive dynamic: shared emotional space, in which members of the home are influenced by each other’s expressions of mood as well as the associated values, activities, people and spaces that influence mood. The Moodcasting system is a set of pervasive and ambient technologies designed to interactively enhance mood awareness and understanding in a home by representing mood and the supporting contexts in easy-to-understand and actionable representations.
Feelybean: Communicating Touch Over Distance. - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: After looking into existing methods for augmenting communication in Long Distance Relationships, we introduce “feelybean”; our proposed solution to the problem, using tactile feedback to communicate touch.
Abstract » Increasingly, due to work or study reasons, many couples find themselves living apart, in different cities or even countries, experiencing the challenges of a long distance relationship. Much research has been conducted into helping couples overcome the problems associated with long distance relationships (LDRs) and many steps have been made towards solving it through enabling them to keep in contact via video, audio, or visual artifacts. Our approach supplements these traditional communication mediums by exploiting “touch” – a sensation that is dominant in almost every relationship. We designed, built and tested a prototype touch device, with the intention of bringing couples closer together during a regular Skype conversation, by allowing each to feel the other’s touch. Our study showed that participants found touching each other in this way was intriguing, enabling them to feel the other person’s hand touching theirs at a distance, and in doing so bridging the distance between them.
Habitag: Virtually Home - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Habitag is a prototype design trying to solve a problem newlyweds may face when planning for their lives together.
Abstract » In Singapore, many young adults do not move out of their family home even after marriage. We conducted several interviews and identified that moving into the marital home is a problem for many newlyweds. Using data from surveys, interviews and a cultural probe, we designed Habitag – a private smartphone application that targets newly married couples in Singapore, helping them to plan for and adjust to their new home in a collaborative and playful manner. Testing results indicate that Habitag may help to reduce the amount of frustration and difficulties that newlyweds face during these critical processes. Finally, we discuss Habitag’s potential transferability to other Asian countries.
MeCasa: A Family Virtual Space - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: MeCasa: a tool for connecting family members who have been geographically separated.
Abstract » We present MeCasa, a tool for connecting family members who have been geographically separated. MeCasa was designed with the intent to accomplish three objectives: 1. Increase the emotional connection between displaced family members, 2. Mimic the privacy provided by an actual home, 3. Make the interaction fun and interesting to use. A mid-fidelity prototype was built and tested to meet these objectives. Our results showed that MeCasa successfully bridged the emotional disconnect created when families physically drifted apart.
Anchor: Connecting Sailors to Home - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Anchor is a tablet application that links sailors to home no matter where service takes them. It uses asynchronous media to synthesize synchronous messages with or without actual data transfer.
Abstract » Maintaining a connection to home is difficult for deployed sailors in the US Navy. At sea, data transfer and personal privacy are limited, the consequences of which are detrimental to the romantic relationships of sailors with stateside partners. We propose Anchor, a tablet application that uses asynchronous messages to synthesize synchronous communication when there is no data transfer. Anchor helps sailors and their romantic partners communicate using media-rich messages, and it creates a connection to home no matter where service takes them.
SharryBot: A Mobile Agent for Facilitating Communication in a Neighborhood - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: A concept of a mobile agent ``SharryBot'' which can distribute gifts among the neighborhood and thereby connecting people in an effective way.
Abstract » In this work we present a possible solution to problems related to interaction between neighbors.
To explore the problem space we conducted interviews in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. Although our interviews showed that the participants are generally happy with their neighborhoods, there are still some barriers to overcome in personal communication between neighbors. These are mostly time related or because of overacted cautiousness. The interviews further showed that gift-giving often improves relationships and enables communication. These findings led to a couple of design ideas of which we chose the most promising to investigate further. Our final solution was a concept of a mobile agent ``SharryBot'' which can distribute gifts among the neighborhood and thereby connecting people in an effective way. The robot should not only make the neighbors known to each other but it should also improve face-to-face communication when neighbors communicate later.
StoryCubes: Connecting elders in independent living through storytelling - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: StoryCubes is a system that helps residents of independent living communities make connections through sharing stories, and express their identity in terms of their unique background, interests, and values.
Abstract » One's home is often a place that reflects and affirms one's identity, but when an elderly person moves to a group living environment, they must re-assert themselves and make new social connections in a place that may inadvertently frame them in terms of their disabilities. We present StoryCubes, a system that helps residents of independent living communities make connections through sharing stories, and express their identity in terms of their unique background, interests, and values. StoryCubes centers around the creation and sharing of tangible paper objects which display and contain the stories of residents using QR code technology. StoryCubes can be displayed together, where residents and visitors can listen to stories within any cube that piques their interest. By giving residents a way to discover and share stories, they are able to gain a greater understanding of their fellow residents, helping them to better appreciate and become more comfortable in their shared living experience.
Home2Home: A “Lightweight” Gift-Giving Portal Between Homes - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Home2Home is a lightweight, smartboard device that supports family communication between family members in different locations. We focus on the familiarity of notepads, “care packages,” and the emotive qualities of handwriting.
Abstract » As families become more dispersed within countries and around the world, the ability to maintain frequent and personalized communication becomes more challenging. Home2Home is a lightweight, smartboard device with ambient display that supports family communication practices with particular attention to the novice technology user. By leveraging the ease of a whiteboard and instant sharing, the familiarity of notepads and “care packages,” and the emotive qualities of handwriting and voice, Home2Home is an easy-to-learn technology that affords the major communication capacities of other software and devices, together in one place. In this paper, we describe the system and the user-centered design process employed to create it.
Silka: A Domestic Technology to Mediate the Threshold between Connection and Solitude - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Despite multiple communication technologies, communicating emotions can still be difficult. We present a device that supports long-distance communication by sending “smiles” and communicating presence to the loved ones.
Abstract » Families living apart – with relatives and loved ones in different cities or countries – is not unusual. However, even though multiple communication technologies exist, communicating emotions can still be difficult. In this paper we present Silka: a device that supports long-distance communication by sending “smiles” and communicating presence in between traditional modes of communication, with the goal of enhancing bonds between two individuals or households. Silkaʼs design is based on findings from an online survey, interviews and observations conducted to better understand how people communicate with loved ones and how they feel before and after communication. It aims to address worry and anxiety, which we found characterise the period between regular weekly, fortnightly or monthly calls.
Bzzzt - When Mobile Phones Feel At Home - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Good vibrations! Use mobile phones' existing capabilities to let the phone sense its surrounding. Within an explorative study, we investigate different approaches on a technical basis.
Abstract » ”I long, as does every human being, to feel at home
wherever I find myself.” - Maya Angelou.

We present Bzzzt, the sketching process for an application
which enables your smart phone to sense its surroundings
to distinguish between familiar and unknown vibes. The
phone will vibrate and record the echoes with its
accelerometer or microphone, analyze those echoes and
distinguish if it has felt the vibrations of this particular
surface before, or not. From this it could potentially
recognize some kind of feeling of being at home or
hominess. Basically, this paper presents a material
exploration for how we potentially could come to use the
accelerometer and the microphone nowadays embedded in
almost all mobile phones.
KidArt: Displaying Children's Art in the Home - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: We present a device to display children’s art in the home that captures the experience families have when their children create art and when they reflect on that art together.
Abstract » In this paper we present a device to display children’s art in the home. Our primary goal was to create a device that can enhance the display of art, capturing the experience families have both when the child creates the art and when they reflect on that art together. The display device removes the burden of organizing and displaying the art children create so that families can enjoy the art in their homes instead.
No Place Like Home: Pet-to-Family Reunification After Disaster - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce No Place Like Home, a socially networked web and mobile platform that facilitates reunification of non-human with human family members following disaster events.
Abstract » Pets are important household members, and their welfare and safety are imperative to the emotional welfare of the family. Displacement of pets after disaster events is a serious matter to families and for public safety at large. People are not willing to evacuate without their non-human family members; many will break through evacuation zones to recover animals left behind. In the 2005 Hurricane Katrina event, over 200,000 pets were displaced, and 95% of them were never reunited with their families. The US Department of Agriculture confirms that the problem of reuniting displaced pets and their guardians at this scale is unfortunately common in disaster events. We introduce No Place Like Home, a socially networked web and mobile platform that facilitates reunification of non-human with human family members following disaster events. No Place Like Home is an effort that supports the formation of small cadres of micro-tasking “digital volunteers” that converge after disasters to do photo- and description-matching; employs a reputation and reward system to encourage use; and uses match-based machine learning techniques to accelerate the manual matching tasks performed by digital volunteers.
Invited Panel: Managing UX Teams: Insights from Executive Leaders - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Lively interviews of well-known executive leaders in User Experience, discussing their experiences with building and managing teams, their advice on best practices, and their vision for the future.
Abstract » A number of well-known corporations were earlier adopters of creating and building User Experience departments, which has resulted in a small set of executive leaders in User Experience who have decades of corporate User Experience management experience. This session is an interview of some of these executive leaders to learn how the field has changed over the decades, their recommendations for best practices, lessons learned, and their vision for the future. The panel will be of interest to managers, practitioners and those who work closely with these teams, including developers, project managers, market researchers, test managers, and executives.
Case Study & PaperOutside the BoxRoom: Ballroom E
Community: designCommunity: engineering
PaperSensory Interaction ModalitiesRoom: Ballroom E
Community: engineeringCommunity: user experience
PaperDimensions of Sensory InteractionRoom: Ballroom E
Community: engineering
PaperMorphing & Tracking & Stacking: 3D InteractionRoom: Ballroom E
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Shahram Izadi, Microsoft Research, USA
Unlocking the Expressivity of Point Lights - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Small lights (e.g., LEDs) are used as indicators in a wide variety of devices. Although exceedingly simple in their output, varying light intensity over time, their design space can be rich.
Abstract » Small point lights (e.g., LEDs) are used as indicators in a wide variety of devices today, from digital watches and toasters, to washing machines and desktop computers. Although exceedingly simple in their output - varying light intensity over time - their design space can be rich. Unfortunately, a survey of contemporary uses revealed that the vocabulary of lighting expression in popular use today is small, fairly unimaginative, and generally ambiguous in meaning. In this paper, we work through a structured design process that points the way towards a much richer set of expressive forms and more effective communication for this very simple medium. In this process, we make use of five different data gathering and evaluation components to leverage the knowledge, opinions and expertise of people outside our team. Our work starts by considering what information is typically conveyed in this medium. We go on to consider potential expressive forms - how information might be conveyed. We iteratively refine and expand these sets, concluding with ideas gathered from a panel of designers. Our final step was to make use of thousands of human judgments, gathered in a crowd-sourced fashion (265 participants), to measure the suitability of different expressive forms for conveying different information content. This results in a set of recommended light behaviors that mobile devices, such as smartphones, could readily employ.
Virtual Projection: Exploring Optical Projection as a Metaphor for Multi-Device Interaction - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the concept of virtualizing optical projections as a metaphor for interacting between handhelds and stationary displays. We present characteristics, implementation and evaluation of such virtual projections.
Abstract » Handheld optical projectors provide a simple way to over-come the limited screen real-estate on mobile devices. We present virtual projection (VP), an interaction metaphor inspired by how we intuitively control the position, size, and orientation of a handheld optical projector�s image. VP is based on tracking a handheld device without an optical projector and allows selecting a target display on which to position, scale, and orient an item in a single gesture. By relaxing the optical projection metaphor, we can deviate from modeling perspective projection, for example, to con-strain scale or orientation, create multiple copies, or offset the image. VP also supports dynamic filtering based on the projection frustum, creating overview and detail applications, and selecting portions of a larger display for zooming and panning. We show exemplary use cases implemented using our optical feature-tracking framework and present the results of a user study demonstrating the effectiveness of VP in complex interactions with large displays.
Creating and Using Interactive Narratives: Reading and Writing Branching Comics - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design and development of a novel form of interactive, multi-touch comics, which can facilitate the authoring of, and engagement with, interactive narratives.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the design and development of a multi-touch surface and software that challenges current approaches to the production and consumption of comics. Authorship of the comics involves drawing the 'top level' of the story directly onto paper and projecting lower-level narrative elements, such as objects, characters, dialogue, descriptions and/or events onto the paper via a multi-touch interface. In terms of the impact this has upon the experience of reading and writing, the implementation of paper is intended to facilitate the creation of high-level overviews of stories, while the touch surface allows users to generate branches through the addition of artifacts in accordance with certain theories about interactive narratives. This provides the opportunity to participate in the reading and authoring of both traditional, paper-based texts and interactive, digital scenarios. Prototype comics are used to demonstrate this approach to reading and writing top-level and low-level narratives.
TimeBlocks: "Mom, can I have another block of time?" - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the design, development, and evaluation of TimeBlocks. TimeBlocks is a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about time between young children and adults.
Abstract » Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children. TimeBlocks consists of a set of cubic blocks that function as a physical progress bar. Parents and children can physically manipulate the blocks to represent the concept of time. We evaluated TimeBlocks through a field study in which six families tried TimeBlocks for four days at their homes. The results indicate that TimeBlocks played a useful role in facilitating the often challenging task of time-related communication between parents and children. We also report on a range of observed insightful novel uses of TimeBlocks in our study.
Canvas Presentations in the Wild - Short Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Examines evolving layout strategies in publicly available canvas presentations. Finds that the benefits of this format previously demonstrated in the lab setting can also be observed in real-life presentations.
Abstract » Most presentation software uses the slide deck metaphor to create visual presentation support. Recently, canvas presentation tools such as Fly or Prezi have instead begun to use a zoomable free-form canvas to arrange information. The effect of this change in format on the authoring process of presentations has been investigated previously in a formal lab study. We have now examined the evolving patterns of usage in publicly available canvas presentations and found that the benefits of this format that have been demonstrated in the lab setting also can be observed in real life presentations. This confirms the potential of canvas based tools to help authors improve the quality of their presentation visuals.
Chair: Daniel M. Russell, Google, USA
Humantenna: Using the Body as an Antenna for Real-Time Whole-Body Interaction - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Extends approach of using the human body as an antenna for sensing whole-body gestures. Demonstrates robust real-time gesture recognition and promising results for robust location classification within a building.
Abstract » Computer vision and inertial measurement have made it possible for people to interact with computers using whole-body gestures. Although there has been rapid growth in the uses and applications of these systems, their ubiquity has been limited by the high cost of heavily instrumenting either the environment or the user. In this paper, we use the human body as an antenna for sensing whole-body gestures. Such an approach requires no instrumentation to the environment, and only minimal instrumentation to the user, and thus enables truly mobile applications. We show robust gesture recognition with an average accuracy of 93% across 12 whole-body gestures, and promising results for robust location classification within a building. In addition, we demonstrate a real-time interactive system which allows a user to interact with a computer using whole-body gestures
SoundWave: Using the Doppler Effect to Sense Gestures - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes SoundWave, which leverages the speaker and microphone already embedded in commodity devices to sense in-air gestures around the device. This allows interaction with devices in novel and rich ways.
Abstract » Gesture is becoming an increasingly popular means of interacting with computers. However, it is still relatively costly to deploy robust gesture recognition sensors in existing mobile platforms. We present SoundWave, a technique that leverages the speaker and microphone already embedded in most commodity devices to sense in-air gestures around the device. To do this, we generate an inaudible tone, which gets frequency-shifted when it reflects off moving objects like the hand. We measure this shift with the microphone to infer various gestures. In this note, we describe the phenomena and detection algorithm, demonstrate a variety of gestures, and present an informal evaluation on the robustness of this approach across different devices and people.
Your Phone or Mine? Fusing Body, Touch and Device Sensing for Multi-User Device-Display Interaction - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique for associating multi-touch interactions to individual users and their accelerometer-equipped mobile devices. Allows for more seamless device-display multi-user interactions including personalization, access control, and score-keeping.
Abstract » Determining who is interacting with a multi-user interactive touch display is challenging. We describe a technique for associating multi-touch interactions to individual users and their accelerometer-equipped mobile devices. Real-time device accelerometer data and depth camera-based body tracking are compared to associate each phone with a particular user, while body tracking and touch contacts positions are compared to associate a touch contact with a specific user. It is then possible to associate touch contacts with devices, allowing for more seamless device-display multi-user interactions. We detail the technique and present a user study to validate and demonstrate a content exchange application using this approach.
IllumiShare: Sharing Any Surface - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A camera-projector device called IllumiShare that shares arbitrary objects and surfaces without visual echo is presented. Study of children’s remote play shows IllumiShare provides natural and seamless interactions over distance.
Abstract » Task and reference spaces are important communication channels for remote collaboration. However, all existing systems for sharing these spaces have an inherent weakness: they cannot share arbitrary physical and digital objects on arbitrary surfaces. We present IllumiShare, a new cost-effective, light-weight device that solves this issue. It both shares physical and digital objects on arbitrary surfaces and provides rich referential awareness. To evaluate IllumiShare, we studied pairs of children playing remotely. They used IllumiShare to share the task-reference space and Skype Video to share the person space. The study results show that IllumiShare shared the play space in a natural and seamless way. We also found that children preferred having both spaces compared to having only one. Moreover, we found that removing the task-reference space caused stronger negative disruptions to the play task and engagement level than removing the person space. Similarly, we found that adding the task-reference space resulted in stronger positive disruptions.
Rock-Paper-Fibers: Bringing Physical Affordance to Mobile Touch Devices - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: bringing physical affordance to mobile touch devices by making the touch device deformable.
Abstract » We explore how to bring physical affordance to mobile touch devices. We present Rock-Paper-Fibers, a device that is functionally equivalent to a touchpad, yet that users can reshape so as to best match the interaction at hand. For efficiency, users interact bimanually: one hand reshapes the device and the other hand operates the resulting widget.

We present a prototype that achieves deformability using a bundle of optical fibers, demonstrate an audio player and a simple video game each featuring multiple widgets. We demonstrate how to support applications that require responsiveness by adding mechanical wedges and clamps.
Shake'n'Sense: Reducing Interference for Overlapping Structured Light Depth Cameras - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: New method for reducing interference when two structured light cameras overlap by only mechanical augmentation.
Abstract » We present a novel yet simple technique that mitigates the interference caused when multiple structured light depth cam-eras point at the same part of a scene. The technique is particularly useful for Kinect, where the structured light source is not modulated. Our technique requires only mechanical augmentation of the Kinect, without any need to modify the internal electronics, firmware or associated host software. It is therefore simple to replicate. We show qualitative and quantitative results highlighting the improvements made to interfering Kinect depth signals. The camera frame rate is not compromised, which is a problem in approaches that modulate the structured light source. Our technique is non-destructive and does not impact depth values or geometry. We discuss uses for our technique, in particular within instrumented rooms that require simultaneous use of multiple overlapping fixed Kinect cameras to support whole room interactions.
Chair: Shwetak Patel, University of Washington, USA
ZeroTouch: An Optical Multi-Touch and Free-Air Interaction Architecture - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: ZeroTouch is a unique optical sensing technique and architecture that allows precision sensing of hands, fingers, and objects within a 2-dimensional plane. We describes the architecture and technology in great detail.
Abstract » ZeroTouch (ZT) is a unique optical sensing technique and architecture that allows precision sensing of hands, fingers, and other objects within a constrained 2-dimensional plane. ZeroTouch provides tracking at 80 Hz, and up to 30 concurrent touch points. Integration with LCDs is trivial. While designed for multi-touch sensing, ZT enables other new modalities, such as pen+touch and free-air interaction. In this paper, we contextualize ZT innovations with a review of other flat-panel sensing technologies. We present the modular sensing architecture behind ZT, and examine early diverse uses of ZT sensing.
Enabling Concurrent Dual Views on Common LCD Screens - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: A pure software solution that enables two independent views to be seen concurrently from different viewing angles on a common LCD screen without any hardware modification or augmentation.
Abstract » Researchers have explored a variety of technologies that enable a single display to simultaneously present different content when viewed from different angles or by different people. These displays provide new functionalities such as personalized views for multiple users, privacy protection, and stereoscopic 3D displays. However, current multi-view displays rely on special hardware, thus significantly limiting their availability to consumers and adoption in everyday scenarios. In this paper, we present a pure software solution (i.e. with no hardware modification) that allows us to present two independent views concurrently on the most widely used and affordable type of LCD screen, namely Twisted Nematic (TN). We achieve this by exploiting a technical limitation of the technology which causes these LCDs to show varying brightness and color depending on the viewing angle. We describe our technical solution as well as demonstrate example applications in everyday scenarios.
Ultra-Tangibles: Creating Movable Tangible Objects on Interactive Tables - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a system that uses ultrasound-based air pressure waves to move multiple tangible objects, independently, around an interactive surface. Allows the creation of new actuated tangible interfaces for interactive surfaces.
Abstract » Tangible objects placed on interactive surfaces allow users to employ a physical object to manipulate digital content. However, creating the reverse effect�having digital content manipulate a tangible object placed on the surface�is a more challenging task. We present a new approach to this problem, using ultrasound-based air pressure waves to move multiple tangible objects, independently, around an interactive surface. We describe the technical background, design, implementation, and test cases for such a system. We conclude by discussing practical uses of our system, Ultra-Tangibles, in the creation of new tangible user interfaces.
CapStones and ZebraWidgets: Sensing Stacks of Building Blocks, Dials and Sliders on Capacitive Touch Screens - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Demonstrates how to create stackable tangibles that can be tracked on capacitive touch screens.
Abstract » Recent research proposes augmenting capacitive touch pads with tangible objects, enabling a new generation of mobile applications enhanced with tangible objects, such as game pieces and tangible controllers. In this paper, we extend the concept to capacitive tangibles consisting of multiple parts, such as stackable gaming pieces and tangible widgets with moving parts. We achieve this using a system of wires and connectors inside each block that causes the capacitance of the bottom-most block to reflect the entire assembly. We demonstrate three types of tangibles, called CapStones, Zebra Dials and Zebra Sliders that work with current consumer hardware and investigate what designs may become possible as touchscreen hardware evolves.
Brainput: Enhancing Interactive Systems with Streaming fNIRS Brain Input - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a working system that uses brain activity as a passive, implicit input channel to an interactive system. Shows improved performance and experience with little additional effort from the user.
Abstract » This paper describes the Brainput system, which learns to identify brain activity patterns occurring during multitasking. It provides a continuous, supplemental input stream to an interactive human-robot system, which uses this information to modify its behavior to better support multitasking. This paper demonstrates that we can use non-invasive methods to detect signals coming from the brain that users naturally and effortlessly generate while using a computer system. If used with care, this additional information can lead to systems that respond appropriately to changes in the user's state. Our experimental study shows that Brainput significantly improves several performance metrics, as well as the subjective NASA-Task Load Index scores in a dual-task human-robot activity.
Chair: Celine Latulipe, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA
KidCAD: Digitally Remixing Toys Through Tangible Tools - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We bring physical interaction to digital modeling, allowing children to use existing physical objects as tangible building blocks for new designs. We introduce KidCAD a digital clay interface for remixing toys.
Abstract » Children have great facility in the physical world, and can skillfully model in clay and draw expressive illustrations. Traditional digital modeling tools have focused on mouse, keyboard and stylus input. These tools may be complicated and difficult for young users to easily and quickly create exciting designs. We seek to bring physical interaction to digital modeling, to allow users to use existing physical objects as tangible building blocks for new designs. We introduce KidCAD a digital clay interface for children to remix toys. KidCAD allows children to imprint 2.5D shapes from physical objects into their digital models by deforming a malleable gel input device, deForm. Users can mashup existing objects, edit and sculpt or draw new designs on a 2.5D canvas using physical objects, hands and tools as well as 2D touch gestures. We report on a preliminary user study with 13 children, ages 7 to 10, which provides feedback for our design and helps guide future work in tangible modeling for children.
ClayVision: The (Elastic) Image of the City - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an augmented reality city guide that communicates through real-time 3D transformations of buildings. Can spearhead critical reassessments and revisions of design metaphors for augmented reality applications.
Abstract » In this paper we describe ClayVision, a new quasi-immersive urban navigation system that rethinks the design conventions of existing Augmented Reality (AR) applications, by aggressively incorporating knowledge from non-Computer Science fields---namely Information Design and Urban Planning. Instead of the prevailing approach of pasting ``information bubbles'' onto the existing urban scenery, ClayVision communicates through real-time 3D transformations of city elements. In other words, the system dynamically probes and reassembles the city into a better-designed copy of the original, that is both easier to navigate and tailored to suit the user's needs and preferences. We provide extensive discussions that cover the technical details of the system, the types of city-morphing operations that can be effectively applied, and what people's experiences will be in the newly ``elastic'' city.
HoloDesk: Direct 3D Interactions with a Situated See-Through Display - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: HoloDesk is an interactive system combining an optical see-through display and Kinect; enabling direct manipulation of 3D content. A new technique to model input from raw Kinect data is introduced.
Abstract » HoloDesk is an interactive system combining an optical see through display and Kinect camera to create the illusion that users are directly interacting with 3D graphics. A virtual image of a 3D scene is rendered through a half silvered mirror and spatially aligned with the real-world for the viewer. Users easily reach into an interaction volume displaying the virtual image. This allows the user to literally get their hands into the virtual display and to directly interact with an spatially aligned 3D virtual world, without the need for any specialized head-worn hardware or input device. We introduce a new technique for interpreting raw Kinect data to approximate and track rigid (e.g., books, cups) and non-rigid (e.g., hands, paper) physical objects and support a variety of physics-inspired interactions between virtual and real. In particular the algorithm models natural human grasping of virtual objects with more fidelity than previously demonstrated. A qualitative study highlights rich emergent 3D interactions, using hands and real-world objects. The implementation of HoloDesk is described in full, and example application scenarios explored. Finally, HoloDesk is quantitatively evaluated in a 3D target acquisition task, comparing the system with indirect and glasses-based variants.
DisplayStacks: Interaction Techniques for Stacks of Flexible Thin-Film Displays - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents DisplayStacks, a paper computer that allows physical stacking of digital documents via piles of thin-film flexible E Ink displays, with associated interaction techniques.
Abstract » Stacking physical documents is one of the main forms of spatio-temporal organization of information. We present DisplayStacks, a system that enables physical stacking of digital documents via piles of flexible E Ink displays. With a conductive dot pattern sensor attached to the flexible display, we dynamically track the position and orientation of these displays in relation to one another. We introduce mechanisms for interacting with these physical stacks for access and manipulation of information using asymmetric bi-manual interactions, such as providing contextual overviews. Initial user experiences indicate a preference for linear overlaps as a stacking configuration.
PanelIndy R&D: Doing HCI Research off the Beaten PathRoom: Ballroom F PanelThe Humanities and/in HCIRoom: Ballroom F
PanelOccupy CHI! Engaging U.S. PolicymakersRoom: Ballroom F Case Study & PaperSocial Computing: Business & BeyondRoom: Ballroom F
Community: designCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
Indy R&D: Doing HCI Research off the Beaten Path - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Indy R&D is an accelerating practice combining real-world concerns with academic curiosity. We provide practical tips to help decide if it's right for you, and help you get started.
Abstract » This panel discusses independent research and development in HCI. We focus on possible models for Indy R&D operations, supporting infrastructures, practical methods, and taking advantage of academic skills in the transition. Panel participants have experience in several different models of funding, conducting, and disseminating results from independent research. We will provide the audience with practical tips to help them decide if Indy R&D is right for them, and if so, help them do it.
The Humanities and/in HCI - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
Abstract » In the past two decades, as technology has moved from the workplace to nearly all aspects of our everyday lives, HCI has also increased the breadth and depth of its research agenda. The breadth increase can be seen in the increasingly broad understanding of stakeholders and long-term socio-cultural-environmental consequences of interactive technologies. The depth increase can be seen in the seriousness with which HCI takes complex, subjective dimensions of interaction, such as affect, identity, experience, aesthetics. Humanistic forms of scholarship, including theories, methodologies, and scholarly forms, have increasingly been used to address many of these breadth and depth issues. In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
Occupy CHI! Engaging U.S. Policymakers - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Updated May 1: Panelists Lorrie Cranor, Ben Bederson, and Whitney Quesenbery share compelling stories and lessons about how HCI has (or has not) influenced U.S. public policy. Get inspired, take action!
Abstract » This panel will be a call for HCI professionals to become involved in U.S. public policy. Panelists representing a range of commitments to public policy work will share compelling stories and lessons from concrete situations where insights from HCI have (or have not) influenced U.S. public policy.
Chair: Henriette Cramer, Mobile Life @ SICS, Sweden
Corporate Career Presences on Social Network Sites: An Analysis of Hedonic and Utilitarian Value - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a structural equation model which describes what benefits job seekers derive from corporate career presences on social network sites.
Abstract » Due to the shortage of skilled workforce and the increasing usage of social network sites, companies increasingly apply social network sites to attract potential applicants. This paper explores how corporate career presences on network sites should be realized in order to attract potential applicants. Therefore, we tested the impact of seven individual characteristics (namely Appointments, Daily Working Routine, Jobs, Corporate News, Entertainment, Media Format, and Features) of these corporate career presences that we extracted by a comprehensive pre-study on users' perceived hedonic and utilitarian value of these presences on social network sites. Based on an online survey with 470 participants, the results reveal a highly significant impact of five characteristics that corporate career presences provide both a hedonic as well as a utilitarian value to the user.
Finding and Assessing Social Media Information Sources in the Context of Journalism - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Design and evaluation of a system for journalists to filter and assess the verity of sources found through social media, including eyewitness, user-archetype classifiers, and network and location cues.
Abstract » Social media is already a fixture for reporting for many journalists, especially around breaking news events where non-professionals may already be on the scene to share an eyewitness report, photo, or video of the event. At the same time, the huge amount of content posted in conjunction with such events serves as a challenge to finding interesting and trustworthy sources in the din of the stream. In this paper we develop and investigate new methods for filtering and assessing the verity of sources found through social media by journalists. We take a human centered design approach to developing a system, SRSR ("Seriously Rapid Source Review"), informed by journalistic practices and knowledge of information production in events. We then used the system, together with a realistic reporting scenario, to evaluate the filtering and visual cue features that we developed. Our evaluation offers insights into social media information sourcing practices and challenges, and highlights the role technology can play in the solution.
Evaluation of the Uses and Benefits of a Social Business Platform - Long Case Study
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: This case study evaluates how knowledge workers within a corporation use and benefit from using a social business platform and how different patterns of staff activities impact their experienced benefits.
Abstract » We evaluated an integrated social software platform, called Handshake, to determine individuals’ usage patterns and characterize Handshake’s business value. Our multi-step investigation included conducting 63 in-depth interviews, analyzing log data from 4600+ users, and administering an online survey. We found that both the level and type of participation affects whether users experience value. Active participants, for example, say that Handshake supports collaboration, strengthens social connections, fosters awareness of connections’ activities, and facilitates knowledge management. This case study captures an early snapshot of behavior that we anticipate will change and grow over time.
Sustainability of a College Social Network Site: Role of Autonomy, Engagement, and Relatedness - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing successful factors of 10-year old college social network site. Suggestions to designers and administrators who want to create a sustainable online community.
Abstract » Increasingly, universities are trying, with limited success, to use social network sites (SNSs) as a way of retaining students. This study presents the case of, a 10-year old SNS for a large university in South Korea. Success factors are explained from the perspective of self-determination theory.
Understanding Experts' and Novices' Expertise Judgment of Twitter Users - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an empirical study to understand the differences between experts and novices in judging expertise of Twitter authors. Provides design guidelines for micro-blogger recommendation system.
Abstract » Judging topical expertise of micro-blogger is one of the key challenges for information seekers when deciding which information sources to follow. However, it is unclear how useful different types of information are for people to make expertise judgments and to what extent their background knowledge influences their judgments. This study explored differences between experts and novices in inferring expertise of Twitter users. In three conditions, participants rated the level of expertise of users after seeing (1) only the tweets, (2) only the contextual information including short biographical and user list information, and (3) both tweets and contextual information. Results indicated that, in general, contextual information provides more useful information for making expertise judgment of Twitter users than tweets. While the addition of tweets seems to make little difference, or even add nuances to novices� expertise judgment, experts� judgments were improved when both content and contextual information were presented.
PaperSensing + Sensible InteractionRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Paper & ToCHIOld Mouse, New Tricks: Desktop InterfacesRoom: Ballroom G PaperPhone Fun: Extending Mobile InteractionRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: user experience
Case Study & PaperProgramming, Performance, and Sense MakingRoom: Ballroom G
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: user experience
Chair: Michael Haller, Media Interaction Lab, Austria
Rewarding the original: Explorations in joint user-sensor motion spaces - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a general technique to identify a set of communicative motions for a given input system by rewarding users for performing novel behaviours. Provides a systematic tool for designing gestures.
Abstract » This paper presents a systematic and general technique for
establishing a set of motions suitable for use with sensor
systems, by drawing performable and measurable motions
directly from users. It uses reinforcement which rewards
originality to induce users to explore the space of motions
they can perform. A decomposition of movements into motion
primitives is constructed, among which a meaningful
originality metric can be defined. Because the originality
measure is defined in terms of the sensed input, the resulting
space contains only movements which can both be performed
and sensed. We show how this can be used to evaluate
the relative performance of different joint user-sensor
systems, providing objective analyses of gesture lexicons
with regard to the technical limitations of sensors and humans.
In particular, we show how the space of motions
varies across the arm for a body-mounted inertial sensor.
Vignette: Interactive Texture Design and Manipulation with Freeform Gestures for Pen-and-Ink Illustration - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a sketch-based application for interactive pen-and-ink illustration. The novel interaction and workflow enables to create a wide range of paintings easily and quickly, along with preserving personal artistic style.
Abstract » Vignette is an interactive system that facilitates texture creation in pen-and-ink illustrations. Unlike existing systems, Vignette preserves illustrators� workflow and style: users draw a fraction of a texture and use gestures to automatically fill regions with the texture. We currently support both 1D and 2D synthesis with stitching. Our system also has interactive refinement and editing capabilities to provide a higher level texture control, which helps artists achieve their desired vision. A user study with professional artists shows that Vignette makes the process of illustration more enjoyable and that first time users can create rich textures from scratch within minutes.
Instructing People for Training Gestural Interactive Systems - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Findings regarding the affect of kinematic instruction modality on training gestural interactive systems. Guideline for developers to collect training data for gesture recognition systems that achieve correctness and coverage.
Abstract » Entertainment and gaming systems such as the Wii and XBox Kinect have brought touchless, body-movement based interfaces to the masses. Systems like these enable the estimation of movements of various body parts from raw inertial motion or depth sensor data. However, the interface developer is still left with the challenging task of creating a system that recognizes these movements as embodying meaning. The machine learning approach for tackling this problem requires the collection of data sets that contain the relevant body movements and their associated semantic labels. These data sets directly impact the accuracy and performance of the gesture recognition system and should ideally contain all natural variations of the movements associated with a gesture. This paper addresses the problem of collecting such gesture datasets. In particular, we investigate the question of what is the most appropriate semiotic modality of instructions for conveying to human subjects the movements the system developer needs them to perform. The results of our qualitative and quantitative analysis indicate that the choice of modality has a significant impact on the performance of the learnt gesture recognition system; particularly in terms of correctness and coverage.
Making Gestural Input from Arm-Worn Inertial Sensors More Practical - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Gesture recognition requires complex computation and tedious user-training. We present an efficient recognition method that achieves accurate recognition with only a single calibration gesture from each user.
Abstract » Gestural input can greatly improve computing experiences away from the desktop, and has the potential to provide always-available access to computing. Specifically, accelerometers and gyroscopes worn on the arm (e.g., in a wristwatch) can sense arm gestures, enabling natural input in untethered scenarios. Two core components of any gesture recognition system are detecting when a gesture is occurring and classifying which gesture a person has performed. In previous work, accurate detection has required significant computation, and high-accuracy classification has come at the cost of training the system on a per-user basis. In this note, we present a gesture detection method whose computational complexity does not depend on the duration of the gesture, and describe a novel method for recognizing gestures with only a single example from a new user.
Clipoid: An Augmentable Short-Distance Wireless Toolkit for 'Accidentally Smart Home' Environments - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Our study is to understand how users utilize an augmentable wireless technology toolkit to upgrade their home environment. It provides a new way of enabling an 'accidentally smart home' environment.
Abstract » Unlike lab environments, the existing environment is not built for smart applications, but rather should be 'upgraded' to support new technologies. The result of this process is called the 'accidentally smart home'. We developed Clipoid, an augmentable wireless technology toolkit for supporting the development of an 'accidentally smart home' environment. We observed the real user context (static, moving) with Clipoid. We present a guideline for developing an augmentation toolkit, and identify human needs of close proximity physical interaction and multiple users-public platforms.
Chair: Krzysztof Gajos, Harvard University, United States
Augmenting the Scope of Interactions with Implicit and Explicit Graphical Structures - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses graphical interaction with structures, and with multiple objects through structures. Introduces two novel and consistent interactive tools: ManySpector, an enhanced inspector, and user-provided dependency links.
Abstract » When using interactive graphical tools, users often have to manage a structure, i.e. the arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of the content. However, interaction with structures may be complex and not well integrated with interaction with the content. Based on contextual inquiries and past work, we have identified a number of requirements for the interaction with graphical structures. We have designed and explored two interactive tools that rely on implicit and explicit structures: ManySpector, an inspector for multiple objects that help visualize and interact with used values; and links that users can draw between object properties to provide a dependency. The interactions with the tools augment the scope of interactions to multiple objects. A study showed that users understood the interactions and could use them to perform complex graphical tasks.
Taming Wild Behavior: The Input Observer for Text Entry and Mouse Pointing Measures from Everyday Computer Use - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a tool that can measure text entry and mouse pointing performance from everyday computer use. Device makers, researchers, and assistive technology specialists may benefit from measures of everyday use.
Abstract » We present the Input Observer, a tool that can run quietly in the background of users� computers and measure their text entry and mouse pointing performance from everyday use. In lab studies, participants are presented with prescribed tasks, enabling easy identification of speeds and errors. In everyday use, no such prescriptions exist. We devised novel algorithms to segment text entry and mouse pointing input streams into �trials.� We are the first to measure errors for unprescribed text entry and mouse pointing. To measure errors, we utilize web search engines, adaptive offline dictionaries, an Automation API, and crowdsourcing. Capturing errors allows us to employ Crossman�s (1957) speed-accuracy normalization when calculating Fitts� law throughputs. To validate the Input Observer, we compared its measures from 12 participants over a week of computer use to the same participants� results from a lab study. Overall, in the lab and field, average text entry speeds were 74.47 WPM and 80.59 WPM, respectively. Average uncorrected error rates were near zero, at 0.12% and 0.28%. For mouse pointing, average movement times were 971 ms and 870 ms. Average pointing error rates were 4.42% and 4.66%. Average throughputs were 3.48 bits/s and 3.45 bits/s. Device makers, researchers, and assistive technology specialists may benefit from measures of everyday use.
Dwell-and-Spring: Undo for Direct Manipulation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents Dwell-and-Spring a technique that uses the metaphor of springs to enable users to undo direct manipulations. Evaluation shows that users quickly adopt it as soon as discovered.
Abstract » In graphical user interfaces, direct manipulation consists in incremental actions that should be reversible. Typical examples include manipulating geometrical shapes in a vector graphics editor, navigating a document using a scrollbar, or moving and resizing windows on the desktop.
As in many such cases, there will not be any mechanism to undo them, requiring users to manually revert to the previous state using a similar sequence of direct manipulation actions. The associated motor and cognitive costs can be high. We argue that proper and consistent mechanisms to support undo in this context are lacking, and present Dwell-and-Spring, an interaction technique that uses the metaphor of springs to enable users to undo direct manipulations. A spring widget pops up whenever the user dwells during a press-drag-release interaction, giving her the opportunity to either cancel the current manipulation or undo the last one. The technique is generic and can easily be implemented on top of existing applications to complement the traditional undo command. Empirical evaluation shows that users quickly adopt it as soon as they discover it.
WindowScape: Lessons Learned from a Task Centric Window Manager - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Deployment study of a scaling window manager that supports organization and grouping. Also discusses design process, particularly including alternatives and tradeoffs.
Abstract » People frequently experience difficulty switching between computer-mediated tasks. To help address this, we created WindowScape, a zooming window manager that uses implicit grouping to help users sort windows according to task. WindowScape was intended to provide a more flexible and intuitive grouping model than prior systems. We report on the design process leading up to the system, and alternative designs we explored. We describe a series of formative evaluations that resulted in significant modifications to our initial prototype, as well as a deployment study of the final version, where users lived with WindowScape on a day-to-day basis. Our results from this study reveal how users react to novel aspects of our system, including its particular uses of miniaturization and its approach to grouping. We also discuss the impact of a task-oriented approach to window management on other aspects of user behavior, and the implications of this for future system design.
Chair: Ken Hinckley, Microsoft Research, USA
iRotate: Automatic Screen Rotation based on Face Orientation - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Our paper makes two contributions: 1) a new approach to automatic screen rotation based on users' face orientation instead of device orientation, 2) quantified the feasibility of using front-camera based approach.
Abstract » We present iRotate, an approach to automatically rotate screens on mobile devices to match users' face orientation. Current approaches to automatic screen rotation are based on gravity and device orientation. Our survey of 513 users shows that 42% currently experience auto-rotation that leads to incorrect viewing orientation several times a week or more, and 24% find the problem to be very serious to extremely serious. iRotate augments gravity-based approach, and uses front cameras on mobile devices to detect users' faces and rotates screens accordingly. It requires no explicit user input and supports different user postures and device orientations. We have implemented a iRotate that works in real-time on iPhone and iPad, and we assess the accuracy and limitations of iRotate through a 20- participant feasibility study.
Looking At You: Fused Gyro and Face Tracking for Viewing Large Imagery on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a touch-free interface for viewing large imagery on mobile devices, using a sensor fusion methodology that combines face tracking with gyroscope data.
Abstract » We present a touch-free interface for viewing large imagery
on mobile devices. In particular, we focus on viewing paradigms
for 360 degree panoramas, parallax image sequences, and
long multi-perspective panoramas. We describe a sensor fusion
methodology that combines face tracking using a frontfacing
camera with gyroscope data to produce a robust signal
that defines the viewer's 3D position relative to the display.
The gyroscopic data provides both low-latency feedback and
allows extrapolation of the face position beyond the the fieldof-
view of the front-facing camera. We also demonstrate a
hybrid position and rate control that uses the viewer�s 3D position
to drive exploration of very large image spaces. We
report on the efficacy of the hybrid control vs. position only
control through a user study.
User Learning and Performance with Bezel Menus - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the performance of different bezel menu layouts. Using the results, presents a bezel-based text entry technique for eyes-free interaction with the phone. Concludes with design implications for bezel menus.
Abstract » Touchscreen phones tend to require constant visual attention, thus not allowing eyes-free interaction. For users with visual impairment, or when occupied with another task that requires a user's visual attention, these phones can be difficult to use. Recently, marks initiating from the bezel, the physical touch-insensitive frame surrounding a touchscreen display, have been proposed as a method for eyes-free interaction. Due to the physical form factor of the mobile device, it is possible to access different parts of the bezel eyes-free. In this paper, we first studied the performance of different bezel menu layouts. Based on the results, we designed a bezel-based text entry application to gain insights into how bezel menus perform in a real-world application. From a longitudinal study, we found that the participants achieved 9.2 words per minute in situations requiring minimal visual attention to the screen. After only one hour of practice, the participants transitioned from novice to expert users. This shows that bezel menus can be adopted for realistic applications.
Determining the Orientation of Proximate Mobile Devices using their Back Facing Camera - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Novel method to determine the relative orientation or proximate mobile device using only their backside camera. We implemented this method as a service to provide orientation information to mobile applications.
Abstract » Proximate mobile devices that are aware of their orientation relative to one another can support novel and natural forms of interaction. In this paper, we present a method to determine the relative orientation of proximate mobile devices using only the backside camera. We implemented this method as a service called Orienteer, which provides mobile device with the orientation of other proximate mobile devices. We demonstrate that orientation information can be used to enable novel and natural interactions by developing two applications that allow the user to push content in the direction of another device to share it and point the device toward another to filter content based on the device’s owner. An informal evaluation revealed that interactions built upon orientation information can be natural and compelling to users, but developers and designers need to carefully consider how orientation should be applied effectively.
Phone as a Pixel: Enabling Ad-Hoc, Large-Scale Displays Using Mobile Devices - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We present system for creating large displays from a collection of smaller devices, opening opportunities for creating large displays using individuals mobile phones at events such as conferences and concerts.
Abstract » We present Phone as a Pixel: a scalable, synchronization-free, platform-independent system for creating large, ad-hoc displays from a collection of smaller devices. In contrast to most tiled-display systems, the only requirement for participation is for devices to have an internet connection and a web browser. Thus, most smartphones, tablets, laptops and similar devices can be used. Phone as a Pixel uses a color-transition encoding scheme to identify and locate displays. This approach has several advantages: devices can be arbitrarily arranged (i.e., not in a grid) and infrastructure consists of a single conventional camera. Further, additional devices can join at any time without re-calibration. These are desirable properties to enable collective displays in contexts like sporting events, concerts and political rallies. In this paper we describe our system, show results from proof-of-concept setups, and quantify the performance of our approach on hundreds of displays.
Chair: John Thomas, IBM Research, USA
Modeling Task Performance for a Crowd of Users from Interaction Histories - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system for human performance modeling that utilizes interaction histories from a crowd of end users. Can assist UI designers in quantitatively evaluating interfaces.
Abstract » We present Tome, a novel framework that helps developers quantitatively evaluate user interfaces and design iterations by using histories from crowds of end users. Tome collects user-interaction histories via an interface instrumentation library as end users complete tasks; these histories are compiled using the Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) into task completion-time predictions using CogTool. With many histories, Tome can model prevailing strategies for tasks without needing an HCI specialist to describe users' interaction steps. An unimplemented design change can be evaluated by perturbing a Tome task model in CogTool to reflect the change, giving a new performance prediction. We found that predictions for quick (5-60s) query tasks in an instrumented brain-map interface averaged within 10% of measured expert times. Finally, we modified a Tome model to predict closely the speed-up yielded by a proposed interaction before implementing it.
Applying Design Strategies in Publication Networks – A Case Study - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A comparative case study that investigates the influence of design strategies on the user behavior. Can provide a guidance in choosing a design strategy in sensemaking tools.
Abstract » This case study shows how following two different designs strategies (Overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand [8] and Start from what you know, then grow [5]) influences the sensemaking behavior [6] of users in the context of science2.0 [9]. To this end, we have designed, developed and evaluated two multi touch applications that provide interactive visualizations of authorship networks. Overview first steers people towards structural insight and overview sensemaking, while Start from what you know invites users to use topical information to explore the data.
Designing a Debugging Interaction Language for Cognitive Modelers: An Initial Case Study in Natural Programming Plus - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates how a debugging environment should support cognitive modelers. Suggests design implications as well as validation opportunities for interactive programming tools and languages.
Abstract » In this paper, we investigate how a debugging environment should support a population doing work at the core of HCI research: cognitive modelers. In conducting this investigation, we extended the Natural Programming methodology (a user-centered design method for HCI researchers of programming environments), to add an explicit method for mapping the outcomes of NP's empirical investigations to a language design. This provided us with a concrete way to make the design leap from empirical assessment of users' needs to a language. The contributions of our work are therefore: (1) empirical evidence about the content and sequence of cognitive modelers' information needs when debugging, (2) a new, empirically derived, design specification for a debugging interaction language for cognitive modelers, and (3) an initial case study of our "Natural Programming Plus" methodology.
CogTool-Explorer: A Model of Goal-Directed User Exploration that Considers Information Layout - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a tool for predicting novice exploration behavior, including errors, that accounts for 63-82% of the variance in three usability metrics. Includes examples using the predictions to direct design effort.
Abstract » CogTool-Explorer 1.2 (CTE1.2) predicts novice exploration behavior and how it varies with different user-interface (UI) layouts. CTE1.2 improves upon previous models of information foraging by adding a model of hierarchical visual search to guide foraging behavior. Built within CogTool so it is easy to represent UI layouts, run the model, and present results, CTE1.2's vision is to assess many design ideas at the storyboard stage before implementation and without the cost of running human participants. This paper evaluates CTE1.2 predictions against observed human behavior on 108 tasks (36 tasks on 3 distinct website layouts). CTE1.2's predictions accounted for 63-82% of the variance in the percentage of participants succeeding on each task, the number of clicks to success, and the percentage of participants succeeding without error. We demonstrate how these predictions can be used to identify areas of the UI in need of redesign.
Easing the Generation of Predictive Human Performance Models from Legacy Systems - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a tool that leverages GUI testing technology from Software Engineering in the creation of human performance models for evaluating existing systems. Many steps are automated, easing the modeler's job.
Abstract » With the rise of tools for predictive human performance
modeling in HCI comes a need to model legacy
applications. Models of legacy systems are used to compare
products to competitors, or new proposed design ideas to
the existing version of an application. We present
CogTool-Helper, an exemplar of a tool that results from
joining this HCI need to research in automatic GUI testing
from the Software Engineering testing community.
CogTool-Helper uses automatic UI-model extraction and
test case generation to automatically create CogTool
storyboards and models and infer methods to accomplish
tasks beyond what the UI designer has specified. A design
walkthrough with experienced CogTool users reveal that
CogTool-Helper resonates with a "pain point" of real-world
modeling and provide suggestions for future work.
SIG MeetingRepliCHI SIG – from a panel to a new submission venue for replicationRoom: 11B SIG MeetingMultitasking and Interruptions: A SIG on bridging the gap between research on the micro and macro worldsRoom: 11B SIG MeetingSIG: End-User ProgrammingRoom: 11A
Community: engineering
RepliCHI SIG – from a panel to a new submission venue for replication - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: For CHI2013, we're proposing a new venue that focuses on replicating, confirming, and challenging published HCI findings. This SIG will discuss the aims and format of repliCHI-2013.
Abstract » At CHI2011 we ran a panel on how the CHI community handles the replicability of research and the reproducibility of findings. Careful scientific scholarship should build on firm foundations, which includes re-examining old evidences in the face of new findings. Yet, as a community that strives for novelty, we have very little motivation to look back and reconsider the validity of previous work. Thus, for CHI2013 we are planning a new venue, where replicated studies can be submitted, presented, and discussed. For CHI2012, we propose a SIG to discuss the preparations for how RepliCHI will work in its first year. We invite participation from those interested in setting an agenda for facilitating replication in HCI, including those who have begun using replication as a teaching method since RepliCHI at CHI2011.
Multitasking and Interruptions: A SIG on bridging the gap between research on the micro and macro worlds - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Research in interruptions/multitasking has considered the micro-world of perception and cognition; and the macro-world of organisations, systems and long-term planning. Can the two kinds of research be considered together?
Abstract » Within the CHI community there has been sustained interest in interruptions and multitasking behaviour. Research in the area falls into two broad categories: the micro world of perception and cognition; and the macro world of organisations, systems and long-term planning. Although both kinds of research have generated insights into behaviour, the data generated by the two kinds of research have been effectively incommensurable. Designing safer and more efficient interactions in interrupted and multitasking environments requires that researchers in the area attempt to bridge the gap between these worlds. This SIG aims to stimulate discussion of the tools and methods we need as a community in order to further our understanding of interruptions and multitasking.
SIG: End-User Programming - SIG Meeting
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
Abstract » As users continue to grow in number and diversity, end-user programming is playing an increasingly central role in shaping software to meet the broad, varied, rapidly changing needs of the world. Numerous companies have therefore begun to sell tools enabling end users to create programs. In parallel, ongoing academic research is aimed at helping end-user programmers create and adapt new kinds of programs in new ways. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
Contribution & Benefit: “HCI Research and Education in Arabic Universities” SIG objective is to identify the century challenges for Arabic universities to improve the HCI research and promote the international presence in cooperation projects.
Abstract » The main topic of this SIG is to discuss how the Human-Computer Interaction subject is present in the universities degrees and research groups from the Arabic countries. The SIG will contribute to disseminate the teaching and research activities from several Arabic universities of reference, and also will allow participants to exchange experiences and research opportunities.
Case Study & PaperPasts + FuturesRoom: 12AB
Community: design
Case Study & PaperSearch InterfacesRoom: 12AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
SIG MeetingReject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHIRoom: 11B SIG MeetingInvited Engineering Community SIG: the Role of Engineering Work in CHIRoom: 11B
Community: engineering
Chair: Siân Lindley, Microsoft Research Cambridge, UK
Envisioning Ubiquitous Computing - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Examines technological visions of the future and the role of 'envisioning' within ubicomp and HCI communities. Critiques these envisionings and recommends changes in ways we read, interpret and use them.
Abstract » Visions of the future are a common feature of discourse within ubiquitous computing and, more broadly, HCI. 'Envisioning', a characteristic future-oriented technique for design thinking, often features as significant part of our research processes in the field. This paper compares, contrasts and critiques the varied ways in which envisionings have been used within ubiquitous computing and traces their relationships to other, different envisionings, such as those of virtual reality. In unpacking envisioning, it argues primarily that envisioning should be foregrounded as a significant concern and interest within HCI. Foregrounding envisioning's frequent mix of fiction, forecasting and extrapolation, the paper recommends changes in the way we read, interpret and use envisionings through taking into account issues such as context and intended audience.
Steampunk as Design Fiction - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: A critical look at Steampunk through the lenses of design fiction, DIY, and appropriation. Provides a new perspective on design strategies for HCI rooted in questions of ethics, values, and identity.
Abstract » In this paper we look at the Steampunk movement and consider its relevance as a design strategy for HCI and interaction design. Based on a study of online practices of Steampunk, we consider how, as a design fiction, Steampunk provides an explicit model for how to physically realize an ideological and imagined world through design practice. We contend that the practices of DIY and appropriation that are evident in Steampunk design provide a useful set of design strategies and implications for HCI.
Revisiting the Jacquard Loom: Threads of History and Current Patterns in HCI - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We describe and reflect on the workings of the Jacquard loom from the perspective of contemporary HCI: materiality, graspability, full body interaction, sustainability and age.
Abstract » In the recent developments of human computer interaction, one central challenge has been to find and to explore alternatives to the legacy of the desktop computer paradigm for interaction design. To investigate this issue further we have conducted an analysis on a fascinating piece of machinery often referred to as one of the predecessors of the modern day computer, the Jacquard loom. In analysing the Jacquard loom we look at qualities in design and interaction from some different perspectives: how historical tools, crafts, and practices can inform interaction design, the role of physicality, materiality, and full-body interaction in order to rethink some current conceptions of interaction and design of computational devices.
Lost and Found: Lessons Learned from a Design Retrospective - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Case study reflecting on the long-term design of an information management system for students. Can help designers understand the impact of multiple influences on the overall transformation of a system.
Abstract » Reflection is critical for understanding how designs evolve and the factors that impact that evolution. This is especially meaningful for projects that have taken place over a long period of time and with consistent overall direction. In this case study, we reflect back over the design of an information gathering and management system built for students in higher education. We demonstrate how users can be involved in various ways over a development period that spans many years; we show that designs of different fidelities can effectively garner user feedback; and we illustrate the impact of multiple influences, including users, research team members, and resource limitations on the overall transformation of the system. We conclude with a series of lessons learned that we hope will help future researchers plan and execute their own design-implement-evaluate lifecycles.
Chair: Remco Chang, Tufts University, USA
Best Faces Forward: A Large-scale Study of People Search in the Enterprise - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present Faces, an application built to allow effective large-scale people search in the enterprise, and its usage analysis within IBM along a time period of over 140 days.
Abstract » This paper presents Faces, an application built to enable effective people search in the enterprise. We take advantage of the popularity Faces has gained within a globally distributed enterprise to provide an extensive analysis of how and why people search is used within the organization. Our study is primarily based on an analysis of the Faces query log over a period of more than four months, with over a million queries and tens of thousands of users. The analysis results are presented across four dimensions: queries, users, clicks, and actions, and lay the foundation for further advancement and research on the topic.
The Search Dashboard: How Reflection and Comparison Impact Search Behavior - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design of a reflective interface for search. A 5-week study showed that after brief contact, users adopted new behavior. Provides clear next steps for improving the search experience.
Abstract » Most searchers do not know how to use Web search engines as effectively as possible. This is due, in part, to search engines not providing feedback about how search behavior can be improved. Because feedback is an essential part of learning, we created the Search Dashboard, which provides an interface for reflection on personal search behavior. The Dashboard aggregates and presents an individual's search history and provides comparisons with that of archetypal expert profiles. Via a five-week study of 90 Search Dash-board users, we find that users are able to change aspects of their behavior to be more in line with that of the presented expert searchers. We also find that reflection can be beneficial, even without comparison, by changing participants' views about their own search skills, what is possible with search, and what aspects of their behavior may influence search success. Our findings demonstrate a new way for search engines to help users modify their search behavior for positive outcomes.
Building the Trail Best Traveled: Effects of Domain Knowledge on Web Search Trailblazing - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: User study on the impact of domain knowledge on Web search trailblazing (creating URL sequences to help searchers). Can assist search engine designers understand the benefit from employing domain-expert trailblazers.
Abstract » Web users can help guide others through complex tasks in unfamiliar domains by creating ordered sequences of queries and Web pages, an activity we call trailblazing. The trails generated from this process can be surfaced by search engines to help users engaged in these tasks. However, if search engines are going to have people generate trails they need to understand whether there is value in using domain experts for trailblazing (or whether novices are sufficient). In this paper, we describe the findings of a user study of trailblazing in the medical domain, comparing domain novices and experts. We observed differences in how people in each of the groups blazed trails and the value of the trails they generated; experts were more efficient and generated better-quality trails. Although there has been significant research on contrasting novice and expert search behaviors, to our knowledge there is no work (at least in the search domain) on establishing whether artifacts created by domain experts (trails in our case) are more valuable than those created by novices. The answer to this question is important for system designers who want to learn whether investing in domain expertise is worthwhile.
A Survey on Web Use: How People Access, Consume, Keep, and Organize Web Content - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This survey contributes to the design of cloud content repository by exploring the relationship between content characteristics (contacted by passive delivery vs. active discovery) and behavior (access, consume, keep, organize).
Abstract » We present the results from a preliminary survey concerning the relationship between web content type (contacted by passive delivery or active discovery) and behavior (access, consume, keep, and organize). From the results of the survey, we highlight content specific design suggestion for Tangible Web (TW), our cloud content repository system that enables users to clip, save, format, and organize web content.
Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Discussion about review process at CHI focusing on 1) ways to improve reviewing, 2) alternative peer review models, and 3) educational materials for new reviewers.
Abstract » The HCI research community grows bigger each year, refining and expanding its boundaries in new ways. The ability to effectively review submissions is critical to the growth of CHI and related conferences. The review process is designed to produce a consistent supply of fair, high-quality reviews without overloading individual reviewers; yet, after each cycle, concerns are raised about limitations of the process. Every year, participants are left wondering why their papers were not accepted (or why they were). This SIG will explore reviewing through a critical and constructive lens, discussing current successes and future opportunities in the CHI review process. Goals will include actionable conclusions about ways to improve the system, potential alternative peer models, and the creation of materials to educate newcomer reviewers.
Invited Engineering Community SIG: the Role of Engineering Work in CHI - SIG Meeting
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG is the forum where to discuss the state of the engineering community and how to strengthen its role in CHI
Abstract » The Engineering Community faces a number of serious
challenges around its role in the larger CHI community
and its contribution to SIGCHI-sponsored conferences.
This SIG is its forum to report progress on key issues
for 2012, identify objectives for 2013, and develop
plans to address them.
Case Study & PaperVisualization + Visual AnalysisRoom: 16AB
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: user experience
Case Study & PaperBeyond PaperRoom: 16AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study, Paper & ToCHICulture, Playfulness, and CreativityRoom: 12AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperSee Hear Speak: Redesigning I/O for EffectivenessRoom: 12AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Luciano Gamberini, University of Padova, Italy
Analysis Within and Between Graphs: Observed User Strategies in Immunobiology Visualization - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Focused task analysis of a real-world scientific visualization process in the immunology domain. Suggests a classification of strategies in this domain and how this classification can be used to guide design.
Abstract » We present an analysis of two user strategies in interactive data analysis, based on an observational study of four researchers in the immunology domain. Screen captures, video records, interviews, and verbal protocols are used to analyze common procedures in this type of visual data analysis, as well as how these procedures differ among these users. Our findings present a case where skilled users can approach a similar problem with diverging analysis strategies. In the group we observed, strategies fell within two broad categories: within-graph analysis, in which a user generates a few graph layouts and interacts heavily within them, and between-graph analysis, in which a user generates a series of graphs and switches between them in sequence. Differences in strategies lead to distinct interaction patterns, and are likely to be best supported by different interface designs. We characterize these observed strategies and discuss their implications for scientific visualization design and evaluation.
Understanding the Verbal Language and Structure of End-User Descriptions of Data Visualizations - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Exploratory study of the verbal language employed by end users in describing data visualizations. Can assist designers of interfaces (languages, APIs, GUIs) for data visualization.
Abstract » Tools exist for people to create visualizations with their data; however, they are often designed for programmers or they restrict less technical people to pre-defined templates. This can make creating novel, custom visualizations difficult for the average person. For example, existing tools typically do not support syntax or interaction techniques that are natural to end users. To explore how to support a more natural production of data visualizations by end users, we conducted an exploratory study to illuminate the structure and content of the language employed by end users when describing data visualizations. We present our findings from the study and discuss their design implications for future visualization languages and toolkits.
GraphTrail: Analyzing Large Multivariate, Heterogeneous Networks while Supporting Exploration History - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Visualization design for exploring large multivariate, heterogeneous networks using attribute aggregation while integrating users' exploration history directly in the workspace. This improves exploration recall and sharing of analyses with others.
Abstract » Exploring large network datasets, such as scientific collaboration networks, is challenging because they often contain a large number of nodes and edges in several types and with multiple attributes. Analyses of such networks are often long and complex, and may require several sessions by multiple users. Therefore, it is often difficult for users to recall their own exploration history or share it with others. We introduce GraphTrail, an interactive visualization for analyzing networks through exploration of node and edge aggregates that captures users' interactions and integrates this history directly in the exploration workspace. To facilitate large network analysis, GraphTrail integrates aggregation with familiar charts, drag-and-drop interaction on a canvas, and a novel pivoting mechanism for transitioning between aggregates. Through a three-month field study with a team of archeologists and a qualitative lab study with ten users, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our design and the benefits of integrated exploration history, including analysis comprehension, insight discovery, and exploration recall.
Trust Me, I'm Partially Right: Incremental Visualization Lets Analysts Explore Large Datasets Faster - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We contribute a methodology for simulating aggregate queries against large data back-ends for researchers to explore interactions; and observations of expert analysts interacting with approximate queries.
Abstract » Queries over large scale (petabyte) data bases often mean waiting overnight for a result to come back. Scale costs time. Such time also means that potential avenues of exploration are ignored because the costs are perceived to be too high to run or even propose them. With sampleAction we have explored whether interaction techniques to present query results running over only incremental samples can be presented as sufficiently trustworthy for analysts both to make closer to real time decisions about their queries and to be more exploratory in their questions of the data. Our work with three teams of analysts suggests that we can indeed accelerate and open up the query process with such incremental visualizations.
Interactive Exploration of Geospatial Network Visualization - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing the design of a geospatial network visualization of scientific collaboration for a multitouch tabletop. Can help designers adapting prototypes by opportunistically demonstrating in live settings.
Abstract » This paper presents a tabletop visualization of relations between geo-positioned locations. We developed an interactive visualization, which enables users to visually explore a geospatial network of actors. The multitouch tabletop, and the large size of the interactive surface invite users to explore the visualization in semi-public spaces.
For a case study on scientific collaborations between institutions, we applied and improved several existing techniques for a walk-up-and-use system aimed at scientists for a social setting at a conference. We describe our iterative design approach, our two implemented prototypes, and the lessons learnt from their creation. We conducted user evaluation studies at the two on-location demonstrations, which provide evidence of the prototype usability and usefulness, and its support for understanding the distribution and connectivity in a geospatial network.
Chair: Mikael B. Skov, Aalborg University, Denmark
Successful Classroom Deployment of a Social Document Annotation System - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: NB supports collaborative student annotation of online lecture notes. Our study of NB use shows its efficacy and demonstrates that the time for annotation systems has finally arrived.
Abstract » NB is an in-place collaborative document annotation website targeting students reading lecture notes and draft textbooks. Serving as a discussion forum in the document margins, NB lets users ask and answer questions about their reading material as they are reading. NB users can read and annotate documents using their web browsers, without any special plug-ins. We describe the NB system and its evaluation in real class environment, where students used it to submit their reading assignments, ask questions and get or provide feedback.
We show that this tool can be and has been successfully incorporated into a number of different classes at different institutions. To understand how and why, we focus on a particularly successful class deployment where the instructor adapted his teaching style to take students' comment into account. We analyze the annotation practices that were observed---including the way geographic locality was exploited in ways unavailable in traditional forums---and discuss general design implications for online annotation tools in academia.
Focusing Our Vision - The Process of Redesigning Adobe Acrobat - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a design process of redesigning a legacy software with millions of users. Provides an insight into how user interface design and user testing are executed in the real world.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the rationale, strategy, and approach of redesigning Adobe Acrobat and Reader from 2008 to 2010. User research techniques, methodologies, and a series of lessons learned during the two-and-a-half-year development cycle are also summarized.
Informal Information Gathering Techniques for Active Reading - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes informal information gathering techniques-- that embrace both content consumption and content creation within the same workflow-- for active reading with a prototype e-reader employing both multi-touch and pen input.
Abstract » GatherReader is a prototype e-reader with both pen and multi-touch input that illustrates several interesting design trade-offs to fluidly interleave content consumption behaviors (reading and flipping through pages) with information gathering and informal organization activities geared to active reading tasks. These choices include (1) relaxed precision for casual specification of scope; (2) multiple object collection via a visual clipboard; (3) flexible workflow via deferred action; and (4) complementary use of pen+touch. Our design affords active reading by limiting the transaction costs for secondary subtasks, while keeping users in the flow of the primary task of reading itself.
A Print Magazine on Any Screen: The Wired App Story - Short Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Reports on the design process behind the the digital reading experience developed by Adobe Systems for Wired Magazine.
Abstract » Magazines are a cultural artifact. In the USA alone, there are 189 million individuals who read magazines, and 88% of adults between 18-34 are active magazine readers. Through the portrail of their editors' views, magazines provide a lens into what society is thinking. These views are expressed not only through the words of articles but also through the careful design and layout of each issue. So what would it mean to take this important physical media into the digital world? This case study reports on the design process behind the the digital reading experience developed by Adobe Systems for Wired Magazine.
Toward a Theory of Interaction in Mobile Paper-Digital Ensembles - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically grounded theory of interaction in mobile paper-digital ensembles (pen, paper and mobile device). Can inform interaction design for this setting by explaining its specific characteristics.
Abstract » Although smartphones and tablets become increasingly popular,
pen and paper continues to play an important role in
mobile practices, such as note taking or creative discussions.
Applications designed to combine the benefits of both worlds
in a mobile paper-digital ensemble require a theoretical understanding
of interaction, to inform the design of adequate
interaction techniques. To fill this void, we propose a theory
based on the results of a stimulus driven exploratory study.
Chair: Lucian Leahu, Cornell University, USA
Uncomfortable Interactions - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Discomfort can enhance the entertainment, enlightenment and sociality of cultural experiences. We explore how four kinds of discomfort - visceral, cultural, control and intimacy - can be ethically embedded into experiences.
Abstract » We argue for deliberately and systematically creating uncomfortable interactions as part of powerful cultural experiences. We identify the potential benefits of uncomfortable interactions under the general headings of entertainment, enlightenment and sociality. We then review artworks and performances that have employed discomfort, including two complementary examples from the worlds of entertainment and performance. From this, we articulate a suite of tactics for designing four primary forms of discomfort referred to as visceral, cultural, control and intimate. We discuss how moments of discomfort need to be embedded into an overall experience which requires a further consideration of the dramatic acts of exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and d�nouement. Finally, we discuss an ethical framework for uncomfortable interactions which leads us to revisit key issues of consent, withdrawal, privacy and risk.
Appreciating plei-plei around mobiles: Playfulness in Rah Island - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes field work in Vanuatu around first time mobile phone adoption in an isolated community. Can assist designers and researchers involve playfulness in the design process of limited, inexpensive technologies.
Abstract » We set out to explore and understand the ways in which mobiles made their way into an environment—Rah Island in Vanuatu—for the first time. We were struck by their playful use, especially given the very limited infrastructure and inexpensive devices that were available. Based on our findings, we discuss tensions between playfulness and utility, in particular relating to socio-economic benefits, and conclude that playfulness in these settings needs to be taken as seriously as in any other setting. Additionally, we formulated three challenges when designing for play in similar settings: (1) engage intimately with the materials of inexpensive ICT; (2) revisit design recommendations for playfulness to ensure that they can travel/translate into other cultures; and (3) alleviate existing tensions.
Improving Performance, Perceived Usability, and Aesthetics with Culturally Adaptive User Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Beautiful? Usable? Not in my culture! We demonstrate how culturally adaptive interfaces can result in a significant improvement of performance and user experience for multicultural users.
Abstract » When we investigate the usability and aesthetics of user interfaces, we rarely take into account that what users perceive as beautiful and usable strongly depends on their cultural background. In this paper, we argue that it is not feasible to design one interface that appeals to all users of an increasingly global audience. Instead, we propose to design culturally adaptive systems, which automatically generate personalized interfaces that correspond to cultural preferences. In an evaluation of one such system, we demonstrate that a majority of international participants preferred their personalized versions over a non-adapted interface of the same web site. Results show that users were 22% faster using the culturally adapted interface, needed less clicks, and made fewer errors, in line with subjective results demonstrating that they found the adapted version significantly easier to use. Our findings show that interfaces that adapt to cultural preferences can immensely increase the user experience.
Digital Art and Interaction: Lessons in Collaboration - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: We present the evolution of Digital Art and HCI collaborations via three case studies. Such collaborations need early, ongoing engagement and HCI techniques need to evolve to support future collaborations.
Abstract » This paper builds on the recent CHI2011 SIG on Digital Arts and the work of the author to examine the nature of collaboration between HCI researchers and new media (or digital) artists. We look at three particular collaborative projects spread over a number of years. We examine the lessons for future collaboration so that productive CHI Arts collaborations can flourish to sustain the community. The chief lessons are that such partnerships need; to early and ongoing collaboration between the parties in order to develop mutually agreeable goals, and that practices and techniques on both sides need to develop to support further understanding.
Chair: Eytan Adar, University of Michigan, USA
The SoundsRight CAPTCHA: An Improved Approach to Audio Human Interaction Proofs for Blind Users - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Blind users cannot use visual CAPTCHAs, and audio CAPTCHAs have below 50% task success. Blind users had over 90% task success rate on our new real-time audio CAPTCHA.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the development of a new audio CAPTCHA called the SoundsRight CAPTCHA, and the evaluation of the CAPTCHA with 20 blind users. Blind users cannot use visual CAPTCHAs, and it has been documented in the research literature that the existing audio CAPTCHAs have task success rates below 50% for blind users. The SoundsRight audio CAPTCHA presents a real-time audio-based challenge in which the user is asked to identify a specific sound (for example the sound of a bell or a piano) each time it occurs in a series of 10 sounds that are played through the computer�s audio system. Evaluation results from three rounds of usability testing document that the task success rate was higher than 90% for blind users. Discussion, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also presented.
Voice Typing: A New Speech Interaction Model for Dictation on Touchscreen Devices - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes Voice Typing, a new speech interaction technique, where utterances are transcribed as produced to enable real-time error identification. Reduces user corrections and cognitive demand for text input via speech.
Abstract » Dictation using speech recognition could potentially serve as an efficient input method for touchscreen devices. However, dictation systems today follow a mentally disruptive speech interaction model: users must first formulate utterances and then produce them, as they would with a voice recorder. Because utterances do not get transcribed until users have finished speaking, the entire output appears and users must break their train of thought to verify and correct it. In this paper, we introduce Voice Typing, a new speech interaction model where users’ utterances are transcribed as they produce them to enable real-time error identification. For fast correction, users leverage a marking menu using touch gestures. Voice Typing aspires to create an experience akin to having a secretary type for you, while you monitor and correct the text. In a user study where participants composed emails using both Voice Typing and traditional dictation, they not only reported lower cognitive demand for Voice Typing but also exhibited 29% relative reduction of user corrections. Overall, they also preferred Voice Typing.
Legible, are you sure ? An Experimentation-based Typographical Design in Safety-Critical Context - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a study involving the design of typeface suited for the cockpit. More widely than for Safety-critical contexts, Experimentation-based design process helps designers validate usability of text display.
Abstract » Designing Safety-critical interfaces entails proving the safety and operational usability of each component. Largely taken for granted in everyday interface design, the typographical component, through its legibility and aesthetics, weighs heavily on the ubiquitous reading task at the heart of most visualizations and interactions. In this paper, we present a research project whose goal is the creation of a new typeface to display textual information on future aircraft interfaces. After an initial task analysis leading to the definition of specific needs, requirements and design principles, the design constantly evolves from an iterative cycle of design and experimentation. We present three experiments (laboratory and cockpit) used mainly to validate initial choices and fine-tune font properties. Results confirm the importance of rigorously testing the typographical component as a part of text output evaluation in interactive systems.
SSMRecolor: Improving Recoloring Tools with Situation-Specific Models of Color Differentiation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a recoloring tool that improves color differentiability by modeling user color perception abilities. Compared to existing recoloring tools, we improve accuracy by 20% and reduce selection time by two seconds.
Abstract » Color is commonly used to convey information in digital environments, but colors can be difficult to distinguish for many users � either because of a congenital color vision deficiency (CVD), or because of situation-induced CVDs such as wearing colored glasses or working in sunlight. Tools intended to improve color differentiability (recoloring tools) exist, but these all use abstract models of only a few types of congenital CVD; if the user�s color problems have a different cause, existing recolorers can perform poorly. We have developed a recoloring tool (SSMRecolor) based on the idea of situation-specific modeling � in which we build a performance-based model of a particular user in their specific environment, and use that model to drive the recoloring process. SSMRecolor covers a much wider range of CVDs, including acquired and situational deficiencies. We evaluated SSMRecolor and two existing tools in a controlled study of people�s color-matching performance in several environmental conditions. The study included participants with and without congenital CVD. Our results show both accuracy and response time in color-matching tasks were significantly better with SSMRecolor. This work demonstrates the value of a situation-specific approach to recoloring, and shows that this technique can substantially improve the usability of color displays for users of all types.
Case Study & PaperMobile Computing and InteractionRoom: 17AB
Community: user experience
Case Study & PaperMusicRoom: 17AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
PaperUsability MethodsRoom: 16AB
Community: engineering
alt.chialt.chi: Making SenseRoom: 16AB
Community: engineering
Chair: Daniel Fallman, Umea University, Sweden
Drawing the City: Differing Perceptions of the Urban Environment - Note
Contribution & Benefit: We provide an updated study of the Milgram Mental Maps experiment, also considering demographic and tech-use attributes. Useful to those working on mobile LBS and Urban Computing services.
Abstract » In building location-based services, it is important to present information in ways that fit with how individuals view and navigate the city. We conducted an adaptation of the 1970s Mental Maps study by Stanley Milgram in order to better understand differences in people's views of the city based on their backgrounds and technology use. We correlated data from a demographic questionnaire with the map data from our participants to perform a first-of-its-kind statistical analysis on differences in hand-drawn city maps. We describe our study, findings, and design implications for location-based services.
Characterizing Local Interests and Local Knowledge - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Characterizes the search-related interests of locals and non-locals, and given shared interests, analyzes the venues that they visit. Can inform the use of local knowledge for search support, including personalization.
Abstract » When searching for destinations and activities, the interests and knowledge of locals and non-locals may vary. In this paper, we compare and contrast the search-related interests of these two groups, and when they share a common inter-est (in our case, for restaurants), we analyze the quality of the venues they intend to visit. We find differences in interests depending on local knowledge, and that locals generally select higher-quality venues than non-locals. These findings have implications for search and recommendation systems that can personalize results based on local knowledge and leverage that knowledge to benefit non-locals.
Mobile Service Distribution From the End-User Perspective - The Survey Study on Recommendation Practices - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A presentation on findings from a study focused on recommendation practices of users of mobile services, including motivations, means, context and types of services recommended to others.
Abstract » Vast amounts of mobile services and applications are being offered to end users via app stores and service providers' web sites. In addition, users take part in the distribution of services by recommending services to each other, i.e. through various word-of-mouth practices. To understand the current patterns of user-initiated service distribution, we conducted an exploratory survey study (N=203) to investigate the recommendation practices and motivations of mobile service users in situations where they recommend to other(s) and other(s) recommend to them. We found that the dominating way to recommend mobile services to others is to tell about the service in face-to-face situations, despite available support for electronic sharing in mobile situations. Social media was also used, but clearly less frequently. Based on the findings of this study, we present design ideas for supporting users in their recommendation practices.
Augmenting Spatial Skills with Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Shows efficiency of mental rotation over touch or tilt techniques on smartphones and tablet PCs. Describes implications for designing mobile applications to enhance spatial skills.
Abstract » Mobile devices are increasingly providing novel ways for users to engage with the spaces around them. However, there are few systematic studies of enhancing spatial ability with mobile devices, and applications such as turn-by-turn navigation systems have even been associated with a decline in spatial skills. In this paper we present a study based on the 1971 Shepard-Metzler mental rotation test but performed on a mobile-phone handset and a tablet PC. Our study extends the original experiment with the incorporation of touch and tilt interaction techniques, in order to determine if these affect the use and acquisition of spatial skills. Results suggest that the task is performed faster, and with no significant difference in accuracy, when participants rely on mental abilities rather than interaction techniques to perform 3D rotations. We also find significant differences between tablet and phone handset platforms under interactive conditions. We conclude that applications on mobile devices could be designed to enhance rather than erode spatial skills, by supporting the use of imagination to align real and virtual content.
The Normal Natural Troubles of Driving with GPS - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a video analysis study of driving using GPS navigation systems in natural settings. The paper argues for a driving with GPS as an active process and not as 'docile driving'.
Abstract » In-car GPS based satellite navigation systems are now a common part of driving, providing turn-by-turn navigation instructions on smartphones, portable units or in-car dashboard navigation systems. This paper uses interactional analysis of video data from fifteen naturalistically recorded journeys with GPS to understand the navigational practices deployed by drivers and passengers. The paper documents five types of 'trouble' where GPS systems cause issues and confusion for drivers around: destinations, routes, maps & sensors, timing and relevance and legality. The paper argues that to design GPS systems better we need to move beyond the notion of a docile driver who follows GPS command blindly, to a better understanding of how drivers, passengers and GPS systems work together. We develop this in discussing how technology might better support 'instructed action'.
Chair: Karyn Moffatt, McGill University, Canada
Digging in the Crates: An Ethnographic Study of DJs' Work - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an analysis of how DJs collect, prepare, perform and promote music. Raises implications for technologies to support DJs and for studies of music consumption and sharing in other settings.
Abstract » An ethnographic study uncovers the work of nightclub DJs, which extends far beyond the act of mixing tracks to also encompass collecting music, preparing for performances, and promotion and networking. We reveal how DJs value vinyl and digital formats in different ways, acquire music through 'crate digging', prepare physical and digital crates of music before gigs, and how these underpin improvised selections during their performances. We document how DJs interact with promoters, venues, dancers and other DJs, revealing an etiquette that governs how they select and share music, and manage an ongoing tension between revealing and hiding metadata so as to maintain a competitive edge. We raise implications for technologies to support DJs, while also shedding light on previous studies of music consumption and sharing in other settings.
Becoming-Sound: Affect and Assemblage in Improvisational Digital Music Making - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Affect and assemblage can help us understand the interaction between users and artefacts in interactive systems. This paper provides some theoretical background and shows its application in understanding collaborative creativity.
Abstract » The concepts of affect and assemblage proposed by thinkers such as
Gilles Deleuze and Brian Massumi can help us to understand the
interaction between users and artefacts in interactive systems,
particularly in the context of computer-supported improvisation and
creativity. In this paper I provide an introduction to affect and
assemblage theory for HCI practitioners. I then use a case study of
Viscotheque, an iOS-based interface for group musical collaboration,
to demonstrate the application of affective analysis in making sense
of improvisational group music making.
Interactive Paper Substrates to Support Musical Creation - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Explores the design of typed paper components for manipulating musical data. Support layers and modules of data rearranged in time and space through tangible interactions with pen and paper.
Abstract » We present paper substrates, interactive paper components that support the creation and manipulation of complex musical data. Substrates take different forms, from whole pages to movable strips, and contain or control typed data representations. We conducted participatory design sessions with five professional musicians with extensive experience with music creation tools. All generated innovative uses of paper substrates, manipulating their data, linking multiple representation layers and creating modular, reusable paper elements. The substrates reflect the structure of their computer-based data, but in a much more flexible and adaptable form. We use their prototypes to provide concrete examples of substrates, identify their roles, properties and functions. Finally, we explore their physical and interaction design with an interactive prototype.
DiskPlay: In-Track Navigation on Turntables - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Design and initial evaluation of an augmented reality system for DJs. It shows how AR can be used to recreate individual features of a medium on a generic controller.
Abstract » Although digital media playback and storage have several advantages, many DJs still prefer using vinyl records on turntables due to their direct manipulation and haptic qualities.
The physical structure of a traditional vinyl record provides important cues for in-track navigation, such as track length or location of loud and soft passages.
Digital vinyl systems use a timecode record to combine the advantages of digital playback with the handling DJs are used to.
These records contain a special audio signal that is processed by a computer and mapped to information such as playback speed, direction, and absolute position in a track.
However, due to their generic nature, timecode records cannot provide visual information to navigate inside individual tracks.
Using top-projection, DiskPlay augments a white timecode record with individual visual cues of the medium, such as cue points or track start and end.
In our observational study with four professional DJs, participants valued the co-location of visual feedback with the control vinyl on the turntable.
Vintage Radio Interface: Analog Control for Digital Collections - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Development and evaluation of an interface for navigating digital music collections based on a one-dimensional analog control and a data visualization inspired by old analog radios.
Abstract » We present an interface for navigating digital collections based on a one-dimensional analog control and a data visualization based on old analog radios. Our system takes advantage of inertial control to browse a large data collection in a compelling way, reducing the complexity of similar interfaces present in both desktop-based and portable media players. This vintage radio interface has been used to navigate a digital music collection. We have compared the proposed interface with the current most popular hardware, the iPod. The results of user tests with 24 participants are presented and discussed. The insights gained are encouraging enough to continue the development of one-dimensional analog controls for content discovery and retrieval.
Chair: Effie Law, University of Leicester, UK
What Do Users Really Care About? A Comparison of Usability Problems Found by Users and Experts on Highly Interactive Websites - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A new set of heuristics to assist in the development and evaluation of highly interactive websites, based on analysis of 935 problems encountered by users on websites.
Abstract » Expert evaluation methods, such as heuristic evaluation, are still popular in spite of numerous criticisms of their effectiveness. This paper investigates the usability problems found in the evaluation of six highly interactive websites by 30 users in a task-based evaluation and 14 experts using three different expert evaluation methods. A grounded theory approach was taken to categorize 935 usability problems from the evaluation. Four major categories emerged: Physical presentation, Content, Information Architecture and Interactivity. Each major category had between 5 and 16 sub-categories. The categories and sub-categories were then analysed for whether they were found by users only, experts only or both users and experts. This allowed us to develop an evidence-based set of 21 heuristics to assist in the development and evaluation of interactive websites.
The Effect of Task Assignments and Instruction Types on Remote Asynchronous Usability Testing - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents a study of the effect of task assignments and instruction types on the number and variability of identified usability problems in a remote asynchronous usability test
Abstract » Remote asynchronous usability testing involves users directly in reporting usability problems. Most studies of this approach employ predefined tasks to ensure that users experience specific aspects of the system, whereas other studies use no task assignments. Yet the effect of using predefined tasks is still to be uncovered. There is also limited research on instructions for users in identifying usability problems. This paper reports from a comparative study of the effect of task assignments and instruction types on the problems identified in remote asynchronous usability testing of a website for information retrieval, involving 53 prospective users. The results show that users solving predefined tasks identified significantly more usability problems with a significantly higher level of agreement than those working on their own authentic tasks. Moreover, users that were instructed by means of examples of usability problems identified significantly more usability problems than those who received a conceptual definition of usability problems.
Analysis in Practical Usability Evaluation: A Survey Study - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A survey of 155 usability practitioners is presented, providing insight in current usability evaluation analysis practices and recommendations on how to align future research with practitioner needs for analysis support.
Abstract » Analysis is a key part of conducting usability evaluations, yet rarely systematically studied. Thus, we lack direction on how to do research on supporting practitioners' analysis and lose an opportunity for practitioners to learn from each other. We have surveyed 155 usability practitioners on the analysis in their latest usability evaluation. Analysis is typically flexible and light-weight. At the same time, practitioners see a need to strengthen reliability in evaluation. Redesign is closely integrated with analysis; more than half of the respondents provide visual redesign suggestions in their evaluation deliverables. Analysis support from academic research, including tools, forms and structured formats, does not seem to have direct impact on analysis practice. We provide six recommendations for future research to better support analysis.
Evaluating the Collaborative Critique Method - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce a new usability walkthrough method called Collaborative Critique, inspired by the human-computer collaboration paradigm of system-user interaction, and present the results of its evaluation with usability professionals.
Abstract » We introduce a new usability walkthrough method called Collaborative Critique (CC), which is inspired by the human-computer collaboration paradigm of system-user interaction. This method applies a ``collaboration lens" to assessing the system's behavior and its impact on the user's efforts in the context of the task being performed. We present findings from a laboratory evaluation of the CC method with usability practitioners, in which the results of the CC walkthrough were compared to a benchmark set of problems collected via user testing with two experimental Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system tasks. The development of this new usability evaluation method was driven by the need for an approach that assesses the adequacy of the system's support for reducing the user's cognitive and physical effort in the context of the interaction.
Chair: Amanda Williams, Concordia University, Canada
Representing Our Information Structures for Research and for Everyday Use - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: To realize a scientific inquiry of personal information management (PIM), researchers need methods for representing and measuring information structure. These methods, with small extension, have direct application to end users.
Abstract » We argue for a methodology and supporting infrastructure that promotes a cross-study investigation of information structure to advance the science of personal information management. Moreover, we observe that the infrastructure to support a methodology of scientific inquiry may have direct application to users as they struggle to manage their information. Research on information structure reaches towards a new age in information management wherein organizing information structures grow and change over time based on the internal needs of their owners and not the external demands of tools.
User-Driven Collaborative Intelligence – Social Networks as Crowdsourcing Ecosystems - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes Collaborative Intelligence as a subdiscipline of CHI to evolve platforms for problem-solving by harnessing next generation hybrids of crowd-sourcing and social networks to develop Vernor Vinge’s landmark “singularity” concepts
Abstract » Vernor Vinge proposed, “In network and interface research there is something as profound (and potentially wild) as Artificial Intelligence.” How, in this 2012 Centenary of Alan Turing, can we explore that wild CHI opportunity to create futures of intelligence? User experience data can co-evolve synergies across computer data processing and human capacity for pattern recognition, developing collaborative intelligence applications that engage distributed creativity, processing crowd-sourced analytics to plan and track projects, so that data gathered, bottom-up, can improve decision-making.
Thin Slices of Interaction: Predicting Usersʼ Task Difficulty within 60 sec. - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This study shows that the users’ experienced task difficulty while interacting with a photocopier can be predicted from the automatic video coding of Activity and Emphasis of movement.
Abstract » We report on an exploratory study where the first 60 seconds of the video recording of a user interaction are used to predict the user’s experienced task difficulty. This approach builds on previous work on “thin slices” of human-human behavior, and applies it to human-computer interaction. In the scenario of interacting with a photocopy machine, automated video coding showed that the Activity and Emphasis predicted 46.6% of the variance of task difficulty. This result closely follows reported results on predicting negotiation outcomes from conversational dynamics using similar variables on the speech signal.
Citeology: Visualizing Paper Genealogy - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Presents Citeology, a interactive system to explore the relationships between papers through their use of citations. The full CHI and UIST paper database is used as an example corpus.
Abstract » Citeology is an interactive visualization that looks at the relationships between research publications through their use of citations. The sample corpus uses all 3,502 papers published at ACM CHI and UIST between 1982 and 2010, and the 11,699 citations between them. A connection is drawn between each paper and all papers which it referenced from the collection. For an individual paper, the resulting visualization represents a “family tree” of sorts, showing multiple generations of referenced papers which the target paper built upon, and all descendant generations of future papers.
Mining Whining in Support Forums with Frictionary - alt.chi
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique for extracting standardized problem statements from support forums on the web. Mozilla designers and support staff believe it could be useful for prioritizing design decisions.
Abstract » Millions of people request help with software in support forums, creating a massive repository of user experiences ripe for mining. We present Frictionary, a tool for automatically extracting, aggregating, and organizing problem described in support forums, enabling timely problem frequency and prevalence metrics. We applied it to 89,760 Firefox support requests from 4 sources gathered over 10 months. Interviews with the Firefox principal designer and support lead suggest that Frictionary could be a useful tool for prioritizing engineering efforts, but that the extraction would need to be more precise to be useful.
Case Study & PaperFuture DesignRoom: 18AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study & PaperICT4DRoom: 18AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Case Study, Paper & ToCHII Did That! Being in ControlRoom: 17AB
Community: user experience
Paper & ToCHITriple T: Touch, Tables, TabletsRoom: 17AB
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Chair: Orit Shaer, Wellesley College, USA
Researching the User Experience for Connected TV - A Case Study - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study presenting a variety of projects that highlight UX challenges and opportunities around internet-connected television. Can inspire developers to exploit this emerging platform to create novel experiences.
Abstract » This paper presents a Case Study of the BBC’s recent research and development work into the user experience of Internet-Connected Television. User expectations and aspirations around their TV experiences are changing radically as the platform increasingly supplements broadcast network connectivity with IP connectivity. Despite the relative youth of the platform, it is clear that Connected TV and its users support and seek user experiences which are quite distinctive from web browsing on personal computers, or earlier forms of interactive TV platforms. We describe a number of the BBC’s recent research projects developing knowledge and tools to support future user experiences for TV, ranging from typography to alternative input interfaces. In each case, we describe the motivation, the development approach and the empirical assessment of impact of the technology and experiences embodied by our prototypes.
Implicit Imitation in Social Tagging: Familiarity and Semantic Reconstruction - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a multinomial model and experiment formalizing cognitive processes in social imitation in tagging. Allows researchers to differentiate implicit and explicit imitation and to assess the impact of different design choices.
Abstract » Social Tagging is a recent widespread phenomenon on the Web where people assign labels (tags) to Web resources. It has been hypothesized to support collaborative sensemaking. In this paper, we examine some of the cognitive mechanisms assumed to underlie sensemaking, namely social imitation processes. We present a multinomial model that is applied to the generation of tags. In line with the semantic imitation model of Fu and colleagues, we assume that implicit processing can be understood as a semantic reconstruction of gist. Our model contrasts this process with a recall of tags from an explicit verbatim memory trace. We tested this model in an experimental study in which after the search task students had to generate tags themselves. We exposed their answers to a multinomial model derived from Fuzzy Trace Theory to obtain independent parameter estimates for the processes of explicit recall, semantic gist reconstruction and familiarity-based recall. As it turns out, a model that assumes all processes are at play explains the data well. Similar to results of our previous study, we find an influence of search intentions on the two processes. Our results have implications for interface and interaction design of social tagging systems, as well as for tag recommendation in these environments.
Annotating BI Visualization Dashboards: Needs & Challenges - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the user-centered design of a visualization dashboard, which supports context aware and multi-chart annotations applied across visualizations and data dimension levels. Discusses challenges in annotating dynamic and hierarchical data.
Abstract » Annotations have been identified as an important aid in
analysis record-keeping and recently data discovery. In this
paper we discuss the use of annotations on visualization
dashboards, with a special focus on business intelligence
(BI) analysis. In-depth interviews with experts lead to new
annotation needs for multi-chart visualization systems, on
which we based the design of a dashboard prototype that
supports data and context aware annotations. We focus
particularly on novel annotation aspects, such as multi-target annotations, annotation transparency across charts
and data dimension levels, as well as annotation properties
such as lifetime and validity. Moreover, our prototype is
built on a data layer shared among different data-sources
and BI applications, allowing cross application annotations.
We discuss challenges in supporting context aware
annotations in dashboards and other visualizations, such as
dealing with changing annotated data, and provide design
solutions. Finally we report reactions and recommendations from a different set of expert users.
Choosing to Interleave: Human Error and Information Access Cost - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Empirical study demonstrating that the cost of accessing information can impact on multitasking performance. Choosing to interleave the programming of medical devices can result in more omission errors.
Abstract » People are prone to making more errors when multitasking. Thus in safety-critical environments, it is often considered safer to perform tasks sequentially. Here we explore how the cost of accessing information affects the way people choose to interleave. An empirical study based on a medical scenario was conducted. Participants had to program infusion pump devices using information from a prescription form. The physical and mental effort involved in accessing information was manipulated. This was achieved by varying the physical distance between the prescription form and the devices. We demonstrate that by increasing information access cost, individuals are less likely to omit a required task step. This is because they adopt a more memory-intensive strategy, which encourages interleaving at natural boundaries, i.e., after completing the programming of one of the pumps. Interleaving during programming can result in task steps being forgotten.
Chair: Brygg Ullmer, Louisiana State University, USA
In Dialogue: Methodological Insights on Doing HCI Research in Rwanda - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of research on memorialisation in post-genocide Rwanda, focussing on methodological challenges of working in a "transnational" context. Findings develop methodological insights with relevance to wider HCI audiences.
Abstract » This paper presents a case study of our recent empirical research on memorialisation in post-genocide Rwanda. It focuses on the pragmatic methodological challenges of working in a �transnational� and specifically Rwandan context. We first outline our qualitative empirical engagement with representatives from the Kigali Genocide Memorial (KGM) and neighbouring institutions. We then describe our application of Charles L. Briggs� analytic communication framework to our data. In appropriating this framework, we reflect critically on its efficacy in use, for addressing the practical working constraints of our case, and through our findings develop methodological insights with relevance to wider HCI audiences.
Claim Mobile: When to Fail a Technology - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Details the motivations and context for 'failing' Claim Mobile, a mobile application developed for a health-financing program in Uganda. Encourages long-term evaluation of HCI4D projects, and learning from failure.
Abstract » This paper looks back at the deployment of Claim Mobile, a smartphone-based data collection application developed for a non-governmental organization (NGO) in Southwest Uganda. This NGO subsidizes health facilities by paying for medical services on the basis of claims submitted after the patient consultation, targeting treatment of 99,000 clients between 2006-2011. I successfully tested Claim Mobile in Summer 2008, processing 35 claims over two weeks, and then discontinued it six months later, when it became apparent that integration and scale-up of the technology would be problematic for the NGO. In addition, many issues we hoped to address through technology had been addressed through program management changes instead. I find that a) the context motivating the technology changed over time, b) simpler solutions can be as effective as new technologies, and c) prioritizing the needs of the NGO required abandoning the deployment of Claim Mobile. Thus this paper presents the value of learning from failure in the process of designing for users in developing regions.
mClerk: Enabling Mobile Crowdsourcing in Developing Regions - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new platform for crowdsourcing graphical tasks via SMS messages and studies its deployment in semi-urban India. Demonstrates that paid crowdsourcing can be feasible and viral in developing regions.
Abstract » Global crowdsourcing platforms could offer new employment opportunit