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Namibian and American Cultural Orientations Toward Facebook - Works In Progress
Abstract » Nadkarni and Hofman’s [8] meta-review of literature on Facebook usage recommends examining differences in Facebook use between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. We discuss early findings of an exploratory study to compare use between participants in America, Namibia, and expatriate Namibians. From this, we identified five key areas of difference: 1) Motivations for joining Facebook; 2) Attitude toward Facebook connections; 3) Self presentation and photo sharing; 4) Communication about death, religion, and politics; 5) General privacy definitions. However, our findings showed no statistical difference in the Collectivism Scale [10] administered among the three groups, despite Namibia being considered a highly collectivistic county [12] and the US being a highly individualistic country [6].
A
 
Game User Research - Workshop
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, specifically discussing methodologies in Game User Research - an emerging field focused on studying player' gaming experience.
Abstract » Game User Research is an emerging field that ties together Human Computer Interaction, Game Development, and Experimental Psychology, specifically investigating the interaction between players and games. The community of Game User Research has been rapidly evolving for the past few years, extending and modifying existing methodologies used by the HCI community to the environment of digital games. In this workshop, we plan to investigate the different methodologies currently in practice within the field as well as their utilities and drawbacks in measuring game design issues or gaining insight about the players' experience. The outcome of the workshop will be a collection of lessons from the trenches and commonly used techniques published in a public online forum. This will extend the discussion of topics beyond the workshop, and serve as a platform for future work. The workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, tying together HCI research and Game User Research.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
NUIs for New Worlds: New Interaction Forms and Interfaces for Mobile Applications in Developing Countries - Workshop
Abstract » Mobile phones constitute the most ubiquitous computing platform in the developing world, and for the past decade it has been focus of many research efforts within Human Computer Interaction for Development (HCI4D). HCI4D has matured through a series of previous HCI related conferences and workshops and a growing body of work have established it as subfield of its own[1][2][4][5][6].

We believe it is now time to focus on more specific topics within this subfield and this workshop is dedicated to one such topic; namely how the next wave of more sophisticated mobile handsets will enable new interaction forms and interfaces, and how this can be use to create more natural ways of interacting with mobile ICTs.

The aim of this workshop is to discuss the current (and near-future) technologies and create a research agenda for how we can design, implement and evaluate new and more natural interaction forms and interfaces for mobile devices. The ultimate goal is to lower the technical and literacy barriers and get relevant information, applications and services out to the next billion users.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Cooking Together: A Digital Ethnography - Works In Progress
Abstract » Cooking together is an important part of everyday life, a social event in which people enhance their relationships through shared stories and swapping ideas on food preparation. We present a new methodology for studying human interaction to inform the design of interactive systems. In our digital ethnography we study a selection of YouTube videos and use Kendon’s theory of F-formations to catalogue a set of spatial patterns created between cooks, kitchen spaces and cameras that influence the social aspects of cooking together. A new F-formation specific to this domain is identified and used to suggest design opportunities for a digitally enhanced kitchen space for sharing the social experience of “cooking together” for people living in different homes.
 
Using Mobile Phones to Support Sustainability: A Field Study of Residential Electricity Consumption - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We explore the use of a mobile system promoting electricity conservation in the home. Findings provide insight into peoples awareness of consumption and how this may be influenced through design.
Abstract » Recent focus on sustainability has made consumers more aware of our joint responsibility for conserving energy resources such as electricity. However, reducing electricity use can be difficult with only a meter and a monthly or annual electricity bill. With the emergence of new power meters units, information on electricity consumption is now available digitally and wirelessly. This enables the design and deployment of a new class of persuasive systems giving consumers insight into their use of energy resources and means for reducing it. In this paper, we explore the design and use of one such system, Power Advisor, promoting electricity conservation through tailored information on a mobile phone or tablet. The use of the system in 10 households was studied over 7 weeks. Findings provide insight into peoples awareness of electricity consumption in their home and how this may be influenced through design.
ACM
In session: Defying Environmental Behavior Changes - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
The Effect of Task Assignments and Instruction Types on Remote Asynchronous Usability Testing - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents a study of the effect of task assignments and instruction types on the number and variability of identified usability problems in a remote asynchronous usability test
Abstract » Remote asynchronous usability testing involves users directly in reporting usability problems. Most studies of this approach employ predefined tasks to ensure that users experience specific aspects of the system, whereas other studies use no task assignments. Yet the effect of using predefined tasks is still to be uncovered. There is also limited research on instructions for users in identifying usability problems. This paper reports from a comparative study of the effect of task assignments and instruction types on the problems identified in remote asynchronous usability testing of a website for information retrieval, involving 53 prospective users. The results show that users solving predefined tasks identified significantly more usability problems with a significantly higher level of agreement than those working on their own authentic tasks. Moreover, users that were instructed by means of examples of usability problems identified significantly more usability problems than those who received a conceptual definition of usability problems.
ACM
In session: Usability Methods - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
AHNE : A Novel Interface for Spatial Interaction - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: AHNE is a novel interface for spatial interaction that allows the user to locate and manipulate virtual sound objects with natural gestures in a real environment.
Abstract » In this paper we describe AHNE (Audio-Haptic Navigation Environment). It is a three-dimensional user interface (3D UI) for manipulating virtual sound objects with natural gestures in a real environment. AHNE uses real-time motion tracking and custom-made glove controllers as input devices, and auditory and haptic feedback as the output. We present the underlying system and a possible use for the interface as a musical controller.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Theories behind UX Research and How They Are Used in Practice - Workshop
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A major contribution of the workshop will be to clarify the applicability and transferability of different theories, theoretical concepts in informing UX design and evaluation in both research and practice.
Abstract » At CHI2011 we organized a SIG session asking the question "What theoretical roots do we build on, if any, in UX research?" Overall, 122 single items from about 70 participants were collected, which corroborates the relevance of and interest in this topic. Whilst the theoretical foundations for UX research are not yet established, those responses can serve as candidate resources for setting the theoretical directions. A primary conclusion from the SIG discussion is that the CHI community needs theories in UX research and practice. A major contribution of the workshop will be to clarify the applicability and transferability of different theories, theoretical foundations, concepts in informing UX design and evaluation in both research and practice. In particular we will look into theories that have already been applied in practice.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
In Search of Theoretical Foundations for UX Research and Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we point out the relevance of and the need for a theoretical discussion around UX research and practice. Although there is a good coverage of methodological and design related topics in the HCI literature, there is still a lack of theoretical focus in the rapidly increasing work on user experience (UX). We analyzed 122 individual items on theories collected in a CHI’11 special interest group session on UX theories and theoretical frameworks. The data set was filtered and categorized in several iterations, resulting in 56 items distributed over 7 major theory categories and related to 9 relevant disciplines. The categories are an initial mapping of the field and point towards the directions for further conceptual and theoretical clarification. Our results help to explore the multi-disciplinary nature of UX and to build a more solid foundation for UX research and practice.
 
Course 19: User Experience Evaluation Methods: Which Method to Choose? - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Helps to select the right user experience evaluation methods for different purposes. A collection of methods that investigate how people feel about the system under study is provided at www.allaboutux.org.
Abstract » High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of products in mature consumer markets. Improving UX during product development and research requires evaluation, but traditional usability testing methods are not adequate for evaluating UX. The evaluation methods for investigating how users feel about the tested system are still less known in the HCI community.

Since 2008, the instructors have been collecting a comprehensive set of 80 UX evaluation methods both from academia and industry, which is now available at www.allaboutux.org/all-methods.

This course will cover the following topics:
- the general targets of UX evaluation
- the various kinds of UX evaluation methods available for different purposes (an overview)
- how to choose the right method for the purpose
- the basics of a sample of UX methods of different types
- guidance on where to find more information on those methods

By the end of this course, you will be able to choose suitable methods for your specific user experience evaluation cases.

Our target audience consists of researchers and practitioners who want to get acquainted with user experience evaluation methods. The participants should have basic understanding of the user-centered design process, and preferably experience on usability studies.
 
Video as memorabilia: User needs for collaborative automatic mobile video production - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines for designers of collaborative video production tools based on a field study of automatic remixing of audience captured video. Can assist in considering memorabilia, control and acknowledgement issues.
Abstract » Digital memorabilia, such as video remixes, can increase the value of attending music events. Remixes can be made using video clips recorded by attendees during the event; however, producing them is a laborious task. In this paper we study the prospects of an automatic video remixing and present the results of a study on users' perceptions and attitudes towards collaborative automatic mobile video production. The three findings are as follows: People assess automatic video remix memorabilia as fairly equal to amateur-made manual ones, even if the manually-created video remixes are better in overall quality; as a remixing actor, a computer can be perceived to be more trustworthy than a human remixer; and, the quality of the video remix and the publication forum of the remix outcome plays a significant role when people are deciding whether or not they need public acknowledgement for their contribution. We conclude by discussing the design implications for collaborative automatic mobile video production.
ACM
In session: Tools for Video + Images - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Shape-Changing Interfaces: A Review of the Design Space and Open Research Questions - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reviews work on physical interfaces that use shape change as input or output, so-called shape-changing interfaces. Provide an overview of the design space of such interfaces and identify open research questions.
Abstract » Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important.
ACM
In session: Hot Moves: Shape-changing and Thermal Interfaces - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
"I had a dream and I built it" Power and self-staging in ubiquitous high-end homes - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing motivations for affluent people to live in smart home environments. In particular we describe how people use technologies for staging themselves and for exposing their power.
Abstract » Research on smart homes and ubiquitous homes is often highly focused on the challenges and obstacles for establishing and living in smart homes. Few have studied peoples’ motivations for establishing smart homes as well as the real life experiences living in such homes. We have had the chance to study 27 homes of very wealthy people around the world, living in homes containing the smartness and intelligence money can buy today. We report on the passions and experiences motivating people to live in smart environments. In particular we describe how people use technologies for staging themselves and for exposing their power.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - Special Events
Contribution & Benefit: In this Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss how to improve and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation.
Abstract » The CHI community is vibrant, growing, and interdisciplinary, and peer review is at the heart of what it means to be a community of researchers. In this Special Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss the question of how to grow and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation. Our community has seen a wide variety of explorations of the best way to change and improve our practices: alt.chi’s open reviewing, CSCW’s revise & resubmit process and UIST’s removal of page limits are all ways to address the changing nature of this research. This Town Hall will provide an opportunity to discuss and address this ongoing question.
In session: Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
"It's in Love with You" - Communicating Status and Preference with Simple Product Movements - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: A study where users perceive a product with adaptive movements as expressing agency and it becomes part of their social context. Can assist design and understanding of automated product interaction.
Abstract » In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, interact with a TV designed to move in way that communicates the agency related attributes social status or likeability. Results show that the TV movements are perceived differently when one versus two users are present. While most single users evaluate the TV positively, most users in pairs find the differential treatment problematic.
In session: alt.chi: Physical Love - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Interaction Proxemics and Image Use in Neurosurgery - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Articulates the spatial organization of collaborative work practices in neurosurgery theatres by drawing on interaction proxemics and F-formations. Discusses opportunities and difficulties relating to touchless interaction in surgical settings.
Abstract » Within medical settings there is a growing interest in exploring touchless interaction technologies. The primary motivation here is to avoid contact during interaction with data so as to maintain asepsis. However, there is another important property of touchless interaction that has significant implications for their use within such settings � namely that interaction behaviour is spatially distal from the device being interacted with. To further understand these implications we present fieldwork observations of work practice in neurosurgery theatres. Drawing on the notion of interaction proxemics and the theory of F-formations, our analysis articulates the spatial organization of collaborative work practices and interaction in these settings. From this understanding of spatial practices, we discuss opportunities and difficulties relating to the design of touchless interaction technologies for in surgical settings.
ACM
In session: Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients First - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Playful Arm Hand Training after Stroke - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents the design of an interactive system designed to support arm-hand rehabilitation of stroke survivors through gaming. It consists in an interactive tabletop game and wearable sensing technology that provides feedback to patients to assist with the correct execution of movements. We present the motivation for this design, the main choices made during the design process, an initial evaluation, and an outline of ongoing work for developing this system further.
 
CrowdCamp: Rapidly Iterating Ideas Related to Collective Intelligence & Crowdsourcing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Hands-on workshop for the development of ideas, designs, and prototypes related to collective intelligence and crowdsourcing. Will enable diverse disciplines to rapidly test new ideas.
Abstract » The field of collective intelligence -- encompassing aspects of crowdsourcing, human computation, and social computing -- is having tremendous impact on our lives, and the fields are rapidly growing. We propose a hands-on event that takes the main benefits of a workshop -- provocative discussion and community building -- and allows time to focus on developing ideas into actual outputs: experiment designs, in-depth thoughts on wicked problems, paper or coded prototypes. We will bring together researchers to discuss future visions and make tangible headway on those visions, as well as seeding collaboration. The outputs from brainstorming, discussion, and building will persist after the workshop for attendees and the community to view, and will be written up.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Discovery-based Games for Learning Software - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a discovery-based learning game that teaches people how to use complex software such as Adobe Photoshop using the Jigsaw metaphor. Can scaffold and motivate learning new tools and techniques.
Abstract » We propose using discovery-based learning games to teach people how to use complex software. Specifically, we developed Jigsaw, a learning game that asks players to solve virtual jigsaw puzzles using tools in Adobe Photoshop. We conducted an eleven-person lab study of the prototype, and found the game to be an effective learning medium that can complement demonstration-based tutorials. Not only did the participants learn about new tools and techniques while actively solving the puzzles in Jigsaw, but they also recalled techniques that they had learned previously but had forgotten.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Codelets: Linking Interactive Documentation and Example Code in the Editor - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Presents Codelets, which link interactive documentation with example code in code editors. Codelets allow third parties to write rich in-editor documentation.
Abstract » Programmers frequently use instructive code examples found on the Web to overcome cognitive barriers while programming. These examples couple the concrete functionality of code with rich contextual information about how the code works. However, using these examples necessitates understanding, configuring, and integrating the code, all of which typically take place after the example enters the user's code and has been removed from its original instructive context. In short, a user's interaction with an example continues well after the code is pasted. This paper investigates whether treating examples as "first-class" objects in the code editor - rather than simply as strings of text - will allow programmers to use examples more effectively. We explore this through the creation and evaluation of Codelets. A Codelet is presented inline with the user's code, and consists of a block of example code and an interactive helper widget that assists the user in understanding and integrating the example. The Codelet persists throughout the example's lifecycle, remaining accessible even after configuration and integration is done. A comparative laboratory study with 20 participants found that programmers were able to complete tasks involving examples an average of 43% faster when using Codelets than when using a standard Web browser.
ACM
In session: Programming and Debugging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
A Print Magazine on Any Screen: The Wired App Story - Short Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Reports on the design process behind the the digital reading experience developed by Adobe Systems for Wired Magazine.
Abstract » Magazines are a cultural artifact. In the USA alone, there are 189 million individuals who read magazines, and 88% of adults between 18-34 are active magazine readers. Through the portrail of their editors' views, magazines provide a lens into what society is thinking. These views are expressed not only through the words of articles but also through the careful design and layout of each issue. So what would it mean to take this important physical media into the digital world? This case study reports on the design process behind the the digital reading experience developed by Adobe Systems for Wired Magazine.
In session: Beyond Paper - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
MixT: Automatic Generation of Step-by-Step Mixed Media Tutorials - Works In Progress
Abstract » As software interfaces become more complicated, users rely on tutorials to learn, creating an increasing demand for effective tutorials. Existing tutorials, however, are limited in their presentation: Static step-by-step tutorials are easy to scan but hard to create and don't always give all of the necessary information for how to accomplish a step. In contrast, video tutorials provide very detailed information and are easy to create, but they are hard to scan as the video-player timeline does not give an overview of the entire task. We present MixT, which automatically generates mixed media tutorials that combine the strengths of these tutorial types. MixT tutorials include step-by-step text descriptions and images that are easy to scan and short videos for each step that provide additional context and detail as needed. We ground our design in a formative study that shows that mixed-media tutorials outperform both static and video tutorials.
 
SIG: End-User Programming - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
Abstract » As users continue to grow in number and diversity, end-user programming is playing an increasingly central role in shaping software to meet the broad, varied, rapidly changing needs of the world. Numerous companies have therefore begun to sell tools enabling end users to create programs. In parallel, ongoing academic research is aimed at helping end-user programmers create and adapt new kinds of programs in new ways. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
In session: SIG: End-User Programming - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Focusing Our Vision - The Process of Redesigning Adobe Acrobat - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a design process of redesigning a legacy software with millions of users. Provides an insight into how user interface design and user testing are executed in the real world.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the rationale, strategy, and approach of redesigning Adobe Acrobat and Reader from 2008 to 2010. User research techniques, methodologies, and a series of lessons learned during the two-and-a-half-year development cycle are also summarized.
In session: Beyond Paper - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Tabletops in Motion: The Kinetics and Kinematics of Interactive Surface Physical Therapy - Works In Progress
Abstract » Technology-based rehabilitation methods have shown promise for improving physical therapy programs, but much of the research is lacking quantitative analysis. We present a study conducted with healthy participants where we compared traditional “table-based” therapy methods with new technology-based methods. Using motion analysis and electromyography recordings, we assessed the kinetic and kinematic dimensions of participant motion during four activities. While technology-based methods are more enjoyable, our results indicate that it is the design of an activity that has a significant impact on the movements performed.
 
How Does Telenoid Affect the Communication between Children in Classroom Setting? - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the qualitative findings of a field study that revealed the effects of a tele-operated humanoid robot on facilitating schoolchildren’s cooperation. Can assist in designing effective tele-communication tools in education.
Abstract » It needs to be investigated how humanoid robots may affect people in the real world when they are employed to express the presence, a feel of being there, in tele-communication. We brought Telenoid, a tele-operated humanoid robot, into a classroom at an elementary school to see how schoolchildren respond to it. Our study is exploratory and we focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between schoolchildren. We found that Telenoid affected the way children work as group. They participated in the group work more positively, became more spontaneous, and differentiated their roles. We observed that Telenoid's limited capability led them to change their attitudes so that they could work together. The result suggests that the limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants in classroom setting.
In session: Interacting With Robots & Agents - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Active Office: Towards an Activity-Promoting Office Workplace Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have become one of the most common chronic diseases of modern society. In this paper, we address the problem of physical inactivity in the context of office work and we introduce a new concept of working “in-motion” with high potential to reduce prolonged sedentary behavior and related degenerative phenomena. We promote a paradigm shift in workplace design towards an integrated supportive environment that provides opportunities for office workers to seamlessly change between different work environments. Based on that, we discuss associated opportunities and challenges for HCI design to encourage people for the adoption of a physically active work process in a more natural way.
 
Designing a Debugging Interaction Language for Cognitive Modelers: An Initial Case Study in Natural Programming Plus - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates how a debugging environment should support cognitive modelers. Suggests design implications as well as validation opportunities for interactive programming tools and languages.
Abstract » In this paper, we investigate how a debugging environment should support a population doing work at the core of HCI research: cognitive modelers. In conducting this investigation, we extended the Natural Programming methodology (a user-centered design method for HCI researchers of programming environments), to add an explicit method for mapping the outcomes of NP's empirical investigations to a language design. This provided us with a concrete way to make the design leap from empirical assessment of users' needs to a language. The contributions of our work are therefore: (1) empirical evidence about the content and sequence of cognitive modelers' information needs when debugging, (2) a new, empirically derived, design specification for a debugging interaction language for cognitive modelers, and (3) an initial case study of our "Natural Programming Plus" methodology.
ACM
In session: Programming, Performance, and Sense Making - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Balancing Exertion Experiences - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines from "Jogging over a Distance", a mobile system used by jogging partners with different fitness levels between Europe and Australia. Aids designers of exertion games and sports apps.
Abstract » Exercising with others, such as jogging in pairs, can be socially engaging. However, if exercise partners have different fitness levels then the activity can be too strenuous for one and not challenging enough for the other, compromising engagement and health benefits. Our system, Jogging over a Distance, uses heart rate data and spatialized sound to create an equitable, balanced experience between joggers of different fitness levels who are geographically distributed. We extend this prior work by analyzing the experience of 32 joggers to detail how specific design features facilitated, and hindered, an engaging and balanced exertion experience. With this knowledge, we derive four dimensions that describe a design space for balancing exertion experiences: Measurement, Adjustment, Presentation and Control. We also present six design tactics for creating balanced exertion experiences described by these dimensions. By aiding designers in supporting participants of different physical abilities, we hope to increase participation and engagement with physical activity and facilitate the many benefits it brings about.
ACM
In session: Movement-Based Gameplay - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Findings of e-ESAS: A Mobile Based Symptom Monitoring System for Breast Cancer Patients in Rural Bangladesh - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS - the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system developed for rural BC patients.
Abstract » Breast cancer (BC) patients need traditional treatment as well as long term monitoring through an adaptive feedback-oriented treatment mechanism. Here, we present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS � the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system (RSMS) developed for rural BC patients where patients are the prime users rather than just the source of data collection at some point of time. We have also shown how �motivation� and �automation� have been integrated in e-ESAS and creating a unique motivation-persuasion-motivation cycle where the motivated patients become proactive change agents by persuading others. Though in its early deployment stages (2 months), e-ESAS demonstrates the potential to positively impact the cancer care by (1) helping the doctors with graphical charts of long symptom history (automation), (2) facilitating timely interventions through alert generation (automation) and (3) improving three way communications (doctor-patient-attendant) for a better decision making process (motivation) and thereby improving the quality of life of BC patients.
ACM
In session: Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients First - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Collaboration in Cognitive Tutor Use in Latin America: Field Study and Design Recommendations - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes observations from a field study of children in three developing regions using adaptive educational technology. Presents guidelines for future development of technology that accounts for a collaborative use context.
Abstract » Technology has the promise to transform educational prac-tices worldwide. In particular, cognitive tutoring systems are an example of educational technology that has been ex-tremely effective at improving mathematics learning over traditional classroom instruction. However, studies on the effectiveness of tutor software have been conducted mainly in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, and little is known about how these systems might be used in other contexts with differing classroom practices and values. To understand this question, we studied the usage of mathematics tutoring software for middle school at sites in three Latin American countries: Brazil, Mexico, and Costa Rica. While cognitive tutors were designed for individual use, we found that students in these classrooms worked collaboratively, engaging in interdependently paced work and conducting work away from their own computer. In this paper we present design recommendations for how cognitive tutors might be incorporated into different classroom practices, and better adapted for student needs in these environments.
ACM
In session: Promoting Educational Opportunity - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Course 30: Multimodal Detection of Affective States: A Roadmap from Brain-Computer Interfaces, Face-Based Emotion Recognition, Eye Tracking and Other Sensors - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course presents devices and explores methodologies for multimodal detection of affective states, as well as a discussion about presenter’s experiences using them both in learning and gaming scenarios.
Abstract » One novel part of the design of interactions between people and computers, related with the facet of securing user satisfaction, is the capability of systems to adapt to their individual users showing empathy. Being empathetic implies that the computer is able to recognize user’s affective states and understand the implication of those states. Automatic detection of affective states requires the computer: to sense information; to process and understand information integrating several sources that could range from brain-waves signals and biofeedback readings, passing from gestures recognition, to posture and pressure sensing; and to apply algorithms and data processing tools to understand user’s affective states.

Through this course, attendees will:

a) Learn about sensing approaches used to detect affective states: brain-computer interfaces, face-based emotion recognition systems, eye-tracking system, and physiological sensors –including skin conductivity, posture, and pressure sensors—.

b) Understand the pros and cons of the diverse sensing approaches used to detect affective states.

c) Learn about the data that is gathered from each device and understand its characteristics.

d) Learn about approaches and tools to pre-process, synchronize, and analyze data.

This course is open to researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in incorporating affective computing as part of their adaptive and personalized technology toolbox.

The presentation will be a mix of enthusiastic instruction with demonstrations and exercises, all aimed to help making the topic concrete, memorable, and actionable.
 
Wind Runners: Designing a Game to Encourage Medical Adherence for Children with Asthma - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we present Wind Runners, which is a game designed for children with asthma. The goal of Wind Runners is to increase the likelihood of asthmatic children adhering to the NIH’s recommendation of measuring their peak expiratory flow (PEF) on a daily basis. We aim to accomplish this by incorporating both social gaming features and the actual medical regimen of measuring PEF into a mobile game.
 
Visual Planner: Beyond Prerequisites, Designing an Interactive Course Planner for a 21st Century Flexible Curriculum - Works In Progress
Abstract » In the 21st century knowledge economy there is a growing need for the types of creative thinkers who can bridge the engineering mindset with the creative mindset, combining multiple types of skills. New economies will need workers who have "diagonal" skill sets, who can develop systems and content as an integrative process. This requires a new type of training and curriculum. In the newly formed "Digital Culture" undergraduate program at ASU, we attempt to support new types curricula by structuring differently the way students move through courses. With a constantly shifting and changing curriculum, structuring course enrollment using class “prerequisites” leads to fixed and rigid pathways through the curriculum. Instead, Digital Culture structures course sequences based on the students accumulation of abstract "Proficiencies" which are collected by students as they complete courses, and which act as keys to unlock access to higher level course. As a student accumulates more and more of these proficiencies, they are increasingly able to unlock new courses. This system leads to more flexible and adaptive pathways through courses while ensuring that students are prepared for entrance into more advanced classes. It is however more complicated and requires that students strategically plan their route through the curriculum. In order to support this kind of strategic planning we have designed and deployed a course planning system where students can simulate various possible paths through the curriculum. In this paper, we show our design process in coming up with our "Digital Culture Visual Planner". This design process starts with a network analysis of how all the Digital Culture courses are interrelated by, visualizing the relationships between “proficiencies” and courses. A number of possible design directions result from this analysis. Finally we select a single design and refine it to be understandable, useful and usable by new undergraduate Digital Culture majors.
 
Using Need Validation to Design an Intelligent Tangible Learning Environment - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tangible learning environments may be improved if combined with another successful educational technology, intelligent tutoring systems. However, design principles for tangible environments and intelligent support are often at odds. To reconcile these differences, we employ a need validation methodology to understand student needs in an intelligent tangible learning environment. We found that students seek activities that provide them with feelings of discovery, inter-group competition, and an appropriate level of challenge. In addition, students value physical movement, interactivity, and perceived relevance to their learning objectives. We discuss design implications of these findings for combining the benefits of tangible learning and intelligent support systems.
 
Visual Planner: Beyond Prerequisites, Designing an Interactive Course Planner for a 21st Century Flexible Curriculum - Works In Progress
Abstract » In the 21st century knowledge economy there is a growing need for the types of creative thinkers who can bridge the engineering mindset with the creative mindset, combining multiple types of skills. New economies will need workers who have "diagonal" skill sets, who can develop systems and content as an integrative process. This requires a new type of training and curriculum. In the newly formed "Digital Culture" undergraduate program at ASU, we attempt to support new types curricula by structuring differently the way students move through courses. With a constantly shifting and changing curriculum, structuring course enrollment using class “prerequisites” leads to fixed and rigid pathways through the curriculum. Instead, Digital Culture structures course sequences based on the students accumulation of abstract "Proficiencies" which are collected by students as they complete courses, and which act as keys to unlock access to higher level course. As a student accumulates more and more of these proficiencies, they are increasingly able to unlock new courses. This system leads to more flexible and adaptive pathways through courses while ensuring that students are prepared for entrance into more advanced classes. It is however more complicated and requires that students strategically plan their route through the curriculum. In order to support this kind of strategic planning we have designed and deployed a course planning system where students can simulate various possible paths through the curriculum. In this paper, we show our design process in coming up with our "Digital Culture Visual Planner". This design process starts with a network analysis of how all the Digital Culture courses are interrelated by, visualizing the relationships between “proficiencies” and courses. A number of possible design directions result from this analysis. Finally we select a single design and refine it to be understandable, useful and usable by new undergraduate Digital Culture majors.
 
TEROOS: A Wearable Avatar to Enhance Joint Activities - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The note describes what communication style a wearable robot avatar offers to daily life situations. Two users can communicate by sharing their vision via the robot avatar.
Abstract » This paper proposes a wearable avatar named TEROOS, which
is mounted on a person's shoulder. TEROOS allows the users
who wear it and control it to share a vision remotely. Moreover,
the avatar has an anthropomorphic face that enables the
user who controls it to communicate with people co-located
with the user who wears it. We have a field test by using
TEROOS and observed that the wearable avatar innovatively
assisted the users to communicate during their joint activities
such as route navigating and buying goods at a shop. The user
controlling TEROOS could give the user wearing it appropriate
route instructions on the basis of the situation around
TEROOS. In addition, both users could easily identify objects
that they discussed. Moreover, shop staff members communicated
with the user controlling TEROOS and behaved as
they normally would when the user asked questions about the
goods.
ACM
In session: Social Support and Collaboration - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
TEROOS: A Wearable Avatar to Enhance Joint Activities (Video Preview) - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The video shows what communication style a wearable robot avatar offers to daily life situations. Two users can communicate by sharing their vision via the robot avatar.
Abstract » This video shows a wearable avatar named TEROOS, which is mounted on the shoulder of a person. TEROOS allows the users who wear it and control it to remotely share a vision. Moreover, the avatar has an anthropomorphic face that enables the user who controls it to communicate with people that are physically around the user who wears it. We have conducted a eld test by using TEROOS and observed that the wearable avatar innovatively assisted the users to communicate during their joint activities such as route navigating, and buying goods at a shop. In addition, both users could easily identify objects that they discussed. Moreover, shop's staf s members communicated with the user controlling TEROOS and they exhibited a typical social behavior.
ACM
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
TEROOS: A Wearable Avatar to Enhance Joint Activities - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: The note describes what communication style a wearable robot avatar offers to daily life situations. Two users can communicate by sharing their vision via the robot avatar.
Abstract » This paper proposes a wearable avatar named TEROOS, which is mounted on a person's shoulder. TEROOS allows the users who wear it and control it to share a vision remotely. Moreover, the avatar has an anthropomorphic face that enables the user who controls it to communicate with people co-located with the user who wears it. We have a field test by using TEROOS and observed that the wearable avatar innovatively assisted the users to communicate during their joint activities such as route navigating and buying goods at a shop. The user controlling TEROOS could give the user wearing it appropriate route instructions on the basis of the situation around TEROOS. In addition, both users could easily identify objects that they discussed. Moreover, shop staff members communicated with the user controlling TEROOS and behaved as they normally would when the user asked questions about the goods.
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Multiple Visualizations and Debugging: How do we co-ordinate these? - Works In Progress
Abstract » There are many popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE) that provide multiple visualizations and other sophisticated functionalities to facilitate program comprehension and debugging. To better understand the effectiveness and role of multiple visualizations, we conducted a preliminary study of java program debugging with a professional, multi-representation IDE. We found that program code and dynamic representations (dynamic viewer, variable watch and output) attracted the most attention of programmers. Static representations like Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams and Control Structure Diagrams (CSD) saw significantly lesser usage. Interesting eye gaze patterns of programmers were also revealed by the study.
 
Incorporating UCD Into the Software Development Lifecycle: a Case Study - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing the application of user centered design (UCD) for a project using multiple enterprise technologies. Identifies opportunities for successfully integrating UCD into the software development process.
Abstract » This case study addresses how we applied user centered design (UCD) to the software development lifecycle for the new City of Austin Utilities Online Customer Care website. The case study focuses on the use of personas, prototypes, and user testing, discusses what worked well, and provides lessons learned.
In session: Personas and Design - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Becoming-Sound: Affect and Assemblage in Improvisational Digital Music Making - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Affect and assemblage can help us understand the interaction between users and artefacts in interactive systems. This paper provides some theoretical background and shows its application in understanding collaborative creativity.
Abstract » The concepts of affect and assemblage proposed by thinkers such as
Gilles Deleuze and Brian Massumi can help us to understand the
interaction between users and artefacts in interactive systems,
particularly in the context of computer-supported improvisation and
creativity. In this paper I provide an introduction to affect and
assemblage theory for HCI practitioners. I then use a case study of
Viscotheque, an iOS-based interface for group musical collaboration,
to demonstrate the application of affective analysis in making sense
of improvisational group music making.
ACM
In session: Music - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Course 23: Agile UX Toolkit - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Skills and tactics for experienced UX practitioners and managers to successfully adapt user-centered design practices to integrate into an agile team.
Abstract » As more organizations adopt agile development practices, UX practitioners want to ensure that the resulting products are still designed with users in mind, using data elicited from observed user behaviour. This course teaches basic, proven methods to adapt and integrate user-centered design practices into agile teams.

The course is for experienced UX practitioners and managers who work on agile teams, or who will be transitioning to agile. Although prior experience with agile methods is not needed, there will be only a brief background description of agile methodology, so prior knowledge of these methods would be an asset. The course does not focus on a particular agile methodology.

We will teach agile adaptations to the timing, granularity, and communication of user centred design methods, with a particular focus on methods to interactively elicit observed user behavior (such as contextual inquiry, and formative usability testing and rapid prototyping).

Participants in this tutorial will learn:

• advantages of a healthy agile UX practice over waterfall UX

• skills and attitudes to hone to do user-centred design on an agile team

• how to collaborate with other agile team members

• parallel-track/”staggered sprint” timing of agile UX activities

• how to break both UX work and design implementation into iteration-sized chunks

• tactics for incorporating user research into agile projects

• how to communicate effectively with agile teams

• some suggestions for improving non-co-located agile teamwork
In session: Course 23: Agile UX Toolkit - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
123D Sculpt: Designing a Mobile 3D Modeling Application for Novice Users - Short Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing design and development of a touch-driven, 3D modeling application for a mobile device. Can assist designers in tailoring the user experience to accomodate novice and expert users.
Abstract » In this case study, we describe the design approach taken in creating 123D Sculpt, a digital sculpting and painting application for the Apple iPad. This paper will focus on tailoring the user experience toward casual users, introducing 3D (three-dimensional) manipulation tools and concepts through the use of metaphors.
In session: Me & My Mobile - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
123D Sculpt: Designing a Mobile 3D Modeling Application for Novice Users - Short Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing design and development of a touch-driven, 3D modeling application for a mobile device. Can assist designers in tailoring the user experience to accomodate novice and expert users.
Abstract » In this case study, we describe the design approach taken in creating 123D Sculpt, a digital sculpting and painting application for the Apple iPad. This paper will focus on tailoring the user experience toward casual users, introducing 3D (three-dimensional) manipulation tools and concepts through the use of metaphors.
In session: Me & My Mobile - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
WebTicket: Account Management Using Printable Tokens - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes development and evaluations of WebTicket that manages web accounts using paper-based or mobile-phone-based tickets. Demonstrates that WebTicket provides reliable and phishing-resilient user authentication.
Abstract » Passwords are the most common authentication scheme today. However, it is difficult for people to memorize strong passwords, such as random sequences of characters. Additionally, passwords do not provide protection against phishing attacks. This paper introduces WebTicket, a low cost, easy-to-use and reliable web account management system that uses "tickets", which are tokens that contain a two-dimensional barcode that can be printed or stored on smartphones. Users can log into accounts by presenting the barcodes to webcams connected to computers. Through two lab studies and one field study consisting of 59 participants in total, we found that WebTicket can provide reliable authentication and phishing resilience.
ACM
In session: I Am How I Touch: Authenticating Users - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Citeology: Visualizing Paper Genealogy - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Presents Citeology, a interactive system to explore the relationships between papers through their use of citations. The full CHI and UIST paper database is used as an example corpus.
Abstract » Citeology is an interactive visualization that looks at the relationships between research publications through their use of citations. The sample corpus uses all 3,502 papers published at ACM CHI and UIST between 1982 and 2010, and the 11,699 citations between them. A connection is drawn between each paper and all papers which it referenced from the collection. For an individual paper, the resulting visualization represents a “family tree” of sorts, showing multiple generations of referenced papers which the target paper built upon, and all descendant generations of future papers.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Implanted User Interfaces - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the effect of skin on traditional components for sensing input, providing output, and for communicating, synchronizing and charging wirelessly.
Abstract » We investigate implanted user interfaces that small devices provide when implanted underneath human skin. Such devices always stay with the user, making their implanted user interfaces available at all times. We discuss four core challenges of implanted user interfaces: how to sense input through the skin, how to produce output, how to communicate amongst one another and with external infrastructure, and how to remain powered. We investigate these four challenges in a technical evaluation where we surgically implant study devices into a specimen arm. We find that traditional interfaces do work through skin. We then demonstrate how to deploy a prototype device on participants, using artificial skin to simulate implantation. We close with a discussion of medical considerations of implanted user interfaces, risks and limitations, and project into the future.
ACM
In session: Brain and Body - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Triggering Triggers and Burying Barriers to Customizing Software - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes a methodology for empirically studying software customization and the impact of customization factors. Shows that increasing exposure and awareness of customization features, and adding social influence affects customization behavior.
Abstract » General-purpose software applications are usually not tailored for a specific user with specific tasks, strategies or preferences. In order to achieve optimal performance with such applications, users typically need to transition to an alternative efficient behavior. Often, features of such alternative behaviors are not initially accessible and first need to be customized. However, few research works formally study and empirically measure what drives a user to customize. In this paper, we describe the challenges involved in empirically studying customization behaviors, and propose a methodology for formally measuring the impact of potential customization factors. We then demonstrate this methodology by studying the impact of different customization factors on customization behaviors. Our results show that increasing exposure and awareness of customization features, and adding social influence can significantly affect the user's customization behavior.
ACM
In session: Programming and Debugging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Delta: A Tool For Representing and Comparing Workflows - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system that aids users in comparing workflows, specifically those used in image-editing tasks. Can assist designers in developing tools for comparing workflows in various domains.
Abstract » Tutorials and sample workflows for complicated, feature-rich software packages are widely available online. As a result users must differentiate between workflows to choose the most suitable one for their task. We present Delta, an interactive workflow visualization and comparison tool that helps users identify the tradeoffs between workflows. We conducted an initial study to identify the set of attributes users attend to when comparing workflows, finding that they consider result quality, their knowledge of commands, and the efficiency of the workflow. We then designed Delta to surface these attributes at three granularities: a high-level, clustered view; an intermediate-level list view that contains workflow summaries; and a low-level detail view that allows users to compare two individual workflows. Finally, we conducted an evaluation of Delta on a small corpus of 30 workflows and found that the intermediate list view provided the best information density. We conclude with thoughts on how such a workflow comparison system could be scaled up to larger corpora in the future.
ACM
In session: Visionary Models + Tools - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Swift: Reducing the Effects of Latency in Online Video Scrubbing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes two experiments to test the effects of latency on video navigation tasks and the Swift technique which is designed to mitigate these effects.
Abstract » We first conduct a study using abstracted video content to measure the effects of latency on video scrubbing performance and find that even very small amounts of latency can significantly degrade navigation performance. Based on these results, we present Swift, a technique that supports real-time scrubbing of online videos by overlaying a small, low resolution copy of the video during video scrubbing, and snapping back to the high resolution video when the scrubbing is completed or paused. A second study compares the Swift technique to traditional online video players on a collection of realistic live motion videos and content-specific search tasks which finds the Swift technique reducing completion times by as much as 72% even with a relatively low latency of 500ms. Lastly, we demonstrate that the Swift technique can be easily implemented using modern HTML5 web standards.
ACM
In session: Tools for Video + Images - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Design and Evaluation of a Command Recommendation System for Software Applications - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Explores the design space of modern recommender systems in complex software applications for aiding command awareness. Performs a 6-week real-time within-application field study in user’s actual working environments.
Abstract » We examine the use of modern recommender system technology to aid command awareness in complex software applications. We first describe our adaptation of traditional recommender system algorithms to meet the unique requirements presented by the domain of software commands. A user study showed that our item-based collaborative filtering algorithm generates 2.1 times as many good suggestions as existing techniques. Motivated by these positive results, we propose a design space framework and its associated algorithms to support both global and contextual recommendations. To evaluate the algorithms, we developed
the CommunityCommands plug-in for AutoCAD. This plug-in enabled us to perform a 6-week user study of real-time, within-application command recommendations in actual working environments. We report and visualize command usage behaviors during the study, and discuss how the recommendations affected users behaviors. In particular, we found that the plug-in successfully exposed users to new commands, as unique commands issued significantly increased.
In session: Check This Out: Recommender Systems - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Assessing the Vulnerability of Magnetic Gestural Authentication to Video-Based Shoulder Surfing Attacks - Note
Contribution & Benefit: The vulnerability of magnetic gestural authentication to video-based shoulder surfing attacks is assessed through a realistic scenario by videotaping the authentication interaction from four different angles and providing them to adversaries
Abstract » Secure user authentication on mobile phones is crucial, as they store highly sensitive information. Common approaches to authenticate a user on a mobile phone are based either on entering a PIN, a password, or drawing a pattern. However, these authentication methods are vulnerable to the shoulder surfing attack. The risk of this attack has increased since means for recording high-resolution videos are cheaply and widely accessible. If the attacker can videotape the authentication process, PINs, passwords, and patterns do not even provide the most basic level of security. In this project, we assessed the vulnerability of a magnetic gestural authentication method to the video-based shoulder surfing attack. We chose a scenario that is favourable to the attack-er. In a real world environment, we videotaped the interactions of four users performing magnetic signatures on a phone, in the presence of HD cameras from four different angles. We then recruited 22 participants and asked them to watch the videos and try to forge the signatures. The results revealed that with a certain threshold, i.e, th=1.67, none of the forging attacks was successful, whereas at this level all eligible login attempts were successfully recognized. The qualitative feedback also indicated that users found the magnetic gestural signature authentication method to be more secure than PIN-based and 2D signature methods.
ACM
In session: I Did That! Being in Control - May 9, 2012, 14:30
B
 
"I had a dream and I built it" Power and self-staging in ubiquitous high-end homes - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing motivations for affluent people to live in smart home environments. In particular we describe how people use technologies for staging themselves and for exposing their power.
Abstract » Research on smart homes and ubiquitous homes is often highly focused on the challenges and obstacles for establishing and living in smart homes. Few have studied peoples’ motivations for establishing smart homes as well as the real life experiences living in such homes. We have had the chance to study 27 homes of very wealthy people around the world, living in homes containing the smartness and intelligence money can buy today. We report on the passions and experiences motivating people to live in smart environments. In particular we describe how people use technologies for staging themselves and for exposing their power.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
"It's in Love with You" - Communicating Status and Preference with Simple Product Movements - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: A study where users perceive a product with adaptive movements as expressing agency and it becomes part of their social context. Can assist design and understanding of automated product interaction.
Abstract » In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, interact with a TV designed to move in way that communicates the agency related attributes social status or likeability. Results show that the TV movements are perceived differently when one versus two users are present. While most single users evaluate the TV positively, most users in pairs find the differential treatment problematic.
In session: alt.chi: Physical Love - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Problems of Data Mobility and Reuse in the Provision of Computer-based Training for Screening Mammography - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the problems encountered reusing clinical data to deliver training in breast cancer screening. Details how data curation processes and tools can be better designed to improve data reuse.
Abstract » This paper explores some of the problems encountered in using a data archive to build tools for training radiologists to interpret breast screening images. We detail our experiences of taking images and case notes created as part of the work of breast cancer screening and using them as resources for training. Four instances of the use of the archive in training are described in detail and the problems they reveal are discussed. We formulate some general lessons for the mobility and re-use of rich ensembles of data and artefacts drawn from complex professional settings. We argue for a richer representation of the context from which the data was taken than can be achieved through making selected relations explicit in metadata. We also conclude that facilities for correcting and elaborating data should be available at the point of use, and not separated out as distinct activities.
ACM
In session: Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients First - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
How Do We Find Personal Files?: The Effect of OS, Presentation & Depth on File Navigation - Note
Contribution & Benefit: A large scale study testing the effects of OS, interface presentation and folder depth on personal file navigation. Informs improved folder system design by increasing efficiency in finding files.
Abstract » Folder navigation is the main way that computer users retrieve their personal files. However we know surprisingly little about navigation, particularly about how it is affected by the operating system used, the interface presentation and the folder structure. To investigate this, we asked 289 participants to retrieve 1,109 of their own active files. We analyzed the 4,948 resulting retrieval steps, i.e. moves through the hierarchical folder tree. Results show: (a) significant differences in overall retrieval time between PC and Mac that arise from different organizational strategies rather than interface design; (b) the default Windows presentation is suboptimal � if changed, retrieval time could be reduced substantially and (c) contrary to our expectations, folder depth did not affect step duration. We discuss possible reasons for these results and suggest directions for future research.
ACM
In session: Usability and User Research - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
MEASURING MULTITASKING BEHAVIOR WITH ACTIVITY-BASED METRICS - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Proposed multitasking metrics to establish a conceptual foundation for future multitasking studies. Understanding the extent to which multitasking occurs can assist designers in improving applications that are used simultaneously.
Abstract » Multitasking is the result of time allocation decisions made by individuals faced with multiple tasks. Multitasking research is important in order to improve the design of systems and applications. Since people typically use computers to perform multiple tasks at the same time, insights into this type of behavior can help develop better systems and ideal types of computer environments for modern multitasking users. In this paper, we define multitasking based on the principles of task independence and performance concurrency and develop a set of metrics for computer-based multitasking. The theoretical foundation of this metric development effort stems from an application of key principles of Activity Theory and a systematic analysis of computer usage from the perspective of the user, the task and the technology. The proposed metrics, which range from a lean dichotomous variable to a richer measure based on switches, were validated with data from a sample of users who self-reported their activities during a computer usage session. This set of metrics can be used to establish a conceptual and methodological foundation for future multitasking studies.
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
The Effects of Positive and Negative Self-Interruptions in Discretionary Multitasking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Human multitasking is often the result of self-initiated interruptions in the performance of an ongoing task. Compared to externally induced interruptions, self-interruptions have not received enough research attention. To address this gap, this paper develops a detailed classification of self-interruptions rooted in positive and negative feelings of task progress based on responses subjects provided after completing a multitasking laboratory experiment. The results suggest that multitasking due to negative feelings is associated with more self-interruptions than those triggered by positive feelings and that more self-interruptions may produce lower accuracy in all tasks. Therefore, negative internal triggers of self-interruptions seem to unleash a downward spiral that ultimately affects performance.
 
StoryCrate: Tabletop Storyboarding for Live Film Production - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity.
Abstract » Creating film content for broadcast is a high pressure and complex activity involving multiple experts and highly specialized equipment. Production teams are under continuous pressure to produce ever more creative and groundbreaking content while reducing the budgets and human resources required. While technologies are being developed for digitizing and streamlining sections of the production workflow, a gap remains between creative decisions made on location, and those made during digital editing and post-production. We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface to be deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity. We define creativity in terms of team production, discuss our implementation and describe a deployment in which the prototype was used by a professional production team during a film shoot. Finally we describe a number of interesting interactions that were observed and consider the implications of our design decisions on the creative process of film making and the benefits of tangible, tabletop collaborative interactive displays in live film production.
ACM
In session: Touch in Context - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Game User Research - Workshop
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, specifically discussing methodologies in Game User Research - an emerging field focused on studying player' gaming experience.
Abstract » Game User Research is an emerging field that ties together Human Computer Interaction, Game Development, and Experimental Psychology, specifically investigating the interaction between players and games. The community of Game User Research has been rapidly evolving for the past few years, extending and modifying existing methodologies used by the HCI community to the environment of digital games. In this workshop, we plan to investigate the different methodologies currently in practice within the field as well as their utilities and drawbacks in measuring game design issues or gaining insight about the players' experience. The outcome of the workshop will be a collection of lessons from the trenches and commonly used techniques published in a public online forum. This will extend the discussion of topics beyond the workshop, and serve as a platform for future work. The workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, tying together HCI research and Game User Research.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Evaluating the Collaborative Critique Method - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce a new usability walkthrough method called Collaborative Critique, inspired by the human-computer collaboration paradigm of system-user interaction, and present the results of its evaluation with usability professionals.
Abstract » We introduce a new usability walkthrough method called Collaborative Critique (CC), which is inspired by the human-computer collaboration paradigm of system-user interaction. This method applies a ``collaboration lens" to assessing the system's behavior and its impact on the user's efforts in the context of the task being performed. We present findings from a laboratory evaluation of the CC method with usability practitioners, in which the results of the CC walkthrough were compared to a benchmark set of problems collected via user testing with two experimental Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system tasks. The development of this new usability evaluation method was driven by the need for an approach that assesses the adequacy of the system's support for reducing the user's cognitive and physical effort in the context of the interaction.
ACM
In session: Usability Methods - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
 
Herding Nerds on your Table: NerdHerder, a Mobile Augmented Reality Game - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a casual mobile game NerdHerder that involves motion-based puzzle solving. Augmented reality interfaces are integrated to support physical and spatial aspects of gameplay.
Abstract » In this paper, we introduce NerdHerder, a mobile game with an augmented reality interface. The game’s premise is that you are hired as an IT manager, and your job is to use “management skills” to get the nerd employees back to work in their cubicles. The core game mechanic relies on the physical position and movement of the handheld device in relation to the physical-digital game world. NerdHerder creatively integrates puzzle-solving and motion-based action with a mobile Augmented Reality interface. This paper introduces the system implementation, design process and design rationales of the game.
In session: Student Game Competition - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Turtledove: A Tangible Grain Interface for Image Organization - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interfaces supporting bi-manual interaction offer great benefits. In recent years, a variety of multi-touch systems have even shown new possibilities for multi-finger input. However, multi-finger interactions do not always show better performance. We propose an interface consisting of a large amount of minimal tangible objects called tangible grains combined with a visual projection. The system is intended to add passive physical feedback to increase performance and improve the quality of the interface. In this paper we present the concept, the implementation and first small-scale user studies of a tangible grain interface for the organization and, especially, the sorting and tagging of images.
 
Balancing Exertion Experiences - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines from "Jogging over a Distance", a mobile system used by jogging partners with different fitness levels between Europe and Australia. Aids designers of exertion games and sports apps.
Abstract » Exercising with others, such as jogging in pairs, can be socially engaging. However, if exercise partners have different fitness levels then the activity can be too strenuous for one and not challenging enough for the other, compromising engagement and health benefits. Our system, Jogging over a Distance, uses heart rate data and spatialized sound to create an equitable, balanced experience between joggers of different fitness levels who are geographically distributed. We extend this prior work by analyzing the experience of 32 joggers to detail how specific design features facilitated, and hindered, an engaging and balanced exertion experience. With this knowledge, we derive four dimensions that describe a design space for balancing exertion experiences: Measurement, Adjustment, Presentation and Control. We also present six design tactics for creating balanced exertion experiences described by these dimensions. By aiding designers in supporting participants of different physical abilities, we hope to increase participation and engagement with physical activity and facilitate the many benefits it brings about.
ACM
In session: Movement-Based Gameplay - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Digital Art: Evaluation, Appreciation, Critique (Invited SIG) - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: We examine the evaluation of Digital Art and how ideas on evaluation can be exchanged between the arts and HCI. We start by a critique of standard approaches to evaluation.
Abstract » This SIG examines the vexed question of evaluation of Digital Art and how lessons on evaluation can be exchanged between the arts and mainstream HCI. We start by looking at critiques of standard approaches to evaluation in HCI. We then look at approaches, which have been developed in Digital Art to merge qualitative and quantitative methods. These investigations set the agenda for the SIG with the aim of uncovering the audience’s knowledge and attempts at Digital Art evaluation, appreciation and critique. The chief outcome will be an exchange of experiences and proposals for ways forward for both the Digital Arts community and the broader CHI community.
 
“Act Natural”: Instructions, Compliance and Accountability in Ambulatory Experiences - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents an ethnographic study of instruction compliance in an ambulatory experience. Four levels of compliance are uncovered of broad relevance to instruction design.
Abstract » This paper uses a detailed ethnographic study of an ambulatory experience, where participants were invited to explore the perspective of two notorious terrorists, in order to discuss the nature of instruction-giving and, most particularly, the methodical ways in which such instructions are complied with. Four distinct layers of compliance are identified, as are three different kinds of accountability, all of which stand potentially at odds with one another. The paper examines the tensions created by this, tensions that are further aggravated by instructions usually being delivered down a thin channel, with considerable surrounding contextual complexity and little opportunity for repair, and uncovers some core challenges for future design in relation to providing instructions for, and orchestrating a range of possible activities.
ACM
In session: Performative Emergency Simulation - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Creating the Spectacle: Designing Interactional Trajectories Through Spectator Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Ethnographic study reveals how artists designed and participants experienced a tabletop interface, shedding light on the design of tabletop and tangible interfaces, spectator interfaces, and trajectories through display ecologies
Abstract » An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists created a spectator interface for the interactive game Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height and materials of two tabletop interfaces before carefully arranging them in a local setting. We also show how participants experienced this interface. We consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale notion of interactional trajectory that combined trajectories through individual displays, trajectories through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories through an entire experience. Our findings shed light on discussions within HCI concerning interaction with tangible and tabletop displays, spectator interfaces, ecologies of displays, and trajectories through cultural experiences.
In session: Spectators - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG meeting invites researchers and practitioners to get an insight in and to discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interfaces.
Abstract » With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays.

This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.
In session: Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Design of an Exergaming Station for Children with Cerebral Palsy - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design of an exergaming station for children with cerebral palsy. Results present the design challenges of the station and suggest several lessons for game designers.
Abstract » We report on the design of a novel station supporting the play of exercise video games (exergames) by children with cerebral palsy (CP). The station combines a physical platform allowing children with CP to provide pedaling input into a game, a standard Xbox 360 controller, and algorithms for interpreting the cycling input to improve smoothness and accuracy of gameplay. The station was designed through an iterative and incremental participatory design process involving medical professionals, game designers, computer scientists, kinesiologists, physical therapists, and eight children with CP. It has been tested through observation of its use, through gathering opinions from the children, and through small experimental studies. With our initial design, only three of eight children were capable of playing a cycling-based game; with the final design, seven of eight could cycle effectively, and six reached energy expenditure levels recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine while pedaling unassisted.
ACM
In session: Health and Children - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Educational Interfaces, Software, and Technology - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: We present a venue for the discussion of Educational Interfaces, Software, and Technologies.
Abstract » One of the primary goals of teaching is to prepare learners for life in the real world. In this ever changing world of technologies such as mobile interaction, cloud computing, natural user interfaces, and gestural interfaces like the Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect people have a greater selection of tools for the task at hand. Teachers and students can leverage these tools to improve learning outcomes. Educational interfaces and software are needed to ensure that new technologies serve a clear purpose in the classrooms and homes of the future.

Since teachers are always looking for creative ways to engage 21st century learners there needs to be an academic venue for researchers to discuss novel educational tools and their role in improving learning outcomes. This workshop aims at filling this void: combining the pedagogical expertise of the cooperative learning, and learning sciences communities with the technical creativity of the CHI, UIST and interactive surface communities. The objective of this workshop is to become a conference within two years.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Leveraging Motor Learning for a Tangible Password System - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) may allow users to have more direct interaction with systems when compared to traditional graphical user interfaces (GUIs). However, the full range of applications where TUIs can be utilized in practice is unclear. To resolve this problem, the benefits of TUIs must be analyzed and matched to an application domain where they hold advantages over more traditional systems. Since TUIs require users to use their hands in order to interact with the system, there is the possibility for these systems to leverage motor learning to help users perform specific tasks. In this paper we will describe an early attempt to understand how motor learning can be used to create a tangible password system. A novel tangible password system was created and a small study conducted in order to identify future research objectives.
 
Haptic Lotus - A Theatre Experience for Blind and Sighted Audiences - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Can technologies facilitate comparable cultural experiences for both blind and sighted audiences? The Haptic Lotus is a device that changes its form as people walk through a dark immersive installation.
Abstract » How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of ‘blindness’, through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience’s journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.

During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
XICE Windowing Toolkit: Seamless Display Annexation - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a vision for safer, flexible, ubiquitous nomadic computing. Demonstrates a resource-efficient approach to annexing screens in the environment. The next level of mobile computing.
Abstract » Users are increasingly nomadic, carrying computing power with them. To gain rich input and output, users could annex displays and input devices when available, but annexing via VGA cable is insufficient. This article introduces XICE, which uses wireless networks to connect portable devices to display servers. Network connections eliminate cables, allow multiple people to share a display, and ease input annexation. XICE mitigates potentially malicious input, and facilitates comfortable viewing on a variety of displays via view-independent coordinates. The XICE-distributed graphics model greatly reduces portable device CPU usage and extends portable device battery life.
 
Game Design for Promoting Counterfactual Thinking - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a formative typology of counterfactual design patterns that can help designers, educators, and players locate interesting fault lines in reality that facilitate the expansion of ARG mythologies.
Abstract » We describe the first iteration of an Alternate Reality Game (ARG) designed to lead players into a newly enfranchised relationship with history and engage them in scientific thinking and information literacy practices. We found that the points at which the game's mythology blurred the lines between fact and fiction prompted middle school students to move beyond rote memorization of content. Instead, they began to question, analyze, and make hypotheses about the data presented. However, striking a meaningful balance between "true" history and imagined events poses new design challenges. We present a formative typology of counterfactual design patterns that can help designers, educators, and players locate interesting fault lines in reality that facilitate the expansion of ARG mythologies.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Lifetime Achievement in Research Award: Dan Olsen, Creating the Digital Future: the Role of Interactive Systems - Special Events
Abstract » The creation of a new interactive platform is the creation of a medium for expression. It empowers others to create and deliver value in ways that once were too difficult, too inconvenient or too expensive. The introduction of a new interactive platform changes what is feasible and possible. As we consider research into future interactive systems, what are the lessons we can learn from past success. How will we invent the next medium for interactive expression?

BIO: Dan Olsen Jr. is a Professor of Computer Science at Brigham Young University and was the first director of the CMU Human-Computer Interaction Institute at CMU. He is one of the earliest and most influential researchers in the user interface software domain. His first contributions were in using formal language techniques (such as finite state machines and Backus-Naur Form) to specify the syntactic structure of a user interface. He has published three books on user interface software: “Building Interactive Systems: Principles for Human-Computer Interaction,” “Developing User Interfaces,” and “User Interface Management Systems: Models and Algorithms.” His 1988 MIKE system was an early and influential system for automatically generating a user interface from semantic specifications. Dan has continued to make important research contributions and novel systems in a wide variety of areas, from CSCW to Interactive Machine Learning, and developing Metrics and Principles for Human-Robot Interaction. Dan has also received CHI's Lifetime Service Award for his many years of service on behalf of the SIGCHI community. He was the founding editor of TOCHI, and played a key role in establishing the UIST conference and in making it one of the most successful SIGCHI conferences.
In session: Lifetime Achievement in Research Award: Dan Olsen - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Haptic Lotus - A Theatre Experience for Blind and Sighted Audiences - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Can technologies facilitate comparable cultural experiences for both blind and sighted audiences? The Haptic Lotus is a device that changes its form as people walk through a dark immersive installation.
Abstract » How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of ‘blindness’, through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience’s journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.

During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Haptic Lotus - A Theatre Experience for Blind and Sighted Audiences - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Can technologies facilitate comparable cultural experiences for both blind and sighted audiences? The Haptic Lotus is a device that changes its form as people walk through a dark immersive installation.
Abstract » How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of ‘blindness’, through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience’s journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.

During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Researching the User Experience for Connected TV - A Case Study - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study presenting a variety of projects that highlight UX challenges and opportunities around internet-connected television. Can inspire developers to exploit this emerging platform to create novel experiences.
Abstract » This paper presents a Case Study of the BBC’s recent research and development work into the user experience of Internet-Connected Television. User expectations and aspirations around their TV experiences are changing radically as the platform increasingly supplements broadcast network connectivity with IP connectivity. Despite the relative youth of the platform, it is clear that Connected TV and its users support and seek user experiences which are quite distinctive from web browsing on personal computers, or earlier forms of interactive TV platforms. We describe a number of the BBC’s recent research projects developing knowledge and tools to support future user experiences for TV, ranging from typography to alternative input interfaces. In each case, we describe the motivation, the development approach and the empirical assessment of impact of the technology and experiences embodied by our prototypes.
In session: Future Design - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Analysis Within and Between Graphs: Observed User Strategies in Immunobiology Visualization - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Focused task analysis of a real-world scientific visualization process in the immunology domain. Suggests a classification of strategies in this domain and how this classification can be used to guide design.
Abstract » We present an analysis of two user strategies in interactive data analysis, based on an observational study of four researchers in the immunology domain. Screen captures, video records, interviews, and verbal protocols are used to analyze common procedures in this type of visual data analysis, as well as how these procedures differ among these users. Our findings present a case where skilled users can approach a similar problem with diverging analysis strategies. In the group we observed, strategies fell within two broad categories: within-graph analysis, in which a user generates a few graph layouts and interacts heavily within them, and between-graph analysis, in which a user generates a series of graphs and switches between them in sequence. Differences in strategies lead to distinct interaction patterns, and are likely to be best supported by different interface designs. We characterize these observed strategies and discuss their implications for scientific visualization design and evaluation.
ACM
In session: Visualization + Visual Analysis - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Modeling Task Performance for a Crowd of Users from Interaction Histories - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system for human performance modeling that utilizes interaction histories from a crowd of end users. Can assist UI designers in quantitatively evaluating interfaces.
Abstract » We present Tome, a novel framework that helps developers quantitatively evaluate user interfaces and design iterations by using histories from crowds of end users. Tome collects user-interaction histories via an interface instrumentation library as end users complete tasks; these histories are compiled using the Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) into task completion-time predictions using CogTool. With many histories, Tome can model prevailing strategies for tasks without needing an HCI specialist to describe users' interaction steps. An unimplemented design change can be evaluated by perturbing a Tome task model in CogTool to reflect the change, giving a new performance prediction. We found that predictions for quick (5-60s) query tasks in an instrumented brain-map interface averaged within 10% of measured expert times. Finally, we modified a Tome model to predict closely the speed-up yielded by a proposed interaction before implementing it.
ACM
In session: Programming, Performance, and Sense Making - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
An Evaluation of How Small User Interface Changes Can Improve Scientists' Analytic Strategies - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We presented results from a quantitative user study showing that controlled changes in the interface of an analysis system can be employed to correct deficiencies in users' analytic behavior
Abstract » Subtle changes in analysis system interfaces can be used purposely to alter users'
analytic behaviors. In a controlled study
subjects completed three analyses at one-week intervals
using an analysis support system. Control subjects used one interface in
all sessions. Test subjects used modified versions
in the last two sessions: a first set of changes
aimed at increasing subjects' use of the system
and their consideration of alternative hypotheses;
a second set of changes aimed at increasing the amount of evidence collected.
Results show that in the second session test subjects used the interface $39\\%$ more
and switched between hypotheses $19\\%$ more than in the first session.
They then collected $26\\%$ more evidence in the third than in the second session.
These increases differ significantly ($p<0.05$) from near constant control rates.
We hypothesize that this approach can be used in many real applications to guide analysts unobtrusively towards improved analytic strategies.
ACM
In session: Usability and User Research - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
HCI for Peace: Preventing, De-Escalating and Recovering from Conflict - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: An opportunity for a focused and extended set of presentations and discussions on the use of interactive technologies for preventing, de-escalating and recovering from conflict.
Abstract » The increasing ubiquity of computing devices coupled with recent empirical research on the factors that affect the likelihood of conflict provide HCI researchers with new opportunities to conduct research on interactive systems designed to prevent, de-escalate and recover from conflict. Approaches used by HCI researchers in this field have included the use of a multi-lifespan research initiative to support peace and reconciliation after genocide, CSCW to facilitate communication, visualization to help detect landmines, and calming technology to support individuals desiring interactive systems that scaffold non-violent interactions. In this workshop we plan to further explore these ideas and discuss existing and future challenges.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Crowdsourcing an Emotional Wardrobe - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Investigating the possibility of designing a multi-modal language to enable the crowdsourcing of tactile perceptions of garments and the values that such a process would bring to our society.
Abstract » Selecting clothing online requires decision-making about sensorial experiences, but online environments provide only limited sensorial information. Inferences are therefore made on the basis of product pictures and their textual description. This is often unreliable as it is either based on the designer’s understanding of the product or deprived of perceptual content due to the difficulty of expressing such experiences. Using a purpose built website that combines and cross references multi-modal descriptive media, this study aims at investigating the possibility of using crowdsourcing mechanisms and multi-modal language to engage consumers in providing enriched descriptions of their tactile experiences of garments.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
The Role of Gender on Effectiveness and Efficiency of User-Robot Communication in Navigation Tasks - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes gender differences in spatial communication and navigation in Human-Robot Interaction. Presents a novel methodology and design recommendations for dialogue and navigating systems that equally support users of both genders.
Abstract » Many studies have identified gender differences in communication related to spatial navigation in real and virtual worlds. Most of this research has focused on single-party communication (monologues), such as the way in which individuals either give or follow route instructions. However, very little work has been reported on spatial navigation dialogues and whether there are gender differences in the way that they are conducted. This paper will address the lack of research evidence by exploring the dialogues between partners of the same and of different gender in a simulated Human-Robot Interaction study. In the experiments discussed in this paper, pairs of participants communicated remotely; in each pair, one participant (the instructor) was under the impression that s/he was giving route instructions to a robot (the follower), avoiding any perception of gendered communication. To ensure the naturalness of the interaction, the followers were given no guidelines on what to say, however each had to control a robot based on the user’s instructions. While many monologue-based studies suggest male superiority in a multitude of spatial activities and domains, this study of dialogues highlights a more complex pattern of results. As anticipated, gender influences task performance and communication. However, the findings suggest that it is the interaction – the combination of gender and role (i.e., instructor or follower) – that has the most significant impact. In particular, pairs of female users/instructors and male ‘robots’/followers are associated with the fastest and most accurate completion of the navigation tasks. Moreover, dialogue-based analysis illustrates how pairs of male users/instructors and female ‘robots’/followers achieved successful communication through ‘alignment’ of spatial descriptions. In particular, males seem to adapt the content of their instructions when interacting with female ‘robots’/followers and employ more landmark references compared to female users/instructors or when addressing males (in male-male pairings). This study describes the differences in how males and females interact with the system, and proposes that any female ‘disadvantage’ in spatial communication can disappear through interactive mechanisms. Such insights are important for the design of navigation systems that are equally effective for users of either gender.
In session: Interacting With Robots & Agents - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Crowdsourcing an Emotional Wardrobe - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Investigating the possibility of designing a multi-modal language to enable the crowdsourcing of tactile perceptions of garments and the values that such a process would bring to our society.
Abstract » Selecting clothing online requires decision-making about sensorial experiences, but online environments provide only limited sensorial information. Inferences are therefore made on the basis of product pictures and their textual description. This is often unreliable as it is either based on the designer’s understanding of the product or deprived of perceptual content due to the difficulty of expressing such experiences. Using a purpose built website that combines and cross references multi-modal descriptive media, this study aims at investigating the possibility of using crowdsourcing mechanisms and multi-modal language to engage consumers in providing enriched descriptions of their tactile experiences of garments.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
SONIK SPRING - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: The Sonik Spring is an interface for real-time control of sound that directly links gestural motion and kinesthetic feedback to the resulting musical experience.
Abstract » The Sonik Spring is an interface for real-time control of sound that directly links gestural motion and kinesthetic feedback to the resulting musical experience. The interface consists of a 15-inch spring with unique flexibility, which allows multiple degrees of variation in its shape and length. These are at the core of its expressive capabilities and wide range of functionality as a sound processor.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Collapse Informatics: Augmenting the Sustainability & ICT4D Discourse in HCI - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Augments the discourse on sustainable HCI and ICT4D to include notions of preparation for and adaptation to potential societal collapse, suggesting exemplars for interactivity design in response to such scenarios.
Abstract » Research in many fields argues that contemporary global industrial civilization will not persist indefinitely in its current form, and may, like many past human societies, eventually collapse. Arguments in environmental studies, anthropology, and other fields indicate that this transformation could begin within the next half-century. While imminent collapse is far from certain, it is prudent to consider now how to develop sociotechnical systems for use in these scenarios. We introduce the notion of collapse informatics - the study, design, and development of sociotechnical systems in the abundant present for use in a future of scarcity - as a complement to ICT4D and mitigation-oriented sustainable HCI. We draw on a variety of literatures to offer a set of relevant concepts and articulate the relationships among them to orient and evaluate collapse informatics work. Observing that collapse informatics poses a unique class of cross-cultural design problems, we sketch the design space of collapse informatics and provide a variety of example projects. We explore points of connection and distinction between collapse informatics and sustainable HCI, ICT4D, and crisis informatics. Finally, we discuss next steps and comment on the potential value of collapse informatics work even in the event that collapse never occurs.
ACM
In session: Sustainability and Behavior Change - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
C
 
Playable Character: Extending Digital Games into the Real World - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper describes a series of research probe games developed to investigate how real-world activity could be incorporated into digital game systems.
Abstract » This paper describes a series of research probe games developed to investigate how real-world activity could be incorporated into digital game systems. These culminated in the design of our final game, Forest, which was conceived for the San Francisco non-profit Friends of the Urban Forest (FUF), who have been planting and caring for the city's street trees for 30 years. By incorporating real-world actions and behaviors into digital games, we can create experiences that both enhance our understanding of the world around us and provide incentive structures towards our personal, community, or societal goals.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Introducing the Ambivalent Socialiser - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes four approaches to introduce sociality to people who are simultaneously keen but also reluctant to participate in social media. Can assist designers of persuasive technology to utilise social influence.
Abstract » Social interaction can be a powerful strategy for persuasive technology interventions, yet many users are reluctant to engage with others online because they fear pressure, failure and shame. We introduce the �ambivalent socialiser�, a person who is simultaneously keen but also reluctant to engage with others via social media. Our contribution is to identify four approaches to introducing sociality to ambivalent socialisers: structured socialising, incidental socialising, eavesdropping and trace sensing. We discuss the rationale for these approaches and show how they address recent critiques of persuasive technology. Furthermore, we provide actionable insights for designers of persuasive technology by showing how these approaches can be implemented in a social media application.
ACM
In session: Understanding Online Communication - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Defamiliarization in Innovation and Usability - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: With innovation, designers need to ask how they can offer a non-disruptive and enjoyable user experience whilst at the same time not meeting users' expectations. Can defamiliarization assist here?
Abstract » This workshop will explore how defamiliarization - a process of slowing down perception - can be exploited as a bridge between usability and innovation.

Victor Shklovsky, a Russian literary critic, coined the term ‘defamiliarization’, which he defined as the literary technique of slowing down a reader’s recognition of what the author is describing in order to increase the vividness of the reader’s perception. [Margolin 2005]

In interface design, defamiliarization can be used to bring users’ attention to the interface itself because of a temporary lack of fulfilment of expectations [Peterson, M.G., Iversen, O.S., Krogh, G.P 2004; Sengers, Gaver 2006]. This concept is particularly promising for the user interface in the context of ‘radical’ innovation: it can be used as a tool to facilitate the uptake of such innovation, by serving as a source of delight for the user in the user experience.
Radical innovation presents substantial obstacles both to usability and to usability testing [Rogers, Y. Rutherford, A. Bibby, P. 1992]: such innovation stops users in their tracks by intentionally frustrating expectations. Defamiliarization, as some recent research has argued, can respond to this problem by causing users to step back from the process they are engaged in (i.e., trying to engage with an interface) to experience features of the interface itself, and to gain pleasure and fun from that interaction [Bell, Blythe, Sengers, 2005]. In the course of that step back, the innovative feature is discovered, and the user re-enters the primary process of ‘working with’ the interface.

A handful of designers are incorporating defamiliarization into their design strategies [Bell, Blythe, Sengers, 2005; Sengers, Gaver, 2006]. For instance, at Canonical, a major part of our design work on the Ubuntu operating system is concerned with ‘radical’ innovation. We have substantial experience with such innovation threatening usability as it challenges conventions and habits. We have begun to employ defamiliarized user journeys as a facilitator of usability. There are two major aspects of this work:

1.Creating defamiliarized experiences that bring attention to the technology itself without introducing usability challenges, thereby supporting discovery;
2.Evaluating defamiliarization. A central question for us is: how can we assess this technique as part of usability testing and qualitative feedback?

As the literature evidences, there are many ways to use defamiliarization in design:
• juxtaposing incongruities
• creating unexpected contexts
• exaggerating information
• providing minimal representations
• creating ambiguity
• using extreme characters

There are other methods that practitioners have not recognised but that they may use implicitly.

Workshop Goals

Clarify ways defamiliarization can be successfully applied to interface design to create compelling experiences;
Determine the reach and usefulness of defamiliarization for innovation;
Explore techniques that enhance the role defamiliarization can play in ease of use -- bridging, cues, etc;
Define user testing approaches to assess the success of defamiliarization efforts.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
TeleHuman: Effects of 3D Perspective on Gaze and Pose Estimation with a Life-size Cylindrical Telepresence Pod - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Demonstrates a system for conveying 3D video conferencing using a cylindrical display. Provides user studies investigating effects of motion parallax and stereoscopy.
Abstract » In this paper, we present TeleHuman, a cylindrical 3D display portal for life-size human telepresence. The TeleHuman 3D videoconferencing system supports 360 degree motion parallax as the viewer moves around the cylinder and optionally, stereoscopic 3D display of the remote person. We evaluated the effect of perspective cues on the conveyance of nonverbal cues in two experiments using a one-way telecommunication version of the system. The first experiment focused on how well the system preserves gaze and hand pointing cues. The second experiment evaluated how well the system conveys 3D body postural information. We compared 3 perspective conditions: a conventional 2D view, a 2D view with 360 degree motion parallax, and a stereoscopic view with 360 degree motion parallax. Results suggest the combined presence of motion parallax and stereoscopic cues significantly improved the accuracy with which participants were able to assess gaze and hand pointing cues, and to instruct others on 3D body poses. The inclusion of motion parallax and stereoscopic cues also led to significant increases in the sense of social presence and telepresence reported by participants.
ACM
In session: Interactions Beyond the Desktop - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
TeleHuman: Effects of 3D Perspective on Gaze and Pose Estimation with a Life-size Cylindrical Telepresence Pod - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
DisplayStacks: Interaction Techniques for Stacks of Flexible Thin-Film Displays - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
DisplayStacks: Interaction Techniques for Stacks of Flexible Thin-Film Displays - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents DisplayStacks, a paper computer that allows physical stacking of digital documents via piles of thin-film flexible E Ink displays, with associated interaction techniques.
Abstract » Stacking physical documents is one of the main forms of spatio-temporal organization of information. We present DisplayStacks, a system that enables physical stacking of digital documents via piles of flexible E Ink displays. With a conductive dot pattern sensor attached to the flexible display, we dynamically track the position and orientation of these displays in relation to one another. We introduce mechanisms for interacting with these physical stacks for access and manipulation of information using asymmetric bi-manual interactions, such as providing contextual overviews. Initial user experiences indicate a preference for linear overlaps as a stacking configuration.
ACM
In session: Morphing & Tracking & Stacking: 3D Interaction - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Music Interaction Research - Let's Get the Band Back Together - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel discusses music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become marginal in HCI and how to revive it.
Abstract » The ubiquity of music consumption is overarching. Statistics for digital music sales, streaming video videos, computer games, and illegal sharing all speak of a huge interest. At the same, an incredible amount of data about every day interactions (sales and use) with music is accumulating through new cloud services. However, there is an amazing lack of public knowledge about everyday music interaction. This panel discusses the state of music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become so marginal in HCI and discuss how to revive it. Our two discussion themes are: orientation towards design vs. research in music related R&D, and the question if and how private, big data on music interactions could enlighten our understanding of ubiquitous media culture.
 
Why Johnny Can't Opt Out: A Usability Evaluation of Tools to Limit Online Behavioral Advertising - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes usability problems identified through a laboratory study to evaluate tools to limit OBA. Designers will be aware of these problems and could use our methodology to evaluate their tools.
Abstract » We present results of a 45-participant laboratory study investigating the usability of nine tools to limit online behavioral advertising (OBA). We interviewed participants about OBA and recorded their behavior and attitudes as they configured and used a privacy tool, such as a browser plugin that blocks requests to specific URLs, a tool that sets browser cookies indicating a user's preference to opt out of OBA, or the privacy settings built into a web browser.

We found serious usability flaws in all tools we tested. Participants found many tools difficult to configure, and tools' default settings were often minimally protective. Ineffective communication, confusing interfaces, and a lack of feedback led many participants to conclude that a tool was blocking OBA when they had not properly configured it to do so. Without being familiar with many advertising companies and tracking technologies, it was difficult for participants to use the tools effectively.
ACM
In session: Uses of Media & Creation of Web Experiences - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Tag, You Can See It! Using Tags for Access Control in Photo Sharing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Lab study exploring whether intuitive access-control policies can be made from photo tags created for organizational and access-control purposes. Can increase understanding of user engagement with tag-based access control systems.
Abstract » Users often have rich and complex photo-sharing preferences, but properly configuring access control can be difficult and time-consuming. In an 18-participant laboratory study, we explore whether the keywords and captions with which users tag their photos can be used to help users more intuitively create and maintain access-control policies. We find that (a) tags created for organizational purposes can be repurposed to create efficient and reasonably accurate access-control rules; (b) users tagging with access control in mind develop coherent strategies that lead to significantly more accurate rules than those associated with organizational tags alone; and (c) participants can understand and actively engage with the concept of tag-based access control.
ACM
In session: Privacy + Self Disclosure - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Considerate Supervisor: An Audio-only Facilitator for Multiparty Conference Calls - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper shows that automated feedback on an audio-only channel can reduce dominance in collaborative tasks. In a study of multiple three-person distributed groups solving Hangman, a word guessing game, the Considerate Supervisor reduced the difference between the most dominant and the most dormant participants significantly. This paper points towards opportunities for computers to improve communication between people through a pro-active and considerate interface, and calls for further exploration of the effectiveness of such interfaces.
 
Personal Informatics in Practice: Improving Quality of Life Through Data - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses themes relevant to personal informatics in practice, such as practical lessons from prior work in designing systems, requirements for building effective tools, and development of infrastructures.
Abstract » Personal informatics refers to a class of software and hardware systems that help individuals collect personal information to improve self-understanding. Improving self-understanding can foster self-insight and promote positive behaviors: healthy living, energy conservation, etc. The development of personal informatics applications poses new challenges for human-computer interaction and creates opportunities for applications in various domains related to quality of life, such as fitness, nutrition, wellness, mental health, and sustainability. This workshop will continue the conversations from the CHI 2010 and CHI 2011 workshops on personal informatics [6][7]. The focal themes for this workshop are: (1) practical lessons from previous research and development experiences that can guide interface design for systems that allow users to collect and reflect on personal data; (2) requirements for building robust personal informatics applications; and (3) design and development of infrastructures that make personal informatics applications easier to create and evaluate.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Beyond Energy Monitors: Interaction, Energy, and Emerging Energy Systems - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reviews energy-related literature from within and outside of HCI. Characterizes a dominant cluster of work related to "energy consumption feedback", and points to design and research opportunities with emerging energy systems.
Abstract » Motivated by a recent surge of research related to energy and sustainability, this paper presents a review of energy-related work within HCI as well as from literature outside of HCI. Our review of energy-related HCI research identifies a central cluster of work focused on electricity consumption feedback (ECF). Our review of literature outside of HCI highlights a number of emerging energy systems trends of strong relevance to HCI and interaction design, including smart grid, demand response, and distributed generation technologies. We conclude by outlining a range of opportunities for HCI to engage with the experiential, behavioral, social, and cultural aspects of these emerging systems, including highlighting new areas for ECF research that move beyond our field�s current focus on energy feedback displays to increase awareness and motivate individual conservation behavior.
ACM
In session: Sustainability and Behavior Change - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Oh Dear Stacy! Social Interaction, Elaboration, and Learning with Teachable Agents - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Results from a think-aloud study provide insight into interaction between student rapport and learning gains with a teachable agent. Contributions include theoretical perspectives and practical recommendations for implementing rapport-building agents.
Abstract » Understanding how children perceive and interact with teachable agents (systems where children learn through teaching a synthetic character embedded in an intelligent tutoring system) can provide insight into the effects of so-cial interaction on learning with intelligent tutoring systems. We describe results from a think-aloud study where children were instructed to narrate their experience teaching Stacy, an agent who can learn to solve linear equations with the student�s help. We found treating her as a partner, primarily through aligning oneself with Stacy using pronouns like you or we rather than she or it significantly correlates with student learning, as do playful face-threatening comments such as teasing, while elaborate explanations of Stacy�s behavior in the third-person and formal tutoring statements reduce learning gains. Additionally, we found that the agent�s mistakes were a significant predictor for students shifting away from alignment with the agent.
ACM
In session: Teaching with New Interfaces - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Video Increases the Perception of Naturalness During Remote Interactions with Latency - Works In Progress
Abstract » Visual telecommunication systems support natural interaction by allowing users to remotely interact with one another using natural speech and movement. Network connections and computation cause delays that may result in interactions that feel unnatural or belabored. In an experiment using an audiovisual telecommunications device, synchronized audio and video delays were added to participants' conversations to determine how delay would affect conversation. To examine the effects of visual information on conversation, we also compared the audiovisual trials to trials in which participants were presented only the audio information. We present self-report data indicating that delay had a weaker impact when both audio and video channels were available, for delays up to 500 ms, than when only the audio channel was available.
 
The Impact of Communication Structure on New Product Development Outcomes - Paper
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: Our study found that hierarchical communication patterns improve delivery performance but hinder quality outcomes in new product development projects. On the other hand, small-world communication structures exhibited opposite effects.
Abstract » New product development teams face important challenges to their performance due to the novelty of the work and the need to rapidly develop shared knowledge and goals. However, little is known about the relationship between the structural properties of communication and performance in these teams. This study examined the effect of communication structure, specifically hierarchical and small-world structures on the delivery performance and quality outcomes of a large-scale new product development project. Our longitudinal analyses revealed that structuring communication patterns in a hierarchical manner significantly improves delivery performance. However, hierarchical communication has a detrimental effect on quality while small-world communication structures improved the quality outcomes of development teams. We discuss the implications of these results for collaborative tools that support communication tradeoffs
ACM
In session: Groups @ Work - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
User Needs in the Performance of Prescribed Home Exercise Therapy - Works In Progress
Abstract » Musculoskeletal disorders are a globally significant health problem affecting millions. Physiotherapy, including prescribed exercises performed independently by patients in their homes, is a key treatment for many sufferers. However, many fail to complete home exercises, prolonging recovery periods or accelerating decline. Pervasive health technologies, capable of monitoring users in their homes, are ideally suited to address this problem. This paper describes user research with a group of three physiotherapists and eleven current physiotherapy patients to understand the problems and user needs underlying non-compliance with home exercise regimes. The user research adopted a speed dating approach and culminated with recommendations relating to the design of feedback, scheduling systems and privacy.
 
Collaboration in Cognitive Tutor Use in Latin America: Field Study and Design Recommendations - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes observations from a field study of children in three developing regions using adaptive educational technology. Presents guidelines for future development of technology that accounts for a collaborative use context.
Abstract » Technology has the promise to transform educational prac-tices worldwide. In particular, cognitive tutoring systems are an example of educational technology that has been ex-tremely effective at improving mathematics learning over traditional classroom instruction. However, studies on the effectiveness of tutor software have been conducted mainly in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, and little is known about how these systems might be used in other contexts with differing classroom practices and values. To understand this question, we studied the usage of mathematics tutoring software for middle school at sites in three Latin American countries: Brazil, Mexico, and Costa Rica. While cognitive tutors were designed for individual use, we found that students in these classrooms worked collaboratively, engaging in interdependently paced work and conducting work away from their own computer. In this paper we present design recommendations for how cognitive tutors might be incorporated into different classroom practices, and better adapted for student needs in these environments.
ACM
In session: Promoting Educational Opportunity - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
CrowdCamp: Rapidly Iterating Ideas Related to Collective Intelligence & Crowdsourcing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Hands-on workshop for the development of ideas, designs, and prototypes related to collective intelligence and crowdsourcing. Will enable diverse disciplines to rapidly test new ideas.
Abstract » The field of collective intelligence -- encompassing aspects of crowdsourcing, human computation, and social computing -- is having tremendous impact on our lives, and the fields are rapidly growing. We propose a hands-on event that takes the main benefits of a workshop -- provocative discussion and community building -- and allows time to focus on developing ideas into actual outputs: experiment designs, in-depth thoughts on wicked problems, paper or coded prototypes. We will bring together researchers to discuss future visions and make tangible headway on those visions, as well as seeding collaboration. The outputs from brainstorming, discussion, and building will persist after the workshop for attendees and the community to view, and will be written up.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Lost in Translation: Understanding the Possession of Digital Things in the Cloud - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents and interprets field evidence related to people's perceptions of personal digital things kept in Cloud Computing environments. Findings are interpreted to detail design and research opportunities.
Abstract » People are amassing larger and more diverse collections of digital things. The emergence of Cloud computing has enabled people to move their personal files to online places, and create new digital things through online services. However, little is known about how this shift might shape people�s orientations toward their digital things. To investigate, we conducted in depth interviews with 13 people comparing and contrasting how they think about their possessions, moving from physical ones, to locally kept digital materials, to the online world. Findings are interpreted to detail design and research opportunities in this emerging space.
ACM
In session: Intimacy and Connection - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
The Implications of Offering More Disclosure Choices for Social Location Sharing - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents findings from a study that looks at how different types of disclosure options can influence users' privacy preferences for location sharing. Can help in building better privacy configuration UIs.
Abstract » We compared two privacy configuration styles for specifying rules for social sharing one's past locations. Our findings suggest that location-sharing applications (LSAs) which support varying levels of location granularities are associated with sharing rules that are less convoluted, are less likely to be negatively phrased, and can lead to more open sharing; users are also more comfortable with these rules. These findings can help inform LSA privacy designs.
ACM
In session: Privacy + Self Disclosure - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
The Untapped Promise of Digital Mind Maps - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Existing mind mapping software applications have been evaluated, ethnographic research performed, and a framework of principles has been developed to inform the design of future tools for collaborative knowledge management.
Abstract » Digital mind mapping tools present a fertile area for research on human-computer interaction. We evaluated numerous existing mind mapping software applications, performed ethnographic research with a variety of users, and developed a framework of principles to inform the design of future tools for collaborative knowledge management. Our findings suggest an opportunity to advance digital mind mapping beyond the existing state-of-the-art, particularly in the areas of improving workflow, facilitating collaboration, and supporting information storage and retrieval. We conclude with suggestions for how to improve digital mind mapping systems, specifically with regard to real-time collaborative thinking.
ACM
In session: Visionary Models + Tools - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Phone as a Pixel: Enabling Ad-Hoc, Large-Scale Displays Using Mobile Devices - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We present system for creating large displays from a collection of smaller devices, opening opportunities for creating large displays using individuals mobile phones at events such as conferences and concerts.
Abstract » We present Phone as a Pixel: a scalable, synchronization-free, platform-independent system for creating large, ad-hoc displays from a collection of smaller devices. In contrast to most tiled-display systems, the only requirement for participation is for devices to have an internet connection and a web browser. Thus, most smartphones, tablets, laptops and similar devices can be used. Phone as a Pixel uses a color-transition encoding scheme to identify and locate displays. This approach has several advantages: devices can be arbitrarily arranged (i.e., not in a grid) and infrastructure consists of a single conventional camera. Further, additional devices can join at any time without re-calibration. These are desirable properties to enable collective displays in contexts like sporting events, concerts and political rallies. In this paper we describe our system, show results from proof-of-concept setups, and quantify the performance of our approach on hundreds of displays.
ACM
In session: Phone Fun: Extending Mobile Interaction - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Considerate Supervisor: An Audio-only Facilitator for Multiparty Conference Calls - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper shows that automated feedback on an audio-only channel can reduce dominance in collaborative tasks. In a study of multiple three-person distributed groups solving Hangman, a word guessing game, the Considerate Supervisor reduced the difference between the most dominant and the most dormant participants significantly. This paper points towards opportunities for computers to improve communication between people through a pro-active and considerate interface, and calls for further exploration of the effectiveness of such interfaces.
 
Sketch It, Make It: Sketching Precise Drawings for Laser Cutting - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Sketch It, Make It is a modeling tool that lets non-experts to design specifications for items for fabrication with laser cutters.
Abstract » Sketch It, Make It (SIMI) is a modeling tool that enables non-experts
to design items for fabrication with laser cutters. SIMI recognizes
rough, freehand input as a user iteratively edits a structured vector
drawing. The tool combines the strengths of sketch-based interaction
with the power of constraint-based modeling. Several interaction
techniques are combined to present a coherent system that makes it
easier to make precise designs for laser cutters.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Technology Heirlooms? Considerations for Passing Down and Inheriting Digital Materials - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes new knowledge about the design of technologies to support (and potentially complicate) inheriting, living with and passing down treasured digital content among family members and across generations.
Abstract » Material artifacts are passed down as a way of sustaining relationships and family history. However, new issues are emerging as families are increasingly left with the digital remains of their loved ones. We designed three devices to investigate how digital materials might be passed down, lived with and inherited in the future. We conducted in-home interviews with 8 families using the devices to provoke discussion about how technology might support (or complicate) their existing practices. Sessions revealed families desired to treat their archives in ways not fully supported by technology as well as potential tensions that could emerge. Findings are interpreted to detail design considerations for future work in this emerging space.
ACM
In session: Immateriality as a Design Feature - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Codelets: Linking Interactive Documentation and Example Code in the Editor - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Presents Codelets, which link interactive documentation with example code in code editors. Codelets allow third parties to write rich in-editor documentation.
Abstract » Programmers frequently use instructive code examples found on the Web to overcome cognitive barriers while programming. These examples couple the concrete functionality of code with rich contextual information about how the code works. However, using these examples necessitates understanding, configuring, and integrating the code, all of which typically take place after the example enters the user's code and has been removed from its original instructive context. In short, a user's interaction with an example continues well after the code is pasted. This paper investigates whether treating examples as "first-class" objects in the code editor - rather than simply as strings of text - will allow programmers to use examples more effectively. We explore this through the creation and evaluation of Codelets. A Codelet is presented inline with the user's code, and consists of a block of example code and an interactive helper widget that assists the user in understanding and integrating the example. The Codelet persists throughout the example's lifecycle, remaining accessible even after configuration and integration is done. A comparative laboratory study with 20 participants found that programmers were able to complete tasks involving examples an average of 43% faster when using Codelets than when using a standard Web browser.
ACM
In session: Programming and Debugging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Voice Typing: A New Speech Interaction Model for Dictation on Touchscreen Devices - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes Voice Typing, a new speech interaction technique, where utterances are transcribed as produced to enable real-time error identification. Reduces user corrections and cognitive demand for text input via speech.
Abstract » Dictation using speech recognition could potentially serve as an efficient input method for touchscreen devices. However, dictation systems today follow a mentally disruptive speech interaction model: users must first formulate utterances and then produce them, as they would with a voice recorder. Because utterances do not get transcribed until users have finished speaking, the entire output appears and users must break their train of thought to verify and correct it. In this paper, we introduce Voice Typing, a new speech interaction model where users’ utterances are transcribed as they produce them to enable real-time error identification. For fast correction, users leverage a marking menu using touch gestures. Voice Typing aspires to create an experience akin to having a secretary type for you, while you monitor and correct the text. In a user study where participants composed emails using both Voice Typing and traditional dictation, they not only reported lower cognitive demand for Voice Typing but also exhibited 29% relative reduction of user corrections. Overall, they also preferred Voice Typing.
ACM
In session: See Hear Speak: Redesigning I/O for Effectiveness - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Memento Mori: Technology Design for the End of Life - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Addresses end of life issues and technology use, with a focus on the design and development of systems that engage with death, dying, mortality, and bereavement.
Abstract » The role of interactive technologies at End of Life (EoL) is a recently established and quickly growing topic in the CHI community. In this workshop, we focus on the design space, methodologies and processes associated with EoL, moving forward the research agenda initiated in the successful CHI 2010 workshop �HCI at the End of Life� [8]. In particular, we focus on moving from fieldwork to thanatosensitive design � a process which engages with EoL issues as part of the design concept. We invite participation from a wide range of people interested in technology and EoL, from the HCI community, academic and professional communities with a variety of perspectives/disciplines, and entrepreneurs developing applications in this space.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Sustainably Unpersuaded: How Persuasion Narrows our Vision of Sustainability - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Critically analyzes persuasive technology as a modernist approach to solving social problems. Identifies structural limitations of persuasive technology as an approach to sustainability and offers alternatives.
Abstract » In this paper we provide a critical analysis of persuasive sustainability research from 2009-2011. Drawing on critical sociological theory of modernism, we argue that persuasion is based on a limited framing of sustainability, human behavior, and their interrelation-ship. This makes supporting sustainability easier, but leads to characteristic patterns of breakdown. We then detail problems that emerge from this narrowing of vision, such as how the framing of sustainability as the optimization of a simple metrics places technologies incorrectly as objective arbiters over complex issues of sustainability. We conclude by suggesting alternative approaches to move beyond these problems.
ACM
In session: Critical Perspectives on Design - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
WebTicket: Account Management Using Printable Tokens - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes development and evaluations of WebTicket that manages web accounts using paper-based or mobile-phone-based tickets. Demonstrates that WebTicket provides reliable and phishing-resilient user authentication.
Abstract » Passwords are the most common authentication scheme today. However, it is difficult for people to memorize strong passwords, such as random sequences of characters. Additionally, passwords do not provide protection against phishing attacks. This paper introduces WebTicket, a low cost, easy-to-use and reliable web account management system that uses "tickets", which are tokens that contain a two-dimensional barcode that can be printed or stored on smartphones. Users can log into accounts by presenting the barcodes to webcams connected to computers. Through two lab studies and one field study consisting of 59 participants in total, we found that WebTicket can provide reliable authentication and phishing resilience.
ACM
In session: I Am How I Touch: Authenticating Users - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Designing an Improved HCI Laboratory: A Massive Synthesis of Likes & Wishes - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing a simple design exercise called “I like, I wish.” Findings from this exercise relevant to the design of more human-centered HCI research environments are discussed.
Abstract » We have performed a simple human-centered design exercise called “I like, I wish” with all of the graduate students and some faculty in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Over 300 likes and wishes were gathered and synthesized in an all-day session by a volunteer team of students. Here we report on preliminary findings from this exercise and its implications for the design of more human-centered HCI research environments.
In session: Values in Research Practice - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Participatory Design of Social Search Experiences - Works In Progress
Abstract » Social search engines connect users with content created or recommended by social contacts. A new participatory design methodology was created to understand user needs for social search and propose solutions to these needs. The method involved participants interacting with a mock-up of a social search experience and co-creating solutions with the researchers. We present two key findings highlighting specific user needs and corresponding design solutions. The participatory design methodology was useful in bridging the gap between the research and design phases of the development project.
 
Using Shear as a Supplemental Two-Dimensional Input Channel for Rich Touchscreen Interaction - Note
Contribution & Benefit: In this note, we suggest using a largely unutilized touch input dimension: shear (force tangential to a screen's surface). This provides a supplemental analog 2D input channel.
Abstract » Touch input is constrained, typically only providing finger X/Y coordinates. To access and switch between different functions, valuable screen real estate must be allocated to buttons and menus, or users must perform special actions, such as touch-and-hold, double tap, or multi-finger chords. Even still, this only adds a few bits of additional information, leaving touch interaction unwieldy for many tasks. In this work, we suggest using a largely unutilized touch input dimension: shear (force tangential to a screen's surface). Similar to pressure, shear can be used in concert with conventional finger positional input. However, unlike pressure, shear provides a rich, analog 2D input space, which has many powerful uses. We put forward five classes of advanced interaction that considerably expands the envelope of interaction possible on touchscreens.
ACM
In session: Use the Force - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Communication and Commitment in an Online Game Team - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an experiment on inducing communication in online game groups. Examines the influence of communication topic and communicator role on group commitment. Extends our understanding of commitment in online groups.
Abstract » Theories about commitment in online settings and empirical evidence from offline environments suggest that greater communication in online groups should lead members to become more committed and participate longer. However, experimental evidence is sparse, in part because of difficulties inducing communication online. Moreover, previous work has not identified the route by which communication leads to increased commitment. In this paper, we investigated whether task versus social communication modeled by a leader versus a peer influenced the amount that group members talked and their willingness to continue participating in the group. We conducted an experiment within ad hoc groups in the online game World of Warcraft. Results suggest that communication early in a group�s history causes members to talk more later on and that the early communication increases their commitment through its influence on group atmosphere rather than through increased member participation. Social communication by a peer is especially valuable in increasing commitment.
ACM
In session: Games: Community + Communication - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Time Travel Proxy: Using Lightweight Video Recordings to Create Asynchronous, Interactive Meetings - Paper
Community: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Time Travel Proxy enables interactive, asynchronous meetings through recorded videos. A field study in actual usage reflects on the design concepts and identifies opportunities for future refinement.
Abstract » Time Travel Proxy (TTP) enables participating in meetings that you cannot attend in real time, either because of time conflicts or global time zone differences. TTP uses lightweight video recordings to pre-record your contributions to a meeting, which are played on a tablet that serves as a proxy for you during the meeting. Reactions and responses in the meeting are also captured in video to give you feedback of what happened at the meeting. A working prototype of TTP was deployed and studied within four developer teams in their daily stand-up meetings. The study found that the affordances of video helped integrate the time traveler into the social context of the meeting, although the current prototype was better at enabling the time traveler to contribute to the meeting than it was in conveying the meeting experience back to the time traveler.
ACM
In session: Groups @ Work - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Why Johnny Can't Opt Out: A Usability Evaluation of Tools to Limit Online Behavioral Advertising - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes usability problems identified through a laboratory study to evaluate tools to limit OBA. Designers will be aware of these problems and could use our methodology to evaluate their tools.
Abstract » We present results of a 45-participant laboratory study investigating the usability of nine tools to limit online behavioral advertising (OBA). We interviewed participants about OBA and recorded their behavior and attitudes as they configured and used a privacy tool, such as a browser plugin that blocks requests to specific URLs, a tool that sets browser cookies indicating a user's preference to opt out of OBA, or the privacy settings built into a web browser.

We found serious usability flaws in all tools we tested. Participants found many tools difficult to configure, and tools' default settings were often minimally protective. Ineffective communication, confusing interfaces, and a lack of feedback led many participants to conclude that a tool was blocking OBA when they had not properly configured it to do so. Without being familiar with many advertising companies and tracking technologies, it was difficult for participants to use the tools effectively.
ACM
In session: Uses of Media & Creation of Web Experiences - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Ripple Effects of an Embedded Social Agent: A Field Study of a Social Robot in the Workplace - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describe a long-term field study of a social delivery robot in a workplace. Can assist the development of agents, avatars, and robots for individuals and organizations.
Abstract » Prior research has investigated the effect of interactive social agents presented on computer screens or embodied in robots. Much of this research has been pursued in labs and brief field studies. Comparatively little is known about social agents embedded in the workplace, where employees have repeated interactions with the agent, alone and with others. We designed a social robot snack delivery service for a workplace, and evaluated the service over four months allowing each employee to use it for two months. We report on how employees responded to the robot and the service over repeated encounters. Employees attached different social roles to the robot beyond a delivery person as they incorporated the robot's visit into their workplace routines. Beyond one-on-one interaction, the robot created a ripple effect in the workplace, triggering new behaviors among employees, including politeness, protection of the robot, mimicry, social comparison, and even jealousy. We discuss the implications of these ripple effects for designing services incorporating social agents.
ACM
In session: Interacting With Robots & Agents - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Improving Literacy in Developing Countries Using Speech Recognition-Supported Games on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Field study discussing the extent to which productive training - enabled by speech-recognition-supported games - is superior to receptive vocabulary training for reading skills. Benefits development of speech-user interfaces for literacy.
Abstract » Learning to read in a second language is challenging, but highly rewarding. For low-income children in developing countries, this task can be significantly more challenging because of lack of access to high-quality schooling, but can potentially improve economic prospects at the same time. A synthesis of research findings suggests that practicing recalling and vocalizing words for expressing an intended meaning could improve word reading skills – including reading in a second language – more than silent recognition of what the given words mean. Unfortunately, many language learning software do not support this instructional approach, owing to the technical challenges of incorporating speech recognition support to check that the learner is vocalizing the correct word. In this paper, we present results from a usability test and two subsequent experiments that explore the use of two speech recognition-enabled mobile games to help rural children in India read words with understanding. Through a working speech recognition prototype, we discuss two major contributions of this work: first, we give empirical evidence that shows the extent to which productive training (i.e. vocalizing words) is superior to receptive vocabulary training, and discuss the use of scaffolding hints to “unpack” factors in the learner’s linguistic knowledge that may impact reading. Second, we discuss what our results suggest for future research in HCI.
ACM
In session: Literacy on the Margin - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Tag, You Can See It! Using Tags for Access Control in Photo Sharing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Lab study exploring whether intuitive access-control policies can be made from photo tags created for organizational and access-control purposes. Can increase understanding of user engagement with tag-based access control systems.
Abstract » Users often have rich and complex photo-sharing preferences, but properly configuring access control can be difficult and time-consuming. In an 18-participant laboratory study, we explore whether the keywords and captions with which users tag their photos can be used to help users more intuitively create and maintain access-control policies. We find that (a) tags created for organizational purposes can be repurposed to create efficient and reasonably accurate access-control rules; (b) users tagging with access control in mind develop coherent strategies that lead to significantly more accurate rules than those associated with organizational tags alone; and (c) participants can understand and actively engage with the concept of tag-based access control.
ACM
In session: Privacy + Self Disclosure - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
TopicViz: Interactive Topic Exploration in Document Collections - Works In Progress
Abstract » Existing methods for searching and exploring large
document collections focus on surface-level matches to
user queries, ignoring higher-level semantic structure. In
this paper we show how topic modeling -- a technique for
identifying latent themes across a large collection of
documents -- can support semantic exploration. We
present TopicViz: an interactive environment which
combines traditional search and citation-graph exploration
with a force-directed layout that links documents to the
latent themes discovered by the topic model. We describe
usage scenarios in which TopicViz supports rapid
sensemaking on large document collections.
 
Distributed Sensemaking: Improving Sensemaking by Leveraging the Efforts of Previous Users - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We show that 'distributed sensemaking' -sensemaking while leveraging the sensemaking efforts of previous users- enables schema transfer between users, leading to improved sensemaking quality and helpfulness.
Abstract » We examine the possibility of distributed sensemaking: improving a user's sensemaking by leveraging previous users' work without those users directly collaborating or even knowing one another. We asked users to engage in sensemaking by organizing and annotating web search results into "knowledge maps," either with or without previous users' maps to work from. We also recorded gaze patterns as users examined others' knowledge maps. Our findings show the conditions under which distributed sensemaking can improve sensemaking quality; that a user's sensemaking process is readily apparent to a subsequent user via a knowledge map; and that the organization of content was more useful to subsequent users than the content itself, especially when those users had differing goals. We discuss the role distributed sensemaking can play in schema induction by helping users make a mental model of an information space and make recommendations for new tool and system development.
ACM
In session: Leveraging the Crowd - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
TimeBlocks: “Mom, can I have another block of time?” - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children.
Abstract » Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children. TimeBlocks consists of a set of cubic blocks that function as a physical progress bar. Parents and children can physically manipulate the blocks to represent the concept of time. We evaluated TimeBlocks through a field study in which six families tried TimeBlocks for four days at their homes. The results indicate that TimeBlocks played a useful role in facilitating the often challenging task of time-related communication between parents and children. We also report on a range of observed insightful novel uses of TimeBlocks in our study.
ACM
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Human Computation Tasks with Global Constraints - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system for crowdsourcing itinerary planning called Mobi. Illustrates a novel crowdware concept for tackling complex tasks with global constraints by using a shared, collaborative workspace.
Abstract » An important class of tasks that are underexplored in current
human computation systems are complex tasks with global constraints.
One example of such a task is itinerary planning, where solutions
consist of a sequence of activities that meet requirements specified
by the requester. In this paper, we focus on the crowdsourcing of such
plans as a case study of constraint-based human computation tasks and
introduce a collaborative planning system called Mobi that illustrates
a novel crowdware paradigm. Mobi presents a single interface
that enables crowd participants to view the current solution context
and make appropriate contributions based on current needs. We conduct
experiments that explain how Mobi enables a crowd to effectively and
collaboratively resolve global constraints, and discuss how the design
principles behind Mobi can more generally facilitate a crowd to tackle
problems involving global constraints.
ACM
In session: Leveraging the Crowd - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Undesigning Technology: Considering the Negation of Design by Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Motivates and develops the question: To what extent and in what ways should the intentional negation of technology be an acknowledged and legitimate area of design research activity within HCI?
Abstract » Motivated by substantive concerns with the limitations and negative effects of technology, this paper inquires into the negation of technology as an explicit and intentional aspect of design research within HCI. Building on theory from areas including philosophy and design theory, this paper articulates a theoretical framework for conceptualizing the intentional negation of technology (i.e., the undesign of technology), ranging from the inhibition of particular uses of technology to the total erasure or foreclosure of technology. The framework is then expanded upon to articulate additional areas of undesigning, including self-inhibition, exclusion, removal, replacement, restoration, and safeguarding. In conclusion a scheme is offered for addressing questions concerning the disciplinary scope of undesign in the context of HCI, along with suggestions for ways that undesigning may be more strongly incorporated within HCI research.
ACM
In session: Critical Perspectives on Design - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
FlyTalk: Social Media to Meet the Needs of Air Travelers - Works In Progress
Abstract » The aviation industry plays a vital role in supporting economies and connecting people worldwide; it is a cornerstone of modern life. However, user experience of air travel is often marked by frustration, stress and confusion. Indeed, over the last decade, traveler satisfaction with air travel experiences has steadily declined. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews (using a range of user research methods) that aims to understand the needs of air travelers. Key insights from this process are presented and a conceptual system design, based on connecting travelers using existing social media systems, is introduced. Ultimately, this paper argues that applying innovation in social media technology to air travel has the potential to improve user experiences and reduce industry costs, making travelling smoother, cheaper and more satisfying.
 
Curation, Provocation, and Digital Identity: Risks and Motivations for Sharing Provocative Images Online - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates the phenomena of posting personal, revealing, and controversial images online. Provides recommendations for the development of systems that support these activities and directions for future work.
Abstract » Among the billions of photos that have been contributed to online photo-sharing sites, there are many that are provocative, controversial, and deeply personal. Previous research has examined motivations for sharing images online and has identified several key motivations for doing so: expression, curation of identity, maintaining social connections, and recording experiences. However, few studies have focused on the perceived risks of posting photos online and even fewer have examined the risks associated with provocative, controversial, or deeply personal images. In our work, we used photo-elicitation interviews to explore the motivations for posting these types of images and the perceived risks of doing so. In this paper, we describe our findings from those interviews.
ACM
In session: Privacy + Self Disclosure - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
To Switch or Not To Switch: Understanding Social Influence in Online Choices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Do online recommendations sway people's own opinions? The results of this paper show that this is indeed the case, with important consequences for consumer behavior research and marketing strategies.
Abstract » We designed and ran an experiment to measure social influence in online recommender systems, specifically how often people's choices are changed by others' recommendations when facing different levels of confirmation and conformity pressures. In our experiment participants were first asked to provide their preferences between pairs of items. They were then asked to make second choices about the same pairs with knowledge of others' preferences. Our results show that others people's opinions significantly sway people's own choices. The influence is stronger when people are required to make their second decision sometime later (22.4%) than immediately (14.1%). Moreover, people seem to be most likely to reverse their choices when facing a moderate, as opposed to large, number of opposing opinions. Finally, the time people spend making the first decision significantly predicts whether they will reverse their decisions later on, while demographics such as age and gender do not. These results have implications for consumer behavior research as well as online marketing strategies.
ACM
In session: Check This Out: Recommender Systems - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
A Subscription-Based Authoring Tool for Mobile Citizen Science Campaigns - Works In Progress
Abstract » Across HCI and social computing platforms we have seen the rapid emergence and adoption of mobile applications to empower non-experts to explore, measure, and share data about their world from blooming flowers to air quality. However, the creation of mobile citizen science applications with the type and method of data collected remains under the control of the developers and accompanying infrastructure of each citizen science effort. In this paper we present a flexible subscription-based web tool for non-experts to create and manage citizen science campaigns. Using our system, people can author their own campaigns with no programming skills and development infrastructure. We evaluated a functional prototype of our system with three groups having genuine needs to develop and deploy their own mobile citizen science applications. We hope that our system can help flourish citizen science activities and increase everyday people’s participation in the citizen science data collection activities.
 
Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI, foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking.
Abstract » This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery—which subsumes digital imagery—goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broader framework for visual thinking and imagery in HCI can play a role in raising the visual standards of HCI research and practice. Workshop participants will investigate possibilities for developing a culture of curatorial gaze in HCI, in order to (i) promote collection of digital images as a method appropriate for a design-oriented discipline, (ii) invite others to contribute to a genre of working and corpus of imagery unique to HCI, and (iii) to expand the approaches that design-oriented HCI may productively and creatively draw upon.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Course 8: Evidenced-Based Social Design of Online Communities - Course
Contribution & Benefit: To become successful, online communities must meet challenges, including starting up and encouraging contributions. This tutorial reviews social science theory and research on these topics and translates it into design recommendations.
Abstract » Online communities are among the fastest growing sections of the Internet and provide members with information, companionship, social support and entertainment. Although as a class these online communities are very successful, the success of particular ones varies widely and many fail.

To become or remain successful, online communities must meet a number of challenges that are common to offline as well as online groups and organizations. For example, online communities must handle the start-up challenge: early in their lifecycle they have few members to generate content and little content to attract members. Throughout their lifecycle, they must recruit and socialize newcomers, encourage commitment and contribution from members, solve problems of coordination and encourage appropriate behavior among members and interlopers alike. This tutorial is organized around two of these design challenges – starting a community and getting members to contribute to it.

The social sciences can tell us a lot about how to make thriving online communities. Economics and various branches of psychology offer theories of individual motivation and of human behavior in social situations. Properly interpreted, they can inform choices about how to get a community started and motivate contributions.

After taking this tutorial, students will appreciate the value of using social science research as the basis for social design. They will have had an introduction to the social science literature relevant to problems of encouraging contributions in online communities and starting a community from scratch. Through exercises, they will appreciate how to translate theory and evidence into designs. They will have pointers to where to learn more.

The tutorial is based on the presenters’ new book, Kraut & Resnick (2012). Building successful online communities: Evidence-based social design. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Participants will receive prints of relevant book chapters.
 
Unlocking the Expressivity of Point Lights - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Small lights (e.g., LEDs) are used as indicators in a wide variety of devices. Although exceedingly simple in their output, varying light intensity over time, their design space can be rich.
Abstract » Small point lights (e.g., LEDs) are used as indicators in a wide variety of devices today, from digital watches and toasters, to washing machines and desktop computers. Although exceedingly simple in their output - varying light intensity over time - their design space can be rich. Unfortunately, a survey of contemporary uses revealed that the vocabulary of lighting expression in popular use today is small, fairly unimaginative, and generally ambiguous in meaning. In this paper, we work through a structured design process that points the way towards a much richer set of expressive forms and more effective communication for this very simple medium. In this process, we make use of five different data gathering and evaluation components to leverage the knowledge, opinions and expertise of people outside our team. Our work starts by considering what information is typically conveyed in this medium. We go on to consider potential expressive forms - how information might be conveyed. We iteratively refine and expand these sets, concluding with ideas gathered from a panel of designers. Our final step was to make use of thousands of human judgments, gathered in a crowd-sourced fashion (265 participants), to measure the suitability of different expressive forms for conveying different information content. This results in a set of recommended light behaviors that mobile devices, such as smartphones, could readily employ.
ACM
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Investigating the Presence, Form and Behavior of Virtual Possessions in the Context of a Teen Bedroom - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents and interprets findings from user enactments with teenagers investigating 4 design concepts that advance the form and behavior of virtual possessions.
Abstract » Over the past several years, people have acquired more and more virtual possessions. While virtual possessions have become ubiquitous, little work exists to inform designers on how these growing collections should be displayed and how they should behave. We generated four design concepts that changed the form and behavior of these digital things, making them more present within a teen bedroom. We then conducted speed dating sessions to investigate how these new forms and behaviors influence perceptions of value. Sessions revealed how new technologies might better support self-exploration and reflection, as well as how they could complicate identity construction processes. Findings are interpreted to detail opportunities and tensions that can guide future research and practice in this emerging space.
ACM
In session: Immateriality as a Design Feature - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
TimeBlocks: "Mom, can I have another block of time?" - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the design, development, and evaluation of TimeBlocks. TimeBlocks is a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about time between young children and adults.
Abstract » Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children. TimeBlocks consists of a set of cubic blocks that function as a physical progress bar. Parents and children can physically manipulate the blocks to represent the concept of time. We evaluated TimeBlocks through a field study in which six families tried TimeBlocks for four days at their homes. The results indicate that TimeBlocks played a useful role in facilitating the often challenging task of time-related communication between parents and children. We also report on a range of observed insightful novel uses of TimeBlocks in our study.
ACM
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Twitter and the Development of an Audience: Those Who Stay on Topic Thrive! - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a longitudinal study examining how initial topical focus influences communities' ability to attract a critical mass. Can assist in understanding the development of online social networking structures.
Abstract » Although economists have long recognized the importance of a critical mass in growing a community, we know little about how it is achieved. This paper examines how initial topical focus influences communities' ability to attract a critical mass. When starting an online community, organizers need to define its initial scope. Topically narrow communities will probably attract a homogeneous group of interested in its content and compatible with each other. However, they are likely to attract fewer members than a diverse one because they offer only a subset of the topics. This paper reports an empirical analysis of longitudinal data collected from Twitter, where each new Twitter poster is considered the seed of a potential social collection. Users who focus the topics of their early tweets more narrowly ultimately attract more followers with more ties among them. Our results shed light on the development of online social networking structures.
ACM
In session: Understanding Online Communication - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
SIG: End-User Programming - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
Abstract » As users continue to grow in number and diversity, end-user programming is playing an increasingly central role in shaping software to meet the broad, varied, rapidly changing needs of the world. Numerous companies have therefore begun to sell tools enabling end users to create programs. In parallel, ongoing academic research is aimed at helping end-user programmers create and adapt new kinds of programs in new ways. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
In session: SIG: End-User Programming - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
WebCrystal: Understanding and Reusing Examples in Web Authoring - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an example-based web design tool that automatically generates hierarchical questions and explanations about existing website styling information. Can help designers understand how to recreate desired appearances from examples.
Abstract » Examples have been widely used in the area of web design to help web authors create web pages. However, without actually understanding how an example is constructed, people often have trouble extracting the elements they want and incorporating them into their own design. This paper introduces WebCrystal, a web development tool that helps users understand how a web page is built. WebCrystal con-tributes novel interaction techniques that let the user quickly access HTML and CSS information by selecting questions regarding how a selected element is designed. It pro-vides answers using a textual description and a customized code snippet that can be copied-and-pasted to recreate the desired properties. WebCrystal also supports combining the styles and structures from multiple elements into the generated code snippet, and provides visualizations on the web page itself to explain layout relationships. Our user study shows that WebCrystal helped both novice and experienced developers complete more tasks successfully using significantly less time.
ACM
In session: With a Little Help from My Friends - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Using Context to Reveal Factors that Affect Physical Activity - ToCHI
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes three explorations of using contextual information to support reflection on factors that affect physical activity. Informs the design of physical activity awareness systems and, generally, personal informatics systems.
Abstract » There are many physical activity awareness systems available in today's market. These systems show physical activity information (e.g., step counts, energy expenditure, heart rate) which is sufficient for many self-knowledge needs, but information about the factors that affect physical activity may be needed for deeper self-reflection and increased self-knowledge. We explored the use of contextual information, such as events, places, and people, to support reflection on the factors that affect physical activity. We present three findings from our studies. First, users make associations between physical activity and contextual information that help them become aware of factors that affect their physical activity. Second, reflecting on physical activity and context can increase people’s awareness of opportunities for physical activity. Lastly, automated tracking of physical activity and contextual information benefits long-term reflection, but may have detrimental effects on immediate awareness.
In session: Health + Design - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Using Context to Reveal Factors that Affect Physical Activity - ToCHI
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes three explorations of using contextual information to support reflection on factors that affect physical activity. Informs the design of physical activity awareness systems and, generally, personal informatics systems.
Abstract » There are many physical activity awareness systems available in today's market. These systems show physical activity information (e.g., step counts, energy expenditure, heart rate) which is sufficient for many self-knowledge needs, but information about the factors that affect physical activity may be needed for deeper self-reflection and increased self-knowledge. We explored the use of contextual information, such as events, places, and people, to support reflection on the factors that affect physical activity. We present three findings from our studies. First, users make associations between physical activity and contextual information that help them become aware of factors that affect their physical activity. Second, reflecting on physical activity and context can increase people’s awareness of opportunities for physical activity. Lastly, automated tracking of physical activity and contextual information benefits long-term reflection, but may have detrimental effects on immediate awareness.
In session: Health + Design - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
FlyTalk: Social Media to Meet the Needs of Air Travelers - Works In Progress
Abstract » The aviation industry plays a vital role in supporting economies and connecting people worldwide; it is a cornerstone of modern life. However, user experience of air travel is often marked by frustration, stress and confusion. Indeed, over the last decade, traveler satisfaction with air travel experiences has steadily declined. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews (using a range of user research methods) that aims to understand the needs of air travelers. Key insights from this process are presented and a conceptual system design, based on connecting travelers using existing social media systems, is introduced. Ultimately, this paper argues that applying innovation in social media technology to air travel has the potential to improve user experiences and reduce industry costs, making travelling smoother, cheaper and more satisfying.
 
FlyTalk: Social Media to Meet the Needs of Air Travelers - Works In Progress
Abstract » The aviation industry plays a vital role in supporting economies and connecting people worldwide; it is a cornerstone of modern life. However, user experience of air travel is often marked by frustration, stress and confusion. Indeed, over the last decade, traveler satisfaction with air travel experiences has steadily declined. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews (using a range of user research methods) that aims to understand the needs of air travelers. Key insights from this process are presented and a conceptual system design, based on connecting travelers using existing social media systems, is introduced. Ultimately, this paper argues that applying innovation in social media technology to air travel has the potential to improve user experiences and reduce industry costs, making travelling smoother, cheaper and more satisfying.
 
Photocation: Tangible Learning System for DSLR Photography - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present Photocation, a tangible photography education system that invites people to explore and learn about the technical settings involved in a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The basic DSLR camera elements such as aperture, ISO and shutter speed are represented in tangible forms so that people can physically manipulate and explore how these settings interact with one another to produce different types of photographic expressions. A built-in physical diorama further provides a controlled environment to test their photographic settings against. By physically exploring with Photocation, aspiring photographers can familiarize themselves with the interactive linkages of the basic DSLR elements and take exemplary photos before transferring their knowledge to full-fledged DSLR cameras. We present the design rationale, a prototype, and a preliminary evaluation of our prototype.
 
Keep in Touch: Channel, Expectation and Experience - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a remote touch study, showing communicative touch accompanied by speech can significantly influence people's sense of connectedness. Identifies perception of communication intention as an important factor in touch communication design.
Abstract » This paper investigates whether and how digitally mediated social touch (remote touch) may influence the sense of connectedness toward a speaker and the emotional experience of what is being communicated. We employ an `augmented' storytelling methodology where we manipulate the modality of an `emotive' channel that accompanies the speech, and the contextual expectation of the listener. Comparing a remote upper-arm touch against a similarly timed flashing light, we explore the importance of the touch modality in affect conveyance. Our second manipulation involves two cover stories where the listener is told that the touch or flashing light is triggered either by the storyteller expressively squeezing a touch input device while speaking, or by measured `high points' in the mental state of the storyteller. Our results show that the story accompanied by communicative touch resulted in a significant increase in the sense of connectedness with the storyteller over the speech-only condition, and a trend toward greater affective conveyance.
ACM
In session: Touch in Context - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Keep in Touch: Channel, Expectation and Experience - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a remote touch study, showing communicative touch accompanied by speech can significantly influence people's sense of connectedness. Identifies perception of communication intention as an important factor in touch communication design.
Abstract » This paper investigates whether and how digitally mediated social touch (remote touch) may influence the sense of connectedness toward a speaker and the emotional experience of what is being communicated. We employ an `augmented' storytelling methodology where we manipulate the modality of an `emotive' channel that accompanies the speech, and the contextual expectation of the listener. Comparing a remote upper-arm touch against a similarly timed flashing light, we explore the importance of the touch modality in affect conveyance. Our second manipulation involves two cover stories where the listener is told that the touch or flashing light is triggered either by the storyteller expressively squeezing a touch input device while speaking, or by measured `high points' in the mental state of the storyteller. Our results show that the story accompanied by communicative touch resulted in a significant increase in the sense of connectedness with the storyteller over the speech-only condition, and a trend toward greater affective conveyance.
ACM
In session: Touch in Context - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Boneshaker – A generic framework for building physical therapy games - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present the Boneshaker framework, a generic framework developed to facilitate the design of physical therapy games with the Unity 3D engine. The Boneshaker framework lowers the threshold for developing a variety of physical therapy games as it allows both developer and therapist to quickly add input devices and change specific game dynamics/therapy exercises.
 
Increasing the reliability and validity of quantitative Laddering data with LadderUX - Works In Progress
Abstract » Laddering is an interview technique that provides rich qualitative data, and subsequent content analysis allows crossing over from qualitative to a quantitative measurement. However, the method is not tailored to data coming from user experience studies, and result-ing data analysis of UX Laddering studies risks to lack scientific rigor with respect to the reliability and validity of the data. Therefore, we present LadderUX and point out the design rationale for its special features that help UX resear¬ch¬ers measure what they actually set out to measure, ensuring that the resulting dominant means-end chains form an accurate representation of the populat¬ion under study.
 
Exploring User Motivations for Eyes-free Interaction on Mobile Devices - Note
Contribution & Benefit: User-centered exploration of user motivations in choosing eyes-free technologies for mobile interaction. Increase understanding of eyes-free interaction by systematically examining motivations and establish high level design implications for satisfying user motivations.
Abstract » While there is increasing interest in creating eyes-free interaction technologies, a solid analysis of why users need or desire eyes-free interaction has yet to be presented. To gain a better understanding of such user motivations, we conducted an exploratory study with four focus groups, and suggest a classification of motivations for eyes-free interaction under four categories (environmental, social, device features, and personal). Exploring and analyzing these categories, we present early insights pointing to design implications for future eyes-free interactions.
ACM
In session: Me & My Mobile - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Which Book Should I Pick? - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This research suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of large book data.
Abstract » This video proposes readability visualization, genre visualization, and combined visualization to provide unconventional information for book selection. Data visualization was initiated for the practical purpose of delivering information, as it efficiently links visual perception and data so that readers are able to instantly recognize patterns in overcrowded data. In this interdisciplinary research we used the strength of data visualization, and this paper suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of a large volume of book data.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Which Book Should I Pick? - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This research suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of large book data.
Abstract » This video proposes readability visualization, genre visualization, and combined visualization to provide unconventional information for book selection. Data visualization was initiated for the practical purpose of delivering information, as it efficiently links visual perception and data so that readers are able to instantly recognize patterns in overcrowded data. In this interdisciplinary research we used the strength of data visualization, and this paper suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of a large volume of book data.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Test-driven Development for the Web – Increasing Efficiency of Web Development - Works In Progress
Abstract » With the rapid growth of World Wide Web, demands on
website developers have increased dramatically. At the
same time new web development challenges have
emerged. These challenges include enabling web
developers with a low level of experience, fast paced
development cycles and a disconnect between different
phases of web development. In this paper we present
algorithms which address some of these challenges.
Our algorithms lower the barrier of expertise and
experience required to transform development
requirements into web pages, bridge the divide
between web testing and development as well as
improve test case maintenance. We also present a
survey we conducted among web developers to
understand their problems, experiments to
demonstrate the performance of our algorithms and a
user study that shows the value of our approach.
 
Turtledove: A Tangible Grain Interface for Image Organization - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interfaces supporting bi-manual interaction offer great benefits. In recent years, a variety of multi-touch systems have even shown new possibilities for multi-finger input. However, multi-finger interactions do not always show better performance. We propose an interface consisting of a large amount of minimal tangible objects called tangible grains combined with a visual projection. The system is intended to add passive physical feedback to increase performance and improve the quality of the interface. In this paper we present the concept, the implementation and first small-scale user studies of a tangible grain interface for the organization and, especially, the sorting and tagging of images.
 
Turtledove: A Tangible Grain Interface for Image Organization - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interfaces supporting bi-manual interaction offer great benefits. In recent years, a variety of multi-touch systems have even shown new possibilities for multi-finger input. However, multi-finger interactions do not always show better performance. We propose an interface consisting of a large amount of minimal tangible objects called tangible grains combined with a visual projection. The system is intended to add passive physical feedback to increase performance and improve the quality of the interface. In this paper we present the concept, the implementation and first small-scale user studies of a tangible grain interface for the organization and, especially, the sorting and tagging of images.
 
Dream Drill: Learning Application - Works In Progress
Abstract » Some evidence indicates that sleep supports memory consolidation. Items studied before sleeps are memorized more efficiently than those not followed by sleep. Consequently, we propose a learning management system based on these findings. The system includes an alarm clock, whose alarm is set only if a user answers some questions. The user also has to answer the same questions once the clock has awakened him or her in the morning. We implemented a prototype and conducted a user study with five participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the system.
 
How-to-guide: Collaborating With Executives In A Pro-design World. - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with executives to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.
Abstract » This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with executives to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.
 
Women in UX Leadership in Business - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership in business. Our panelists of women leaders will share their insights with the UX community.
Abstract » The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership. Despite ongoing progress toward equality, women still haven’t reached significant representation in leadership positions in the high-tech industry. Is the field of User Experience an exception to this norm? Does the interdisciplinary nature of UX play a role in making it easier or more difficult for women in our field? Does a career in UX, regardless of gender place a glass ceiling on upward mobility into “C” level positions? Our accomplished panel of UX managers will share their professional journeys, their observations on advantages and disadvantages, and their advice for the next generation.
In session: Women in UX Leadership in Business - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
End-user interactions with intelligent and autonomous systems - Workshop
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Facilitate the exchange of approaches, solutions, and ideas about how to better support end users' interactions with intelligent and autonomous systems between academic and industrial researchers.
Abstract » Systems that learn from or personalize themselves to users are quickly becoming mainstream yet interaction with these systems is limited and often uninformative for the end user. This workshop focuses on approaches and challenges to explore making these systems transparent, controllable and ultimately trustworthy to end users. The aims of the workshop are to help establish connections among researchers and industrial practitioners using real-world problems as catalysts to facilitate the exchange of approaches, solutions, and ideas about how to better support end users.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Tell Me More? The Effects of Mental Model Soundness on Personalizing an Intelligent Agent - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A user study exploring the effects of mental model soundness on end users personalizing an intelligent agent. Can help designers understand the impact of providing structural information about intelligent agents.
Abstract » What does a user need to know to productively work with an intelligent agent? Intelligent agents and recommender systems are gaining widespread use, potentially creating a need for end users to understand how these systems operate in order to fix their agent's personalized behavior. This paper explores the effects of mental model soundness on such personalization by providing structural knowledge of a music recommender system in an empirical study. Our findings show that participants were able to quickly build sound mental models of the recommender system's reasoning, and that participants who most improved their mental models during the study were significantly more likely to make the recommender operate to their satisfaction. These results suggest that by helping end users understand a system's reasoning, intelligent agents may elicit more and better feedback, thus more closely aligning their output with each user's intentions.
ACM
In session: AI & Machine-Learning & Translation - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Ar-CHI-tecture: Architecture and Interaction - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The rise of ubiquitous computing leads to a convergence between architectural design and HCI. This workshop brings digital interaction and the build environment together to map future research and collaboration.
Abstract » The rise of ubiquitous computing leads to a natural convergence between the areas of architectural design (the design of buildings, spaces and experience of being in and moving through them) and HCI. We suggest that Architecture and CHI have much to learn from each other in terms of research and practice. This workshop will bring together these communities to explore the benefits of architecture envisioned as integral to an expanded CHI community. The workshop organizers aim to create a framework for future collaboration and identify new directions for research in this multidisciplinary field. This promises significant impacts on both interaction research and its real-world applications.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG meeting invites researchers and practitioners to get an insight in and to discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interfaces.
Abstract » With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays.

This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.
In session: Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Gaze-Augmented Think-Aloud as an Aid to Learning - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The efficacy of Gaze-Augmented Think Aloud for teaching visual search strategy to learners is demonstrated empirically. An expert's gaze visualization indicates what to look for and what to avoid.
Abstract » The use of recorded eye movements, or scanpaths, has been demonstrated as an effective visualization for feed-forward visual search training, instruction, and stimulated retrospective think-aloud usability testing. In this paper we show that creation of a scripted or recorded video of an expert's think-aloud session augmented by an animation of their scanpaths can result in an effective aid for learners of visual search. Because the creation of such a video is relatively easy, the benefits-to-cost ratio may potentially be substantial, especially in settings where learned visual scanning strategies are indicators of expertise. We suggest that two such examples are examinations of Chest X-Rays and histological slides. Results are presented where straightforward construction of an instruction video provides measurable benefit to novice as well as experienced learners in the latter context.
ACM
In session: Do You See What Eye See - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
The Machine in the Ghost: Augmenting Broadcasting with Biodata - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Explores the explicit use of biodata as part of a narrative for television and film. Raises some key research challenges about “acting” biodata and the nature of accessible biodata visualisations.
Abstract » This paper examines how ‘biodata’ – physiological information captured from the human body – might enhance television shows by giving viewers access to actors’ physiological data. We broach this challenge through a prototype-show called The Experiment Live, in which four ‘paranormal investigators’ were outfitted with sensors as they explored a ‘haunted’ basement. This experience has enabled us to probe the challenges of using biodata as part of broadcasting and formulate an agenda for future research that includes: exploring whether/how biodata can be acted and/or simulated; and developing techniques that treat biodata visualisations in similar ways to existing camera-based production processes.
In session: alt.chi: Physical Love - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Invited Engineering Community SIG: the Role of Engineering Work in CHI - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG is the forum where to discuss the state of the engineering community and how to strengthen its role in CHI
Abstract » The Engineering Community faces a number of serious
challenges around its role in the larger CHI community
and its contribution to SIGCHI-sponsored conferences.
This SIG is its forum to report progress on key issues
for 2012, identify objectives for 2013, and develop
plans to address them.
 
Course 21: User Interface Design and Adaptation for Multi-Device Environments - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This tutorial aims to help user interface designers and developers to understand the issues involved in multi-device interactive applications accessed through mobile and stationary devices even exploiting different interaction modalities
Abstract » This tutorial aims to help user interface designers and developers to understand the issues involved in multi-device interactive applications, which can be accessed through mobile and stationary devices even exploiting different interaction modalities (graphical, vocal, …). It will provide a discussion of the possible solutions in terms of concepts, techniques, languages, and tools, with particular attention to Web environments. The tutorial will deal with the various strategies in order to adapt, distribute, and migrate the user interface according to the context of use. It will consider how to address such issues both when authoring multi-device interfaces and when user interfaces for different devices are dynamically adapted, distributed, or even migrated seamlessly across them to follow the mobile user. Thus, it will discuss task continuity across multiple devices in distributed and migratory interfaces and related usability issues.

In particular, it will consider:
- Issues in multi-device interfaces
- The influence of the interaction platforms on the suitability of the possible tasks and their structure
- Authoring multi-device interfaces
- Types of rules for adapting user interfaces to different devices
- Model-based design of multi-device interfaces
- Approaches to automatic adaptation
- How to address adaptation to various platforms with different modalities (graphical, vocal, …)
- Distributed user interfaces
- User interfaces able to migrate and preserve their state

The tutorial will be interesting for interactive software developers and designers who want to understand the issues involved in multi-device interactive applications and the space of the possible solutions. Likewise, user interface designers would benefit in that they could work more effectively and make their choices more explicit in designing pervasive interactive services. In addition, other researchers who would like to have an update on the state of art and research results in the field will find the tutorial of interest.
 
Kin'touch: Understanding How Visually Impaired People Explore Tactile Maps - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tactile or interactive maps are largely used as an orientation aid for visually impaired people. Yet, little is known about haptic exploration strategies and their influence on the resultant cognitive mapping. We have designed a prototype with the potential to automatically analyze different users’ exploration strategies. This prototype integrates data from the MS Kinect camera and a multi-touch table. It registers location of hands and digits on a tactile map. Results of preliminary studies show that this approach is promising.
 
Health Promotion as Activism: Building Community Capacity to Effect Social Change - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the design and evaluation of a tool that supports community-based health advocacy. Provides recommendations for HCI research focused on health inequalities and the ecological influences on behaviors and attitudes.
Abstract » As HCI researchers have designed tools to promote wellness, disease has often been approached as a general problem. In contrast, public health research argues for an activist approach focused on how certain groups disproportionately experience disease and eliminating these disparities. Taking this activist stance, we examine how technology can reduce health inequalities by disrupting power relationships and helping communities pursue social change. We discuss our tool, Community Mosaic (CM), which allows individuals to share their healthy eating ideas with one another as a means of advocating behavior change. Our results characterize how CM helped facilitate activism (i.e., collective efforts to counter local challenges to healthy living) and shift users� attitudes regarding their role as advocates for health. We contribute to the field of HCI by using our findings to present a set of recommendations for future research focused on designing and evaluating health promotion tools using an activist lens.
ACM
In session: Eating + Cooking - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - Special Events
Contribution & Benefit: In this Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss how to improve and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation.
Abstract » The CHI community is vibrant, growing, and interdisciplinary, and peer review is at the heart of what it means to be a community of researchers. In this Special Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss the question of how to grow and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation. Our community has seen a wide variety of explorations of the best way to change and improve our practices: alt.chi’s open reviewing, CSCW’s revise & resubmit process and UIST’s removal of page limits are all ways to address the changing nature of this research. This Town Hall will provide an opportunity to discuss and address this ongoing question.
In session: Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
"You're Capped!" Understanding the Effects of Bandwidth Caps on Broadband Use in the Home - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Study of households living with bandwidth caps. Challenges assumptions about users having unlimited Internet connections and suggests design implications for those on capped bandwidth plans.
Abstract » Bandwidth caps, a limit on the amount of data users can upload and download in a month, are common globally for both home and mobile Internet access. With caps, each bit of data consumed comes at a cost against a monthly quota or a running tab. Yet, relatively little work has considered the implications of this usage-based pricing model on the user experience. In this paper, we present results from a qualitative study of households living with bandwidth caps. Our findings suggest home users grapple with three uncertainties regarding their bandwidth usage: invisible balances, mysterious processes, and multiple users. We discuss how these uncertainties impact their usage and describe the potential for better tools to help monitor and manage data caps. We conclude that as a community we need to cater for users under Internet cost constraints.
ACM
In session: Home and Family - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Virtual Projection: Exploring Optical Projection as a Metaphor for Multi-Device Interaction - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the concept of virtualizing optical projections as a metaphor for interacting between handhelds and stationary displays. We present characteristics, implementation and evaluation of such virtual projections.
Abstract » Handheld optical projectors provide a simple way to over-come the limited screen real-estate on mobile devices. We present virtual projection (VP), an interaction metaphor inspired by how we intuitively control the position, size, and orientation of a handheld optical projector�s image. VP is based on tracking a handheld device without an optical projector and allows selecting a target display on which to position, scale, and orient an item in a single gesture. By relaxing the optical projection metaphor, we can deviate from modeling perspective projection, for example, to con-strain scale or orientation, create multiple copies, or offset the image. VP also supports dynamic filtering based on the projection frustum, creating overview and detail applications, and selecting portions of a larger display for zooming and panning. We show exemplary use cases implemented using our optical feature-tracking framework and present the results of a user study demonstrating the effectiveness of VP in complex interactions with large displays.
ACM
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Using Augmented Snapshots for Viewpoint Switching and Manipulation in Augmented Reality - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: SnapAR is a magic-lens–based hand-held augmented reality application that allows its user to store snapshots of a scene and revisit them virtually at a later time.
Abstract » SnapAR is a magic-lens–based hand-held augmented reality application that allows its user to store snapshots of a scene and revisit them virtually at a later time. By storing a still image of the unaugmented background along with the 6DOF camera pose, this approach allows augmentations to remain dynamic and interactive. This makes it possible for the user to quickly switch between vantage points at different locations from which to view and manipulate virtual objects, without the overhead of physically traveling between those locations.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Virtual Projection: Exploring Optical Projection as a Metaphor for Multi-Device Interaction - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
SpeckleEye: Gestural Interaction for Embedded Electronics in Ubiquitous Computing - Works In Progress
Abstract » We introduce SpeckleEye, design and implementation of an embedded gesture and real-time motion tracking system using laser speckle. SpeckleEye is a low-cost, scalable, open source toolkit for embedded speckle sensing and gestural interaction with ubiquitous devices in the environment. We describe embedded speckle sensing hardware and firmware, a cross-platform gesture recognition library optimized to run on embedded processors, and a set of prototypes that illustrate the flexibility of our platform.
 
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
 
Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Discussion about review process at CHI focusing on 1) ways to improve reviewing, 2) alternative peer review models, and 3) educational materials for new reviewers.
Abstract » The HCI research community grows bigger each year, refining and expanding its boundaries in new ways. The ability to effectively review submissions is critical to the growth of CHI and related conferences. The review process is designed to produce a consistent supply of fair, high-quality reviews without overloading individual reviewers; yet, after each cycle, concerns are raised about limitations of the process. Every year, participants are left wondering why their papers were not accepted (or why they were). This SIG will explore reviewing through a critical and constructive lens, discussing current successes and future opportunities in the CHI review process. Goals will include actionable conclusions about ways to improve the system, potential alternative peer models, and the creation of materials to educate newcomer reviewers.
In session: Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Deploying MonoTrans Widgets in the Wild - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Our first attempt to deploy a crowd-sourced monolingual translation system to the wild finds interesting lesson dealing with crowds with different sizes simultaneously.
Abstract » In this paper, we report our experience deploying the MonoTrans Widgets system in a public setting. Our work follows a line of crowd-sourced monolingual translation systems, and it is the first attempt to deploy such a system "in the wild". The results are promising, but we also found out that simultaneously drawing from multiple crowds with different expertise and sizes poses unique problems in the design of such crowd-sourcing systems.
ACM
In session: Crowdsourcing and Peer Production II - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
How-to-guide: Collaborating With Executives In A Pro-design World. - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with executives to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.
Abstract » This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with executives to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.
 
It's Complicated: How Romantic Partners Use Facebook - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A qualitative study exploring how romantic partners make Facebook-related decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them. Provides examples/ideas for thinking about designs and theorizing about ways people manage privacy and relationships.
Abstract » Romantic partners face issues of relational development including managing information privacy, tension between individual and relational needs, and accountability to existing friends. Prior work suggests that affordances of social media might highlight and shape these tensions; to explore this, we asked 20 people to reflect daily for two weeks on feelings and decisions around their own and others' Facebook use related to their relationships. Most generally, we find that tensions arise when romantic partners must manage multiple relationships simultaneously because Facebook audiences are so present and so varied. People also engage in subtle negotiation around and appropriation of Facebook's features to accomplish both personal and relational goals. By capturing both why people make these decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them, we expect our findings to generalize to many other social media tools and to inform theorizing about how these tools affect relational development.
ACM
In session: Intimacy and Connection - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
An Augmented Multi-touch System Using Hand and Finger Identification - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce a multitouch system capable of identifying the finger and hand corresponding to each touch, and show how we use it in a multitouch 3D authoring tool.
Abstract » With the advent of devices such as smart phones and tablet computers, multi-touch applications are rapidly becoming commonplace. However, existing multi-touch sensors are not able to report which finger, or which hand, is responsible for each of the touches. To overcome this deficiency we introduce a multi-touch system that is capable of identifying the finger and hand corresponding to each touch. The system consists of a commercially available capacitive multi-touch display augmented with an infrared depth camera mounted above the surface of the display. We performed a user study to measure the accuracy of the system and found that our algorithm was correct on 92.7% of the trials.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Simple, Sustainable Living - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: Are complex lifestyles unsustainable? Do they contribute to environmental unsustainability? Should HCI design technologies that support simple living for human and environmental sustainability? This workshop discusses these questions.
Abstract » The goal of this workshop is to better understand how to design for simpler lifestyles as part of a more holistic understanding of what it means to be sustainable. This goal takes us beyond what has been previously emphasized in sustainable HCI or at the confines of environmental sustainability. Instead, we discuss the possibilities of an alternative framing of technologies, economies, cultural norms, social mechanisms, and everyday practices that may be needed for simple, sustainable living. We posit that achieving simple, sustainable living may be a matter of thoughtfully embracing positive complexity and avoiding negative complexity. These require careful decisions about design, choice, and use of technology, as well as taking a broader perspective on sustainability.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Educational Interfaces, Software, and Technology - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: We present a venue for the discussion of Educational Interfaces, Software, and Technologies.
Abstract » One of the primary goals of teaching is to prepare learners for life in the real world. In this ever changing world of technologies such as mobile interaction, cloud computing, natural user interfaces, and gestural interfaces like the Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect people have a greater selection of tools for the task at hand. Teachers and students can leverage these tools to improve learning outcomes. Educational interfaces and software are needed to ensure that new technologies serve a clear purpose in the classrooms and homes of the future.

Since teachers are always looking for creative ways to engage 21st century learners there needs to be an academic venue for researchers to discuss novel educational tools and their role in improving learning outcomes. This workshop aims at filling this void: combining the pedagogical expertise of the cooperative learning, and learning sciences communities with the technical creativity of the CHI, UIST and interactive surface communities. The objective of this workshop is to become a conference within two years.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Bimanual Marking Menu for Near Surface Interactions - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We describe a mouseless, near-surface version of the Bimanual Marking Menu system. The system offers a large number of accessible commands and does not interfere with multi-touch interactions.
Abstract » We describe a mouseless, near-surface version of the Bimanual Marking Menu system. To activate the menu system, users create a pinch gesture with either their index or middle finger to initiate a left click or right click. Then they mark in the 3D space near the interactive area. We demonstrate how the system can be implemented using a commodity range camera such as the Microsoft Kinect, and report on several designs of the 3D marking system.

Like the multi-touch marking menu, our system offers a large number of accessible commands. Since it does not rely on contact points to operate, our system leaves the non-dominant hand available for other multi-touch interactions.
ACM
In session: Pen + Touch - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Do You See That I See? Effects of Perceived Visibility on Awareness Checking Behavior - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Experimental study exploring effects of available time and notifying observed parties on gathering awareness information. Provides a framework for understanding these behaviors, and results suggesting urgency and notification reduce gathering.
Abstract » Informal interactions are a key element of group work, and many theoretical frameworks and systems have been developed to understand and support these conversations in distributed workgroups. In particular, systems used in several recent experiments provided information about others' current activities so that their availability for conversation could be assessed, and interruptions could be timed strategically. One issue with these experimental systems, though, is that many do not notify the observed party that these observations are taking place. There is reason to believe that such notification could be valuable to users, and that it could alter observers' behavior. Moreover, factors such as the perceived urgency of the interruption could affect willingness to violate social norms in gathering information. We report on an experiment assessing the impact of perceived visibility and task urgency on awareness checking behavior. Results suggest that people check more often when they believe their partners do not know they are checking, and more often when the task is time-constrained than when it is not.
ACM
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Sustainably Unpersuaded: How Persuasion Narrows our Vision of Sustainability - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Critically analyzes persuasive technology as a modernist approach to solving social problems. Identifies structural limitations of persuasive technology as an approach to sustainability and offers alternatives.
Abstract » In this paper we provide a critical analysis of persuasive sustainability research from 2009-2011. Drawing on critical sociological theory of modernism, we argue that persuasion is based on a limited framing of sustainability, human behavior, and their interrelation-ship. This makes supporting sustainability easier, but leads to characteristic patterns of breakdown. We then detail problems that emerge from this narrowing of vision, such as how the framing of sustainability as the optimization of a simple metrics places technologies incorrectly as objective arbiters over complex issues of sustainability. We conclude by suggesting alternative approaches to move beyond these problems.
ACM
In session: Critical Perspectives on Design - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Discussion about review process at CHI focusing on 1) ways to improve reviewing, 2) alternative peer review models, and 3) educational materials for new reviewers.
Abstract » The HCI research community grows bigger each year, refining and expanding its boundaries in new ways. The ability to effectively review submissions is critical to the growth of CHI and related conferences. The review process is designed to produce a consistent supply of fair, high-quality reviews without overloading individual reviewers; yet, after each cycle, concerns are raised about limitations of the process. Every year, participants are left wondering why their papers were not accepted (or why they were). This SIG will explore reviewing through a critical and constructive lens, discussing current successes and future opportunities in the CHI review process. Goals will include actionable conclusions about ways to improve the system, potential alternative peer models, and the creation of materials to educate newcomer reviewers.
In session: Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
The Humanities and/in HCI - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
Abstract » In the past two decades, as technology has moved from the workplace to nearly all aspects of our everyday lives, HCI has also increased the breadth and depth of its research agenda. The breadth increase can be seen in the increasingly broad understanding of stakeholders and long-term socio-cultural-environmental consequences of interactive technologies. The depth increase can be seen in the seriousness with which HCI takes complex, subjective dimensions of interaction, such as affect, identity, experience, aesthetics. Humanistic forms of scholarship, including theories, methodologies, and scholarly forms, have increasingly been used to address many of these breadth and depth issues. In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
In session: The Humanities and/in HCI - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
It's Complicated: How Romantic Partners Use Facebook - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A qualitative study exploring how romantic partners make Facebook-related decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them. Provides examples/ideas for thinking about designs and theorizing about ways people manage privacy and relationships.
Abstract » Romantic partners face issues of relational development including managing information privacy, tension between individual and relational needs, and accountability to existing friends. Prior work suggests that affordances of social media might highlight and shape these tensions; to explore this, we asked 20 people to reflect daily for two weeks on feelings and decisions around their own and others' Facebook use related to their relationships. Most generally, we find that tensions arise when romantic partners must manage multiple relationships simultaneously because Facebook audiences are so present and so varied. People also engage in subtle negotiation around and appropriation of Facebook's features to accomplish both personal and relational goals. By capturing both why people make these decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them, we expect our findings to generalize to many other social media tools and to inform theorizing about how these tools affect relational development.
ACM
In session: Intimacy and Connection - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Tangible Interfaces for Children: Cognitive, Social, & Physical Benefits and Challenges - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Presentation and discussion of children using a variety of tangible interfaces, the challenges and benefits they encountered, and the importance of looking at the connection between psychological factors and design.
Abstract » With the rise of prevalence of tangible interfaces of all kinds for children, this panel will present diverse perspectives on the benefits and challenges of these interfaces. These will include: exergames, mobile applications, and using digitally enhanced feedback for non-digital environments
 
Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
Abstract » The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
In session: Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Do You See That I See? Effects of Perceived Visibility on Awareness Checking Behavior - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Experimental study exploring effects of available time and notifying observed parties on gathering awareness information. Provides a framework for understanding these behaviors, and results suggesting urgency and notification reduce gathering.
Abstract » Informal interactions are a key element of group work, and many theoretical frameworks and systems have been developed to understand and support these conversations in distributed workgroups. In particular, systems used in several recent experiments provided information about others' current activities so that their availability for conversation could be assessed, and interruptions could be timed strategically. One issue with these experimental systems, though, is that many do not notify the observed party that these observations are taking place. There is reason to believe that such notification could be valuable to users, and that it could alter observers' behavior. Moreover, factors such as the perceived urgency of the interruption could affect willingness to violate social norms in gathering information. We report on an experiment assessing the impact of perceived visibility and task urgency on awareness checking behavior. Results suggest that people check more often when they believe their partners do not know they are checking, and more often when the task is time-constrained than when it is not.
ACM
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Evaluating and Understanding the Usability of a Pen-based Command System for Interactive Paper - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: User studies on a pen-gesture-based interactive paper system for Active Reading. Can help understand how such a system is learned and used in typical scenarios and how researchers evaluate it.
Abstract » To combine the affordance of paper and computers, prior research has proposed numerous interactive paper systems that link specific paper document content to digital operations such as multimedia playback and proofreading. Yet, it remains unclear to what degree these systems bridge the inherent gap between paper and computers when compared to existing paper-only and computer-only interfaces. In particular, given the special properties of paper, such as limited dynamic feedback, how well does an average novice user learn to master an interactive paper system? What factors affect the user performance? And how does the paper interface work in a typical use scenario?

To answer these questions, we conducted two empirical experiments on a generic pen-gesture-based command system, called PapierCraft [Liao, et al., 2008], for paper-based interfaces. With PapierCraft, people can select sections of printed documents and issue commands such as copy and paste, linking and in-text search. The first experiment focused on the user performance of drawing pen gestures on paper. It proves that users can learn the command system in about 30 minutes and achieve a performance comparable to a Table PC-based interface
supporting the same gestures. The second experiment examined the application of the command system in active reading tasks. The results show promise for seamless integration of paper and computers in active reading for their combined affordance. In addition, our study reveals some key design issues, such as the pen form factor and feedback of gestures. This paper contributes to better understanding on pros and cons of paper and computers, and sheds light on the design of future interfaces for document interaction.
In session: Pen + Touch - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
The Team Coordination Game: Zero-Fidelity Simulation Abstracted from Emergency Response Practice - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Zero-fidelity simulation develops and invokes the principle of abstraction, focusing on human-information and human-human transfers of meaning, to derive design from work practice.
Abstract » Crisis response engenders a high-stress environment in which teams gather, transform, and mutually share information. Prior educational approaches have not successfully addressed these critical skills. The assumption has been that the highest fidelity simulations result in the best learning. Deploying high-fidelity simulations is expensive and dangerous; they do not address team coordination. Low-fidelity approaches are ineffective because they are not stressful.

Zero-fidelity simulation develops and invokes the principle of abstraction, focusing on human-information and human-human transfers of meaning, to derive design from work practice. Our principal hypothesis is that crisis responders will experience zero-fidelity simulation as effective simulation of team coordination. We synthesize the sustained iterative design and evaluation of the Team Coordination Game. We develop and apply new experimental methods to show that participants learn to cooperate and communicate, applying what they learn in practice. Design implications address how to employ the abstraction principle to develop zero-fidelity simulations.
In session: Performative Emergency Simulation - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Does Proprioception Guide Back-of-Device Pointing as Well as Vision? - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present research that investigates the amount of guidance required by users for precise back-of-device interaction. We explore how pointing effectiveness is influenced by the presence or absence of visual guidance feedback. Participants were asked to select targets displayed on an iPad device, by touching and releasing them from underneath the device. Another iPad was used to detect finger positions from the rear. Results showed that participants were able to select targets as accurately without visual feedback of finger position as they were with it. Additionally, no significant increase in workload was identified when visual feedback was removed. Our results show that users do not require complex techniques to visualize finger position on the rear of device. Visual feedback does not affect any performance parameters, such as effectiveness, perceived performance, and the number of trials needed to select a target. We also outline the implications of our findings and our future work to fully investigate the effect of visual guidance feedback.
 
Mobile Applications to Support Dietary Change: Highlighting the Importance of Evaluation Context - Works In Progress
Abstract » Along with the smart phone came smart phone applications, which range in functionality, complexity and price. Hugely popular are lifestyle applications which include tools for diet and exercise. Despite the popularity of these applications however, we have yet to see any form of rigorous investigation into their value, i.e. their impact on user behaviour and long term health goals. We embarked on a live clinical trial of a behavior based mobile application designed to assist users on meal replacement diet programs to judge its impact and value. Our analysis showed that users were more engaged with a fully interactive application than an information based application, and that varying analysis conditions seemed to result in varying impact.
 
Factors Associated with Persistent Participation in an Online Diet Intervention - Works In Progress
Abstract » In recent years, much work has been carried out in interface design and service quality in order to maximise user experience and sustain engagement. We are often unsure, however, what factors really influence user interactions with the technologies. Here we report on an ongoing examination of the relationships between user demographics, self reported attitudes, efficacy, and system feature, and participation on an online diet support site. Our findings indicate that not only the characteristics of the users themselves are associated with sustained engagement with a weight loss site, but also that usage of particular features on the site results in higher return rates. These findings support a push for designers to understand their users and features of their site, in order to maximise engagement with their target audiences.
 
Does Proprioception Guide Back-of-Device Pointing as Well as Vision? - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present research that investigates the amount of guidance required by users for precise back-of-device interaction. We explore how pointing effectiveness is influenced by the presence or absence of visual guidance feedback. Participants were asked to select targets displayed on an iPad device, by touching and releasing them from underneath the device. Another iPad was used to detect finger positions from the rear. Results showed that participants were able to select targets as accurately without visual feedback of finger position as they were with it. Additionally, no significant increase in workload was identified when visual feedback was removed. Our results show that users do not require complex techniques to visualize finger position on the rear of device. Visual feedback does not affect any performance parameters, such as effectiveness, perceived performance, and the number of trials needed to select a target. We also outline the implications of our findings and our future work to fully investigate the effect of visual guidance feedback.
 
Sharing Narrative and Experience: Digital Stories and Portraits at a Women’s Centre - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present our work-in-progress designing technologies to foster social connection with isolated immigrant women in the UK. We report our preliminary studies using digital storytelling and digital portrait methods with participants at a Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) centre supporting women who have experiences of domestic violence. While these methods have provided valuable insights, in contexts where participants feel vulnerable and cultural diversity is the norm, HCI's conventional assumptions about storytelling and probe use cannot be taken for granted. We describe our rationale for the adaptation of methods and tensions highlighted through the process.
 
Course 18: Social Interaction Design for Online Video and Television - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Will teach you how to analyze, design and evaluate social interaction for online video and television, giving practical tools, techniques and guidelines to apply directly in your own work.
Abstract » Web applications with video content as well as television sets including network connections have become increasingly popular. The social nature of watching video and television drives developers of both types of applications to explore the integration of successful social media like Facebook or Twitter with streaming video. Moreover, several apps are being created for smartphones and tablets, which act as a second screen that allows remotely communicating with friends while watching. These types of applications can be called social TV, allowing remote viewers to interact with each other via the television set, smartphones, tablets or the PC. Features include remote talking or chatting while watching television, sending recommendations, leaving comments, showing what you watch or sharing video clips.

This course studies current developments on social television and online video applications, providing participants first hand knowledge on how to analyze, design and evaluate them. The term ‘sociability’ is used to indicate these interface aspects that support and enhance social interaction with and through new technologies and applications, and social interaction design is a way of including these sociability aspects in the design process. The specific nature of social video watching, such as enjoying a television program while communicating or using television content as conversation starter, warrant the use of a specific design process and guidelines, focusing on social interaction and sociability.

During the course, participants will learn in a very practical way how to design and evaluate social features of these emergent applications. Based on their extensive experience in designing and performing user tests of social television, and using real world examples, the instructors will explain the practical issues and will highlight key challenges for the CHI community.
D
 
On Saliency, Affect and Focused Attention - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Study how saliency of relevant information impacts user engagement metrics, namely, focused attention and affect. Of interest to website owner, entertainment-oriented or other, interested in understanding user engagement.
Abstract » We study how the visual catchiness (saliency) of relevant information impacts user engagement metrics such as focused attention and emotion (affect). Participants completed tasks in one of two conditions, where the task-relevant information either appeared salient or non-salient. Our analysis provides insights into relationships between saliency, focused attention, and affect. Participants reported more distraction in the non-salient condition, and non-salient information was slower to find than salient. Lack-of-saliency led to a negative impact on affect, while saliency maintained positive affect, suggesting its helpfulness. Participants reported that it was easier to focus in the salient condition, although there was no significant improvement in the focused attention scale rating. Finally, this study suggests user interest in the topic is a good predictor of focused attention, which in turn is a good predictor of positive affect. These results suggest that enhancing saliency of user-interested topics seems a good strategy for boosting user engagement.
ACM
In session: Empathy and Technology: Focus on the End User - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
 
Articulating Lines of Research in Digital Arts, HCI, and Interaction (Invited SIG) - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG initiates an essential step in establishing the Digital Arts at CHI by working with the audience to articulate traditions of contribution.
Abstract » The establishment of a Digital Arts Featured Community at CHI 2012 indicates the general acceptance of mutually beneficial synergies between digital arts and HCI. At this juncture, the Digital Arts Community has an opportunity to build upon this established community platform to begin articulating lines of research. This SIG initiates this essential step in establishing traditions of contribution.
 
Test-driven Development for the Web – Increasing Efficiency of Web Development - Works In Progress
Abstract » With the rapid growth of World Wide Web, demands on
website developers have increased dramatically. At the
same time new web development challenges have
emerged. These challenges include enabling web
developers with a low level of experience, fast paced
development cycles and a disconnect between different
phases of web development. In this paper we present
algorithms which address some of these challenges.
Our algorithms lower the barrier of expertise and
experience required to transform development
requirements into web pages, bridge the divide
between web testing and development as well as
improve test case maintenance. We also present a
survey we conducted among web developers to
understand their problems, experiments to
demonstrate the performance of our algorithms and a
user study that shows the value of our approach.
 
Using NFC Phones to Track Water Purification in Haiti - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This case study describes the decision-making process, the opportunities, and the difficulties of designing and rolling out a NFC-based system to help provide clean water in Haiti.
Abstract » In this paper we describe a system that uses near-field communication (NFC) tags to augment an existing socio-technical system for providing clean water to households throughout Haiti. In the pilot version, we programmed forty NFC phones for use by Haitian water technicians to track chlorine usage in two thousand households, identified by NFC tags on the drinking water buckets in homes. We are in the process of scaling this pilot up to 40,000 households- approximately a quarter of a million people - using 100 or more additional phones. The project involves collaboration between an industrial research lab (Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto), the Public Health School of a university (UC Berkeley), and an existing non-profit organization in Haiti (Deep Springs International (DSI)).
In session: ICT4D - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Methods to Account for Values in Human-Centered Computing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a workshop on developing methodological frameworks for values in human-centered computing, and putting these methods into practice. Can help designers, users and other stakeholders account for values in design.
Abstract » This workshop brings together scholars and practitioners of human-centered computing, requirements engineering, ethics and related fields. We will share knowledge and insights on methods to account for human values in information technology design. Through short presentations, group discussions and practical design group work, participants will collaborate on developing methodological frameworks for values in human-centered computing, and putting these methods into practice.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
A Virtual Reality Dialogue System For The Treatment Of Social Phobia - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: A virtual reality exposure therapy system designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while being monitored.
Abstract » People with social phobia have a severe fear of everyday social situations. In this paper we describe a virtual reality exposure therapy system specifically designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while being monitored by a therapist. To control phobic stressors, therapists can control the avatar’s gaze, the avatar’s dialogue style and the narrative stories that are embedded throughout the exposure. The system uses the Delft remote virtual reality exposure therapy platform which allows remote treatment.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Everscape: The Making of a Disaster Evacuation Experience - Works In Progress
Abstract » Disaster evacuation studies are important but difficult or impossible to conduct in the real world. Evacuation simulation in a virtual world can be an important tool to obtain data on the escape and choice behavior of people. However, to obtain accurate “realistic” data, the engagement of participants is a key challenge. Therefore, we describe the making of an engaging evacuation scenario called “Everscape”, and highlight the collaborative effort of researchers from the informatics and transportation fields. Further, we describe encouraging results from a pilot study, which investigates the level of engagement of participants of the Everscape experience.
 
Theories behind UX Research and How They Are Used in Practice - Workshop
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A major contribution of the workshop will be to clarify the applicability and transferability of different theories, theoretical concepts in informing UX design and evaluation in both research and practice.
Abstract » At CHI2011 we organized a SIG session asking the question "What theoretical roots do we build on, if any, in UX research?" Overall, 122 single items from about 70 participants were collected, which corroborates the relevance of and interest in this topic. Whilst the theoretical foundations for UX research are not yet established, those responses can serve as candidate resources for setting the theoretical directions. A primary conclusion from the SIG discussion is that the CHI community needs theories in UX research and practice. A major contribution of the workshop will be to clarify the applicability and transferability of different theories, theoretical foundations, concepts in informing UX design and evaluation in both research and practice. In particular we will look into theories that have already been applied in practice.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
TravelThrough: A Participatory-based Guidance System for Traveling through Disaster Areas - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: We examine the potential of utilizing the affected population and prevalent mobile technology (with GPS) as distributed active sensors, sharing observations from the disaster areas, while guiding themselves to safety.
Abstract » This paper focuses on decentralized individual self-help in the aftermath of a disaster, instead of the traditionally adopted model of centralized disaster response management. It presents the results of a controlled field experiment that compares a new disaster response model involving civilians participating with smartphones with the traditional centralized model. In the new system, the affected people lead themselves to safety, and at the same time serving as distributed active sensors that share observations of the disaster area. The results show that the proposed system is more effective, preferred, and reduces the workload in guiding affected people safely to their destinations.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Postboard: free-form tangible messaging for people with aphasia (and other people) - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we report the design of a communication system for people with aphasia. It consists of pairs of physical whiteboards that are connected over the internet. This allows users to combine any personal language skills with visuals and already existing materials at hand. The design has been based on feedback and evaluation sessions with aphasics and their therapists. The user test results show that the design provides a low entry barrier and enables relaxed conversations.
 
In Search of Theoretical Foundations for UX Research and Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we point out the relevance of and the need for a theoretical discussion around UX research and practice. Although there is a good coverage of methodological and design related topics in the HCI literature, there is still a lack of theoretical focus in the rapidly increasing work on user experience (UX). We analyzed 122 individual items on theories collected in a CHI’11 special interest group session on UX theories and theoretical frameworks. The data set was filtered and categorized in several iterations, resulting in 56 items distributed over 7 major theory categories and related to 9 relevant disciplines. The categories are an initial mapping of the field and point towards the directions for further conceptual and theoretical clarification. Our results help to explore the multi-disciplinary nature of UX and to build a more solid foundation for UX research and practice.
 
Course 19: User Experience Evaluation Methods: Which Method to Choose? - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Helps to select the right user experience evaluation methods for different purposes. A collection of methods that investigate how people feel about the system under study is provided at www.allaboutux.org.
Abstract » High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of products in mature consumer markets. Improving UX during product development and research requires evaluation, but traditional usability testing methods are not adequate for evaluating UX. The evaluation methods for investigating how users feel about the tested system are still less known in the HCI community.

Since 2008, the instructors have been collecting a comprehensive set of 80 UX evaluation methods both from academia and industry, which is now available at www.allaboutux.org/all-methods.

This course will cover the following topics:
- the general targets of UX evaluation
- the various kinds of UX evaluation methods available for different purposes (an overview)
- how to choose the right method for the purpose
- the basics of a sample of UX methods of different types
- guidance on where to find more information on those methods

By the end of this course, you will be able to choose suitable methods for your specific user experience evaluation cases.

Our target audience consists of researchers and practitioners who want to get acquainted with user experience evaluation methods. The participants should have basic understanding of the user-centered design process, and preferably experience on usability studies.
 
Methods to Account for Values in Human-Centered Computing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a workshop on developing methodological frameworks for values in human-centered computing, and putting these methods into practice. Can help designers, users and other stakeholders account for values in design.
Abstract » This workshop brings together scholars and practitioners of human-centered computing, requirements engineering, ethics and related fields. We will share knowledge and insights on methods to account for human values in information technology design. Through short presentations, group discussions and practical design group work, participants will collaborate on developing methodological frameworks for values in human-centered computing, and putting these methods into practice.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
A Virtual Reality Dialogue System For The Treatment Of Social Phobia - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: A virtual reality exposure therapy system designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while being monitored.
Abstract » People with social phobia have a severe fear of everyday social situations. In this paper we describe a virtual reality exposure therapy system specifically designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while being monitored by a therapist. To control phobic stressors, therapists can control the avatar’s gaze, the avatar’s dialogue style and the narrative stories that are embedded throughout the exposure. The system uses the Delft remote virtual reality exposure therapy platform which allows remote treatment.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
TravelThrough: A Participatory-based Guidance System for Traveling through Disaster Areas - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: We examine the potential of utilizing the affected population and prevalent mobile technology (with GPS) as distributed active sensors, sharing observations from the disaster areas, while guiding themselves to safety.
Abstract » This paper focuses on decentralized individual self-help in the aftermath of a disaster, instead of the traditionally adopted model of centralized disaster response management. It presents the results of a controlled field experiment that compares a new disaster response model involving civilians participating with smartphones with the traditional centralized model. In the new system, the affected people lead themselves to safety, and at the same time serving as distributed active sensors that share observations of the disaster area. The results show that the proposed system is more effective, preferred, and reduces the workload in guiding affected people safely to their destinations.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Implanted User Interfaces - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the effect of skin on traditional components for sensing input, providing output, and for communicating, synchronizing and charging wirelessly.
Abstract » We investigate implanted user interfaces that small devices provide when implanted underneath human skin. Such devices always stay with the user, making their implanted user interfaces available at all times. We discuss four core challenges of implanted user interfaces: how to sense input through the skin, how to produce output, how to communicate amongst one another and with external infrastructure, and how to remain powered. We investigate these four challenges in a technical evaluation where we surgically implant study devices into a specimen arm. We find that traditional interfaces do work through skin. We then demonstrate how to deploy a prototype device on participants, using artificial skin to simulate implantation. We close with a discussion of medical considerations of implanted user interfaces, risks and limitations, and project into the future.
ACM
In session: Brain and Body - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Changing requirements to HCI funding: A global perspective - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. We review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents how requirements change and what that means.
Abstract » The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. In this SIG meeting, we will review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents and countries how the requirements are changing and discuss how this affects HCI research and its impact.
 
HCI and Sustainability: The Role of Macrostructures - Works In Progress
Abstract » Sustained behavior changes are required to reduce the impact of human society on the environment. Much research on how HCI may help do so focuses on changing behavior by providing information directed at an individual or a microstructure (e.g., household). We propose societal macrostructures (e.g., municipalities) and their interaction with microstructures as a focus for HCI aimed at designing behavior change. We present two ongoing case studies involving municipalities in Denmark and discuss how and why macrostructures may be used in the design of HCI for behavior based environmental sustainability.
 
Do Cognitive Styles of Users affect Preference and Performance related to CAPTCHA Challenges? - Works In Progress
Abstract » A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is nowadays a widely used security mechanism for constructing a high-confidence proof that the entity interacting with a remote service is actually a human being. Aiming to investigate the relation among users' cognitive styles, and CAPTCHA challenges in terms of preference and performance, a study is in progress which entails a psychometric-based survey for extracting users' cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario with two variations of CAPTCHA mechanisms. A total of 131 participants of age between 19 and 25 participated in the reported study providing interesting insights with respect to users' cognitive styles and CAPTCHA preference and performance issues.
 
What is the Object of Design? - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes design as accessing, aligning, and navigating “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents, combining creativity, participation and experience in drawing-things-together.
Abstract » In this paper we reflect upon design at a conceptual level, discussing how creativity can be coupled with participation and experience, dialoguing with philosophers and social theorists, and looking for the experiential grounds of our understanding of the very nature of design. Three words: ‘drawing’, ‘thing’ and ‘together’, are at the center of our discourse. We propose a view of design as accessing, aligning, and navigating among the “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents. The object of design is to draw things together.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Animal-Computer Interaction SIG - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Beyond HCI: animals as technology users and co-participants in technological interactions, in the context of human-animal relationships and animal engagement with technology in different settings.
Abstract » User-computer interaction research is demonstrating growing interest in the relation between animals and technology (e.g., computer-mediated interspecies interactions and animal-computer interfaces). However, as a research area, this topic is still underexplored and fragmented, and researchers lack opportunities to exchange ideas, identify resources, form collaborations and co-operatively develop a coherent research agenda. The Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) SIG meeting aims to provide such an opportunity, promoting the development of ACI as a distinct area of research which is relevant to both animals and humans.
In session: Animal-Computer Interaction SIG - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
 
eInclusion @ Cyprus Universities: Provision and Web Accessibility - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents part of a work-in-progress that aims
to discuss issues of accessibility in higher education
regarding equal opportunities in the use and access of
information and technology for students with disabilities
in Cyprus. All Cypriot university Websites have been
examined using accessibility evaluation techniques and the
provisions made by the higher education officers for equal
access to their university websites have been reviewed.
The results showed that all university pages show
accessibility problems, with the public ones having the
least errors. With respect to provisions, results showed
that internal regulations and policy of universities did not
include any speci c provisions for web or other technology
accessibility.
 
Course 2: Evaluating Children's Interactive Products - Course
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This course will introduce attendees to methods and tips for carrying out safe, effective and ethical evaluations with children. Practical tips and time saving instructions will be delivered.
Abstract » The evaluation of interactive products with children is complex and prone to errors. Many techniques that work well with adults are poorly suited to work with children as children have different skills, motivations, and ideals. The design of new techniques, and the modification of existing techniques, is an area which has drawn interest in the Child Computer Interaction Community as it is an area where there is still much to be learned but also much to be shared. This course will share the experiences and knowledge of the instructors in a lively and interactive way that will disseminate good practice on the organisation of, management of, and understanding of, evaluation sessions with children. New techniques will be described and ethical practices outlined.
 
Playful Arm Hand Training after Stroke - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents the design of an interactive system designed to support arm-hand rehabilitation of stroke survivors through gaming. It consists in an interactive tabletop game and wearable sensing technology that provides feedback to patients to assist with the correct execution of movements. We present the motivation for this design, the main choices made during the design process, an initial evaluation, and an outline of ongoing work for developing this system further.
 
Thin Slices of Interaction: Predicting Usersʼ Task Difficulty within 60 sec. - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This study shows that the users’ experienced task difficulty while interacting with a photocopier can be predicted from the automatic video coding of Activity and Emphasis of movement.
Abstract » We report on an exploratory study where the first 60 seconds of the video recording of a user interaction are used to predict the user’s experienced task difficulty. This approach builds on previous work on “thin slices” of human-human behavior, and applies it to human-computer interaction. In the scenario of interacting with a photocopy machine, automated video coding showed that the Activity and Emphasis predicted 46.6% of the variance of task difficulty. This result closely follows reported results on predicting negotiation outcomes from conversational dynamics using similar variables on the speech signal.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
From Materials to Materiality: Connecting Practice and Theory in HC - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop considers what HCI can learn from, and contribute to an engagement with material studies to enrich how HCI theorizes digital culture.
Abstract » As practical resources and analytical precepts, "materials" have become central to the design and study of information technology. By considering how HCI has moved from material to materiality and, by implication, from practice to theory, we will examine different facets of material culture in HCI, drawing from domains just beyond it, such as craft studies, information studies and organizational studies. This workshop thus aims to bring together a range of perspectives on the materials of HCI to enrich our understanding of the design and analysis of interaction.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Deploying MonoTrans Widgets in the Wild - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Our first attempt to deploy a crowd-sourced monolingual translation system to the wild finds interesting lesson dealing with crowds with different sizes simultaneously.
Abstract » In this paper, we report our experience deploying the MonoTrans Widgets system in a public setting. Our work follows a line of crowd-sourced monolingual translation systems, and it is the first attempt to deploy such a system "in the wild". The results are promising, but we also found out that simultaneously drawing from multiple crowds with different expertise and sizes poses unique problems in the design of such crowd-sourcing systems.
ACM
In session: Crowdsourcing and Peer Production II - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Do Cognitive Styles of Users affect Preference and Performance related to CAPTCHA Challenges? - Works In Progress
Abstract » A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is nowadays a widely used security mechanism for constructing a high-confidence proof that the entity interacting with a remote service is actually a human being. Aiming to investigate the relation among users' cognitive styles, and CAPTCHA challenges in terms of preference and performance, a study is in progress which entails a psychometric-based survey for extracting users' cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario with two variations of CAPTCHA mechanisms. A total of 131 participants of age between 19 and 25 participated in the reported study providing interesting insights with respect to users' cognitive styles and CAPTCHA preference and performance issues.
 
eInclusion @ Cyprus Universities: Provision and Web Accessibility - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents part of a work-in-progress that aims
to discuss issues of accessibility in higher education
regarding equal opportunities in the use and access of
information and technology for students with disabilities
in Cyprus. All Cypriot university Websites have been
examined using accessibility evaluation techniques and the
provisions made by the higher education officers for equal
access to their university websites have been reviewed.
The results showed that all university pages show
accessibility problems, with the public ones having the
least errors. With respect to provisions, results showed
that internal regulations and policy of universities did not
include any speci c provisions for web or other technology
accessibility.
 
HCI for Peace: Preventing, De-Escalating and Recovering from Conflict - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: An opportunity for a focused and extended set of presentations and discussions on the use of interactive technologies for preventing, de-escalating and recovering from conflict.
Abstract » The increasing ubiquity of computing devices coupled with recent empirical research on the factors that affect the likelihood of conflict provide HCI researchers with new opportunities to conduct research on interactive systems designed to prevent, de-escalate and recover from conflict. Approaches used by HCI researchers in this field have included the use of a multi-lifespan research initiative to support peace and reconciliation after genocide, CSCW to facilitate communication, visualization to help detect landmines, and calming technology to support individuals desiring interactive systems that scaffold non-violent interactions. In this workshop we plan to further explore these ideas and discuss existing and future challenges.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Design of an Exergaming Station for Children with Cerebral Palsy - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design of an exergaming station for children with cerebral palsy. Results present the design challenges of the station and suggest several lessons for game designers.
Abstract » We report on the design of a novel station supporting the play of exercise video games (exergames) by children with cerebral palsy (CP). The station combines a physical platform allowing children with CP to provide pedaling input into a game, a standard Xbox 360 controller, and algorithms for interpreting the cycling input to improve smoothness and accuracy of gameplay. The station was designed through an iterative and incremental participatory design process involving medical professionals, game designers, computer scientists, kinesiologists, physical therapists, and eight children with CP. It has been tested through observation of its use, through gathering opinions from the children, and through small experimental studies. With our initial design, only three of eight children were capable of playing a cycling-based game; with the final design, seven of eight could cycle effectively, and six reached energy expenditure levels recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine while pedaling unassisted.
ACM
In session: Health and Children - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
HCI and Sustainability: The Role of Macrostructures - Works In Progress
Abstract » Sustained behavior changes are required to reduce the impact of human society on the environment. Much research on how HCI may help do so focuses on changing behavior by providing information directed at an individual or a microstructure (e.g., household). We propose societal macrostructures (e.g., municipalities) and their interaction with microstructures as a focus for HCI aimed at designing behavior change. We present two ongoing case studies involving municipalities in Denmark and discuss how and why macrostructures may be used in the design of HCI for behavior based environmental sustainability.
 
HCI Professions: Differences & Definitions - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we present findings from a pilot survey in which we investigated how industry practitioners who create interactive technologies discuss their work and include end users, (e.g. user research methods used). We also explored measures of empathy (a key concept for ‘walking in end-user’s shoes’) among HCI professionals. We found that there were distinct and significant differences among individuals who claimed user-centric job titles (e.g. usability engineer) from those who claimed design-centric job titles (e.g. interaction designer, developer). Differences included how job-title groups considered end-users in their work and their empathetic profiles. We used results from this pilot study to inform a more comprehensive study we are currently undertaking.
 
Material Interactions - From Atoms & Bits to Entangled Practices - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme "It's the experience" for CHI2012 by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers.
Abstract » This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme �It�s the experience� for the CHI2012 conference by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers. We take a series of questions as a joint point of departure to consider the nature and character of �material interactions� in HCI. Specifically, we consider theoretical, critical and practical approaches to material interactions and how they inform/become useful to HCI. The panel will include position statements from the panelists as well as high-level audience participation. We envision a fun and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish, Daniela Rosner, Petra Sundstr�m, Anna Vallg�rda and Tobie Kerridge. This panel also features Mark Rolston, Chief Creative Officer at Frog design, Inc.
 
Knoby: Pet-like Interactive Door Knob - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present pet-like characteristics as a useful interactivity model for future products that could be more usable, emotional and sustainable. We investigated this issue by designing Knoby, a pet-like interactive door knob. Dogs’ emotional and behavioral characteristics were applied to a product concept in the design development process. The main features of Knoby include i) emotional expression of welcoming through its tail movement, ii) locking and unlocking interface similar to people’s interaction with a dog, and iii) continuous dynamic interaction for long term product attachment. Preliminary evaluation has showed that users perceive Knoby to be alive and to support emotional and playful interaction. This research provides a new perspective on the development of complex and intelligent products, and this model can be used as a design method for considering different pets and associated characteristics.
 
Walking improves your cognitive map in environments that are large-scale and large in extent - ToCHI
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: No previous studies have used an omni-directional treadmill to investigate navigation. Contrary to previous studies using small-scale spaces, we show that physical locomotion is critical for rapid cognitive map development.
Abstract » This study investigated the effect of body-based information (proprioception, etc.) when participants navigated large-scale virtual marketplaces that were either small (Experiment 1) or large in extent (Experiment 2). Extent refers to the size of an environment, whereas scale refers to whether people have to travel through an environment to see the detail necessary for navigation. Each participant was provided with full body-based information (walking through the virtual marketplaces in a large tracking hall or on an omni-directional treadmill), just the translational component of body-based information (walking on a linear treadmill, but turning with a joystick), just the rotational component (physically turning but using a joystick to translate) or no body-based information (joysticks to translate and rotate). In large and small environments translational body-based information significantly improved the accuracy of participants’ cognitive maps, measured using estimates of direction and relative straight line distance but, on its own, rotational body-based information had no effect. In environments of small extent, full body-based information also improved participants’ navigational performance. The experiments show that locomotion devices such as linear treadmills would bring substantial benefits to virtual environment applications where large spaces are navigated, and theories of human navigation need to reconsider the contribution made by body-based information, and distinguish between environmental scale and extent.
In session: Kick it! Interfaces for Feet and Walking - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
When Hand and Device Melt into a Unit. Microgestures on Grasped Objects - Doctoral Consortium
Contribution & Benefit: The explained outcome of my research will provide findings about how people interact with tangible objects of different form factors and which not necessarily provide rich visual feedback.
Abstract » I am motivated by the idea to capitalize the hand's abilities for becoming a natural input device. This can be achieved through finger-worn sensors that track their movements. I am particular interested in finger gestures that are feasible while grasping devices. Executing gestures on a steering wheel while driving, such as those seen in Fig. 1, are just some examples of interactions, which would not require any device-release. The resulting question is: To what extent can users interact with grasped objects through tiny microgestures that are performed while grasping? This extended abstract shows the progress of my research and presents the design of a study that is in preparation. Around this study design I formulated research questions. My approach aims to apply motor and mental models for designing interactions and interfaces regarding human motor abilities, interaction favors, and the mental model of themselves within their environment.
 
The 3rd Dimension of CHI (3DCHI): Touching and Designing 3D User Interfaces - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatial 3D space in which we live.
Abstract » In recent years 3D has gained increasing amount of attention - interactive visualization of 3D data has become increasingly important and widespread due to the requirements of several application areas, and entertainment industry has brought 3D experience to the reach of wide audiences through games, 3D movies and stereoscopic displays. However, current user interfaces (UIs) often lack adequate support for 3D interactions: 2D metaphors still dominate in GUI design, 2D desktop systems are often limited in cases where natural interaction with 3D content is required, and sophisticated 3D user interfaces consisting of stereoscopic projections and tracked input devices are rarely adopted by ordinary users. In the future, novel interaction design solutions are needed to better support the natural interaction and utilize the special features of 3D technologies.
In this workshop we address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatially complex, 3D space in which we live. The workshop will provide a common forum for researchers to share their visions of the future and recent results in the area of improving 3D interaction and UI design.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Understanding Experts' and Novices' Expertise Judgment of Twitter Users - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an empirical study to understand the differences between experts and novices in judging expertise of Twitter authors. Provides design guidelines for micro-blogger recommendation system.
Abstract » Judging topical expertise of micro-blogger is one of the key challenges for information seekers when deciding which information sources to follow. However, it is unclear how useful different types of information are for people to make expertise judgments and to what extent their background knowledge influences their judgments. This study explored differences between experts and novices in inferring expertise of Twitter users. In three conditions, participants rated the level of expertise of users after seeing (1) only the tweets, (2) only the contextual information including short biographical and user list information, and (3) both tweets and contextual information. Results indicated that, in general, contextual information provides more useful information for making expertise judgment of Twitter users than tweets. While the addition of tweets seems to make little difference, or even add nuances to novices� expertise judgment, experts� judgments were improved when both content and contextual information were presented.
ACM
In session: Social Computing: Business & Beyond - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Surround Haptics: Tactile Feedback for Immersive Gaming Experiences - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Come and enjoy high quality haptic feedback on your body as you drive through different phases of a driving game. Feel engine rumbles, car motion, tire traction, environment, and many more.
Abstract » In this paper we propose an architecture for rendering rich and high-resolution haptic feedback on the user’s body while playing interactive games. The haptic architecture consists of three main elements, namely, haptic engine, haptic API/codec, and haptic display. The haptic engine extracts events from the game, assigns haptic feedback to these events, and sends coded packets to haptic API/codec. The haptic API/codec translates the coded packets and computes driving signals based on carefully evaluated algorithms derived from psychophysical modeling of tactile perception. The driving signals are then routed to the haptic display embedded with an array of vibratory transducers. A user feels high resolution and refined tactile sensations on the body through the display. We have integrated the Surround Haptics system with a driving simulation game to provide an enjoyable gaming experience.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Tactile Feedback on Flat Surfaces for the Visually Impaired - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we introduce a mobile, generic, and inexpensive visuo-tactile sensory substitution device for the visually impaired. The device helps users to explore the world around them, by pointing it towards objects of the environment and rendering tactile information to the objects sensed by a camera. With the help of two visually impaired participants, we conducted three preliminary experiments and evaluated the performance of the device in detecting, reaching and exploring tasks. Both participants were able to detect, explore and reach for a given object of interest in a controlled room setting using only the tactile information rendered on the flat panel of the device. The implication of results and future directions for tactile assistive devices are discussed.
 
Surround Haptics: Tactile Feedback for Immersive Gaming Experiences - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Come and enjoy high quality haptic feedback on your body as you drive through different phases of a driving game. Feel engine rumbles, car motion, tire traction, environment, and many more.
Abstract » In this paper we propose an architecture for rendering rich and high-resolution haptic feedback on the user’s body while playing interactive games. The haptic architecture consists of three main elements, namely, haptic engine, haptic API/codec, and haptic display. The haptic engine extracts events from the game, assigns haptic feedback to these events, and sends coded packets to haptic API/codec. The haptic API/codec translates the coded packets and computes driving signals based on carefully evaluated algorithms derived from psychophysical modeling of tactile perception. The driving signals are then routed to the haptic display embedded with an array of vibratory transducers. A user feels high resolution and refined tactile sensations on the body through the display. We have integrated the Surround Haptics system with a driving simulation game to provide an enjoyable gaming experience.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Touché: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Touché: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Touché uses a novel Swept Frequency Capacitive Sensing technique that can easily add rich touch and gesture sensitivity to a wide variety of objects, including the human body and water.
Abstract » Touché proposes a novel Swept Frequency Capacitive Sensing technique that can not only detect a touch event, but also recognize complex configurations of the human hands and body. Such contextual information significantly enhances touch interaction in a broad range of applications, from conventional touchscreens to unique contexts and materials. For example, in our explorations we add touch and gesture sensitivity to the human body and liquids. We demonstrate the rich capabilities of Touché with five example setups from different application domains and conduct experimental studies that show gesture classification accuracies of 99% are achievable with our technology.
ACM
In session: Brain and Body - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Work Life Balance in HCI - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG explores possible solutions to the challenges that HCI researchers and practitioners face in their everyday lives in an attempt to maintain a work life balance.
Abstract » With the pervasiveness of technology, it has not only permeated our workspaces but it has also become invasive in our private personal spaces. Whether on the sports field, in the home, in health or spiritual spaces, technology is ever present. With this persistent presence, it keeps us constantly connected to our work, extending work beyond the normal working hours that used to be sharply demarcated by physical distance between work and play. This SIG will discuss the challenges and possible interventions to maintain work life balance for HCI researchers and practitioners.
In session: Work Life Balance in HCI - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Qualitative Research in HCI - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: For academics in HCI who practice qualitative evaluation and want to understand the use of participatory practices in ethnography; share experiences doing fieldwork.
Abstract » This workshop is targeted towards academics in HCI who practice qualitative evaluation methods. In particular we hope to understand the use of participatory practices in ethnography, as well as, share experiences doing fieldwork. This is especially important as community members from different social science backgrounds and countries often receive dissimilar training and have few opportunities to discuss fieldwork practice. Beyond this we wish to examine issues raised by workshop participants as key challenges to their qualitative research.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Making Gestural Input from Arm-Worn Inertial Sensors More Practical - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Gesture recognition requires complex computation and tedious user-training. We present an efficient recognition method that achieves accurate recognition with only a single calibration gesture from each user.
Abstract » Gestural input can greatly improve computing experiences away from the desktop, and has the potential to provide always-available access to computing. Specifically, accelerometers and gyroscopes worn on the arm (e.g., in a wristwatch) can sense arm gestures, enabling natural input in untethered scenarios. Two core components of any gesture recognition system are detecting when a gesture is occurring and classifying which gesture a person has performed. In previous work, accurate detection has required significant computation, and high-accuracy classification has come at the cost of training the system on a per-user basis. In this note, we present a gesture detection method whose computational complexity does not depend on the duration of the gesture, and describe a novel method for recognizing gestures with only a single example from a new user.
ACM
In session: Sensing + Sensible Interaction - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
AMARA: THE AFFECTIVE MUSEUM OF ART RESOURCE AGENT - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Design of a novel affective art collection search agent
Abstract » This interactive system uses an embedded agent for question-based art collection search on the platform of the Indianapolis Museum of Art website. Unlike a keyword search box, AMARA helps users browse and search for artwork by asking them simple questions with answers mapped to social tags. Thus, the users do not need to be subject matter experts to input specific terms to search. In designing AMARA, we focused on creating an enjoyable browsing experience and helping users to determine their known and unknown art preferences.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Applying Participatory Design Theory to Designing Evaluation Methods - Works In Progress
Abstract » System evaluators face several challenges in designing evaluation methods, including measurement and relevance, context, establishing common ground with users, and eliciting users’ tacit knowledge. To address these challenges, we propose applying participatory design theory to designing evaluation methods by increasing user involvement and by integrating this process into the overall process of system design.
 
Multitasking and Interruptions: A SIG on bridging the gap between research on the micro and macro worlds - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Research in interruptions/multitasking has considered the micro-world of perception and cognition; and the macro-world of organisations, systems and long-term planning. Can the two kinds of research be considered together?
Abstract » Within the CHI community there has been sustained interest in interruptions and multitasking behaviour. Research in the area falls into two broad categories: the micro world of perception and cognition; and the macro world of organisations, systems and long-term planning. Although both kinds of research have generated insights into behaviour, the data generated by the two kinds of research have been effectively incommensurable. Designing safer and more efficient interactions in interrupted and multitasking environments requires that researchers in the area attempt to bridge the gap between these worlds. This SIG aims to stimulate discussion of the tools and methods we need as a community in order to further our understanding of interruptions and multitasking.
 
End-User Debugging Strategies: A Sensemaking Perspective - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes a sensemaking model for end-user debugging and new insights into debugging strategies and behaviors. Reveals implications for the design of spreadsheet tools to support end-user programmers’ sensemaking during debugging.
Abstract » Despite decades of research into how professional programmers debug, only recently has work emerged about how end-user programmers attempt to debug programs. Without this knowledge, we cannot build tools to adequately support their needs. This paper reports the results of a detailed qualitative empirical study of end-user programmers’ sensemaking about a spreadsheet’s correctness. Using our study’s data, we derived a sensemaking model for end-user debugging and categorized participants’ activities and verbalizations according to this model, allowing us to investigate how participants went about debugging. Among the results are identification of the prevalence of information foraging during end-user debugging, two successful strategies for traversing the sensemaking model, potential ties to gender differences in the literature, sensemaking sequences leading to debugging progress, and sequences tied with troublesome points in the debugging process. The results also reveal new implications for the design of spreadsheet tools to support end-user programmers’ sensemaking during debugging.
In session: Programming and Debugging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
CogTool-Explorer: A Model of Goal-Directed User Exploration that Considers Information Layout - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a tool for predicting novice exploration behavior, including errors, that accounts for 63-82% of the variance in three usability metrics. Includes examples using the predictions to direct design effort.
Abstract » CogTool-Explorer 1.2 (CTE1.2) predicts novice exploration behavior and how it varies with different user-interface (UI) layouts. CTE1.2 improves upon previous models of information foraging by adding a model of hierarchical visual search to guide foraging behavior. Built within CogTool so it is easy to represent UI layouts, run the model, and present results, CTE1.2's vision is to assess many design ideas at the storyboard stage before implementation and without the cost of running human participants. This paper evaluates CTE1.2 predictions against observed human behavior on 108 tasks (36 tasks on 3 distinct website layouts). CTE1.2's predictions accounted for 63-82% of the variance in the percentage of participants succeeding on each task, the number of clicks to success, and the percentage of participants succeeding without error. We demonstrate how these predictions can be used to identify areas of the UI in need of redesign.
ACM
In session: Programming, Performance, and Sense Making - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Turning Personal Calendars into Scheduling Assistants - Works In Progress
Abstract » Personal calendars have long played a major role in time management, but they have evolved little over the years, and their contribution to productivity has stagnated. Inspired by logical theories of intention as well as experimental results on human productivity, and leveraging the power of optimization algorithms, we seek to reinvent the digital calendar. First, we increase the expressive power of calendar systems by deriving new entity types that go beyond simple events to better represent human intentions, plans, and goals. Next, we build on social psychological research to characterize the properties of a schedule best engineered for human productivity. Finally, we develop an optimization framework and algorithm to generate these schedules from a set of entities. With these tools combined, we transform the digital calendar from a passive repository into an active scheduling assistant.
E
 
Boneshaker – A generic framework for building physical therapy games - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present the Boneshaker framework, a generic framework developed to facilitate the design of physical therapy games with the Unity 3D engine. The Boneshaker framework lowers the threshold for developing a variety of physical therapy games as it allows both developer and therapist to quickly add input devices and change specific game dynamics/therapy exercises.
 
Increasing the reliability and validity of quantitative Laddering data with LadderUX - Works In Progress
Abstract » Laddering is an interview technique that provides rich qualitative data, and subsequent content analysis allows crossing over from qualitative to a quantitative measurement. However, the method is not tailored to data coming from user experience studies, and result-ing data analysis of UX Laddering studies risks to lack scientific rigor with respect to the reliability and validity of the data. Therefore, we present LadderUX and point out the design rationale for its special features that help UX resear¬ch¬ers measure what they actually set out to measure, ensuring that the resulting dominant means-end chains form an accurate representation of the populat¬ion under study.
 
Boneshaker – A generic framework for building physical therapy games - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present the Boneshaker framework, a generic framework developed to facilitate the design of physical therapy games with the Unity 3D engine. The Boneshaker framework lowers the threshold for developing a variety of physical therapy games as it allows both developer and therapist to quickly add input devices and change specific game dynamics/therapy exercises.
 
User-Driven Collaborative Intelligence – Social Networks as Crowdsourcing Ecosystems - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes Collaborative Intelligence as a subdiscipline of CHI to evolve platforms for problem-solving by harnessing next generation hybrids of crowd-sourcing and social networks to develop Vernor Vinge’s landmark “singularity” concepts
Abstract » Vernor Vinge proposed, “In network and interface research there is something as profound (and potentially wild) as Artificial Intelligence.” How, in this 2012 Centenary of Alan Turing, can we explore that wild CHI opportunity to create futures of intelligence? User experience data can co-evolve synergies across computer data processing and human capacity for pattern recognition, developing collaborative intelligence applications that engage distributed creativity, processing crowd-sourced analytics to plan and track projects, so that data gathered, bottom-up, can improve decision-making.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Annotating BI Visualization Dashboards: Needs & Challenges - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the user-centered design of a visualization dashboard, which supports context aware and multi-chart annotations applied across visualizations and data dimension levels. Discusses challenges in annotating dynamic and hierarchical data.
Abstract » Annotations have been identified as an important aid in
analysis record-keeping and recently data discovery. In this
paper we discuss the use of annotations on visualization
dashboards, with a special focus on business intelligence
(BI) analysis. In-depth interviews with experts lead to new
annotation needs for multi-chart visualization systems, on
which we based the design of a dashboard prototype that
supports data and context aware annotations. We focus
particularly on novel annotation aspects, such as multi-target annotations, annotation transparency across charts
and data dimension levels, as well as annotation properties
such as lifetime and validity. Moreover, our prototype is
built on a data layer shared among different data-sources
and BI applications, allowing cross application annotations.
We discuss challenges in supporting context aware
annotations in dashboards and other visualizations, such as
dealing with changing annotated data, and provide design
solutions. Finally we report reactions and recommendations from a different set of expert users.
ACM
In session: Future Design - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Vintage Radio Interface: Analog Control for Digital Collections - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Development and evaluation of an interface for navigating digital music collections based on a one-dimensional analog control and a data visualization inspired by old analog radios.
Abstract » We present an interface for navigating digital collections based on a one-dimensional analog control and a data visualization based on old analog radios. Our system takes advantage of inertial control to browse a large data collection in a compelling way, reducing the complexity of similar interfaces present in both desktop-based and portable media players. This vintage radio interface has been used to navigate a digital music collection. We have compared the proposed interface with the current most popular hardware, the iPod. The results of user tests with 24 participants are presented and discussed. The insights gained are encouraging enough to continue the development of one-dimensional analog controls for content discovery and retrieval.
In session: Music - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Hanging off a Bar - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Hanging off a Bar is a game where the player hangs over a digital river and jumps on rafts. This game enables investigations into how game elements promote increased exertion.
Abstract » Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with audiences ranging from the general public to expert game designers suggest that Hanging off a Bar can be engaging for players and facilitate intense exertion within seconds. Furthermore, we collected suggestions for what game elements players believe could entice them to increase their physical effort investment. These suggestions, combined with Hanging off a Bar as research vehicle due to the easy measurement of exertion through hanging time, enable future explorations into the relationship between digital game elements and physical exertion, guiding designers on how to support exertion in digital games.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Rethinking Statistical Analysis Methods for CHI - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Identifies fundamental problems in the statistical methods commonly used in quantitative evaluations. Proposes solutions and recommendations for best practice.
Abstract » CHI researchers typically use a significance testing approach to statistical analysis when testing hypotheses during usability evaluations. However, the appropriateness of this approach is under increasing criticism, with statisticians, economists, and psychologists arguing against the use of routine interpretation of results using "canned" p values. Three problems with current practice - the fallacy of the transposed conditional, a neglect of power, and the reluctance to interpret the size of effects - can lead us to build weak theories based on vaguely specified hypothesis, resulting in empirical studies which produce results that are of limited practical or scientific use. Using publicly available data presented at CHI 2010 [19] as an example we address each of the three concerns and promote consideration of the magnitude and actual importance of effects, as opposed to statistical significance, as the new criteria for evaluating CHI research.
ACM
In session: Tools and Stats in Evaluation Studies - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Postboard: free-form tangible messaging for people with aphasia (and other people) - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we report the design of a communication system for people with aphasia. It consists of pairs of physical whiteboards that are connected over the internet. This allows users to combine any personal language skills with visuals and already existing materials at hand. The design has been based on feedback and evaluation sessions with aphasics and their therapists. The user test results show that the design provides a low entry barrier and enables relaxed conversations.
 
Informing User Experience Design about Users: Insights from Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we explore what type of information from end-users designers find useful for early concept evaluations. We addressed the question through a study where user feedback taken from a real design project was assessed by four designers working in the project. We found that designers consider elaborate feedback indicating clear attitudes and motivations and feedback revealing past experiences of people most valuable. Finally, we discuss the methodology for evaluating the value of user feedback.
 
Invited: Child Computer Interaction SIG - Postcards and Conversations - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The networking event for the Child Computer Interaction community, especially designed to welcome new comers in the field, and to allow lots of informal and personal interaction.
Abstract » This special interest group provides the forum for an unofficial gathering of the Child-Computer Interaction community for CHI 2012. Its aim is to provide a venue for structured discussions and networking. Particularly, it aims to support newcomers to this community and to CHI 2012, to acquire an overview of people, topics, and trends that are active in the area. Further, it aims to attract participants with an active interest in the topic of child computer interaction to engage in the various activities of this community, in and outside CHI 2012.
 
An Investigation of Fitts' Law in a Multiple-Display Environment - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Experiment showing that Fitts' Law may underestimate difficulty of pointing tasks on multiple-monitor systems. Pertinent for designers trying applying Fitts' Law to interface design for multiple-display environments.
Abstract » We describe the design and analysis of a Fitts' law experiment, conducted in a multiple-display environment (MDE), in which the physical gap between displays and the proximity of targets to the gap systematically varied. Participants achieved decreasing throughput values (a combined measure of movement time and accuracy in a target acquisition task) under increasing gap sizes. Participants likewise performed relatively poorly in tasks involving monitor crossing over all gap conditions, especially so when motion either originates or terminates very close to the gap. Both results could be considered surprising since in either case, the amount of mouse movement needed to successfully execute the task does not change based on physical gap size or a target's proximity to the edge. Fitts' law may underestimate the difficulty of movement tasks in MDEs.
ACM
In session: Human Performance Gives Us Fitts' - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Thin Slices of Interaction: Predicting Usersʼ Task Difficulty within 60 sec. - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This study shows that the users’ experienced task difficulty while interacting with a photocopier can be predicted from the automatic video coding of Activity and Emphasis of movement.
Abstract » We report on an exploratory study where the first 60 seconds of the video recording of a user interaction are used to predict the user’s experienced task difficulty. This approach builds on previous work on “thin slices” of human-human behavior, and applies it to human-computer interaction. In the scenario of interacting with a photocopy machine, automated video coding showed that the Activity and Emphasis predicted 46.6% of the variance of task difficulty. This result closely follows reported results on predicting negotiation outcomes from conversational dynamics using similar variables on the speech signal.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Thin Slices of Interaction: Predicting Usersʼ Task Difficulty within 60 sec. - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This study shows that the users’ experienced task difficulty while interacting with a photocopier can be predicted from the automatic video coding of Activity and Emphasis of movement.
Abstract » We report on an exploratory study where the first 60 seconds of the video recording of a user interaction are used to predict the user’s experienced task difficulty. This approach builds on previous work on “thin slices” of human-human behavior, and applies it to human-computer interaction. In the scenario of interacting with a photocopy machine, automated video coding showed that the Activity and Emphasis predicted 46.6% of the variance of task difficulty. This result closely follows reported results on predicting negotiation outcomes from conversational dynamics using similar variables on the speech signal.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
"I'd never get out of this !?$%# office" Redesigning Time Management for the Enterprise - Paper
Community: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We propose improving enterprise time management by providing users interactive visualizations of their time. Through an interview study we determine the data and value of specific visualizations, and design implications.
Abstract » In this paper, we propose to improve time management in the enterprise by providing users interactive visualizations of how they are spending their time. Through an interview study (n=21) in a multi-national corporation, we were able to determine the data available for visualizations and the value of a number of general visualizations of employees' calendar data. We develop implications for design in improving personal time management.
ACM
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
What’s the Best Music You Have? Designing Music Recommendation for Group Enjoyment in GroupFun - Works In Progress
Abstract » Satisfaction and enjoyment are essential in group entertaining domains in which individuals share their preferences and actively participate in group decisions. Group recommender systems (GRS) do not yet employ methods and features allowing users to discover others’ interests in an enjoyable fashion. Based on an in-depth user study and a user-centered design approach, we created GroupFun, a collaborative environment that help groups of friends’ arrive at a common decision fostering group enjoyment and offering them a unique, fun music experience. We also conducted a user evaluation consisting in: system usage, questionnaires and open interviews to collect user feedback about our algorithms and interaction. Our results present GroupFun as an enjoyable and entertaining group decision platform which highly motivates users.
 
Effects of Input Device Familiarity on Content Creation and Sharing in Meetings - Works In Progress
Abstract » In co-located meetings, content creation is often distributed among the group members and sharing requires transfer of content artifacts, which impedes collaboration. In this paper, we present the design of a collaborative environment to support this activity in meetings for small groups. The system consists of a shared wall-mounted workspace where users can interact using either mouse and keyboard or digital pen and paper. We also present a user study comparing the two input configurations and its preliminary results.
 
Supporting Opportunistic Search in Meetings with Tangible Tabletop - Works In Progress
Abstract » Web searches are often needed in collocated meetings. Many research projects have been conducted for supporting collaborative search in information-seeking meetings, where searches are executed both intentionally and intensively. However, for most common meetings, Web searches may happen randomly with low-intensity. They neither serve as main tasks nor major activities. This kind of search can be referred to as opportunistic search. The area of opportunistic search in meetings has not yet been studied. Our research is based upon this motivation. We propose an augmented tangible tabletop system with a semi-ambient conversation-context-aware surface as well as foldable paper browsers for supporting opportunistic search in collocated meetings. In this paper, we present our design of the system and initial findings.
 
Special Interest Group for the CHI 2011 Management Community - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG will serve two purposes: shaing the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Abstract » This SIG serves two purposes: sharing the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
 
Invited Panel: Managing UX Teams: Insights from Executive Leaders - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Lively interviews of well-known executive leaders in User Experience, discussing their experiences with building and managing teams, their advice on best practices, and their vision for the future.
Abstract » A number of well-known corporations were earlier adopters of creating and building User Experience departments, which has resulted in a small set of executive leaders in User Experience who have decades of corporate User Experience management experience. This session is an interview of some of these executive leaders to learn how the field has changed over the decades, their recommendations for best practices, lessons learned, and their vision for the future. The panel will be of interest to managers, practitioners and those who work closely with these teams, including developers, project managers, market researchers, test managers, and executives.
 
Women in UX Leadership in Business - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership in business. Our panelists of women leaders will share their insights with the UX community.
Abstract » The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership. Despite ongoing progress toward equality, women still haven’t reached significant representation in leadership positions in the high-tech industry. Is the field of User Experience an exception to this norm? Does the interdisciplinary nature of UX play a role in making it easier or more difficult for women in our field? Does a career in UX, regardless of gender place a glass ceiling on upward mobility into “C” level positions? Our accomplished panel of UX managers will share their professional journeys, their observations on advantages and disadvantages, and their advice for the next generation.
In session: Women in UX Leadership in Business - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Managing User Experience Teams: Lessons from Case Studies, and Establishing Best Practices - Workshop
Community: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop consists of a group of leaders who will create a set of management best practices to share with the CHI community.
Abstract » This workshop is based on the initial findings from the CHI 2011 workshop, and focuses on managing cross-disciplinary teams for product and corporate success. The workshop brings together a diverse group of leaders in order to create a set of best practices and guidelines specific to a variety of topics that are important to the success of managers and their teams. Emphasis is placed on cross disciplinary teams, corporate culture and environment, and international factors.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Haptic Lotus - A Theatre Experience for Blind and Sighted Audiences - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Can technologies facilitate comparable cultural experiences for both blind and sighted audiences? The Haptic Lotus is a device that changes its form as people walk through a dark immersive installation.
Abstract » How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of ‘blindness’, through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience’s journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.

During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
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Designing for a Billion Users: A Case Study of Facebook - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook. Highlights the perspectives of designers, engineers, UX researchers, and other product stakeholders.
Abstract » Facebook is the world’s largest social network, connecting over 800 million users worldwide. The type of phenomenal growth experienced by Facebook in a short time is rare for any technology company. As the Facebook user base approaches the 1 billion mark, a number of exciting opportunities await the world of social networking and the future of the web. We present a case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook from the perspective of designers, engineers, managers, user experience researchers, and other stakeholders at the company. Our case study illustrates various complexities and tradeoffs in design through a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) lens and highlights implications for tackling the challenges through research and practice.
In session: It's a Big Web! - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Women in UX Leadership in Business - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership in business. Our panelists of women leaders will share their insights with the UX community.
Abstract » The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership. Despite ongoing progress toward equality, women still haven’t reached significant representation in leadership positions in the high-tech industry. Is the field of User Experience an exception to this norm? Does the interdisciplinary nature of UX play a role in making it easier or more difficult for women in our field? Does a career in UX, regardless of gender place a glass ceiling on upward mobility into “C” level positions? Our accomplished panel of UX managers will share their professional journeys, their observations on advantages and disadvantages, and their advice for the next generation.
In session: Women in UX Leadership in Business - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Designing for a Billion Users: A Case Study of Facebook - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook. Highlights the perspectives of designers, engineers, UX researchers, and other product stakeholders.
Abstract » Facebook is the world’s largest social network, connecting over 800 million users worldwide. The type of phenomenal growth experienced by Facebook in a short time is rare for any technology company. As the Facebook user base approaches the 1 billion mark, a number of exciting opportunities await the world of social networking and the future of the web. We present a case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook from the perspective of designers, engineers, managers, user experience researchers, and other stakeholders at the company. Our case study illustrates various complexities and tradeoffs in design through a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) lens and highlights implications for tackling the challenges through research and practice.
In session: It's a Big Web! - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
The Spread of Emotion via Facebook - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Correlational study showing that emotions (defined as posts with emotional words) spread through Facebook. Also addresses two confounds in the Emotional Contagion literature.
Abstract » In this paper we study large-scale emotional contagion through an examination of Facebook status updates. After a user makes a status update with emotional content, their friends are significantly more likely to make a valence-consistent post. This effect is significant even three days later, and even after controlling for prior emotion expressions by both users and their friends. This indicates not only that emotional contagion is possible via text-only communication and that emotions flow through social networks, but also that emotion spreads via indirect communications media.
ACM
In session: Intimacy and Connection - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Evaluating Mobile Projectors as a Shared Display Option for Small Groups - Works In Progress
Abstract » This work in progress compares group use of mobile projector technology with an existing mobile solution in a simulated environment. Early Results indicate that while having potential, pico projectors still have areas that need to be improved such as focus and shakiness. In addition, personal control was found to be an important factor in user satisfaction when a small group uses a single mobile projector and may thus inhibit a projector-only solution. We also report on different group techniques and usage patterns observed while using a pico projector. A future part of this on going study will compare mobile tablets with the same existing mobile solution in a museum environment.
 
Changing requirements to HCI funding: A global perspective - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. We review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents how requirements change and what that means.
Abstract » The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. In this SIG meeting, we will review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents and countries how the requirements are changing and discuss how this affects HCI research and its impact.
 
Characterizing the Effectiveness of Twitter Hashtags to Detect and Track Online Population Sentiment - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we describe the preliminary results and future directions of a research in progress, which aims at assessing the hashtag effectiveness as a resource for sentiment analysis expressed on Twitter. The results so far support our hypothesis that hashtags may facilitate the detection and
automatic tracking of online population sentiment about different events.
 
An Initial Analysis of Communicability Evaluation Methods through a Case Study - Works In Progress
Abstract » HCI researchers have raised the importance of research regarding HCI theories, as well as new evaluation methods that can take into consideration novel applications and technologies. Semiotic Engineering is an HCI theory in which the interface is perceived as a communicative act from designers of a system to its users. Based on this theory, new evaluation methods have been proposed, namely, the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM) and Communicability Evaluation Method (CEM). Research assessing each of these methods has been carried out. However, a study comparing both methods has not yet been performed. In this paper we describe a case study performed comparing SIM and CEM methods and present the initial results obtained.
 
Shape Your Body: Control a Virtual Silhouette Using Body Motion - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we propose to use our body as a puppetry controller, giving life to a virtual silhouette through acting. A framework was deployed based on Microsoft Kinect using OpenNI and Unity to animate in real-time a silhouette. This was used to perform a set of experiments related to the user’s interaction with human and non-human like puppets. We believe that a performance-driven silhouette can be just as expressive as a traditional shadow puppet with a high degree of freedom, making use of our entire body as an input. We describe our solution that allows real-time interactive control of virtual shadow puppets for performance animation based on body motion. We show through our experiment, performed by non-expert artists, that using our body to control puppets is like mixing the performance of an actor with the manipulation of a puppeteer.
 
Tangible Interfaces for Children: Cognitive, Social, & Physical Benefits and Challenges - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Presentation and discussion of children using a variety of tangible interfaces, the challenges and benefits they encountered, and the importance of looking at the connection between psychological factors and design.
Abstract » With the rise of prevalence of tangible interfaces of all kinds for children, this panel will present diverse perspectives on the benefits and challenges of these interfaces. These will include: exergames, mobile applications, and using digitally enhanced feedback for non-digital environments
 
NUIs for New Worlds: New Interaction Forms and Interfaces for Mobile Applications in Developing Countries - Workshop
Abstract » Mobile phones constitute the most ubiquitous computing platform in the developing world, and for the past decade it has been focus of many research efforts within Human Computer Interaction for Development (HCI4D). HCI4D has matured through a series of previous HCI related conferences and workshops and a growing body of work have established it as subfield of its own[1][2][4][5][6].

We believe it is now time to focus on more specific topics within this subfield and this workshop is dedicated to one such topic; namely how the next wave of more sophisticated mobile handsets will enable new interaction forms and interfaces, and how this can be use to create more natural ways of interacting with mobile ICTs.

The aim of this workshop is to discuss the current (and near-future) technologies and create a research agenda for how we can design, implement and evaluate new and more natural interaction forms and interfaces for mobile devices. The ultimate goal is to lower the technical and literacy barriers and get relevant information, applications and services out to the next billion users.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Course 26: Interaction Design for Social Development - Course
Contribution & Benefit: The Interaction Design for Social Development is a course for those conducting, or wishing to conduct, interaction design research in the developing world.
Abstract » This course is aimed at researchers or practitioners who wish to design solutions appropriate to the developing world. To meet this goal we present techniques and methods allowing attendants to design for people from different contexts, cultures and literacies. We also present case studies reporting successes and failures, along with reflections, insights and lessons to be learned. Finally, we discuss open design and ethical questions of doing this type of work in developing contexts.
 
Course 14: Inspiring Mobile Interaction Design - Course
Contribution & Benefit: The course will introduce empowering mobile design philosophies, principles and methods as well as giving specific guidance on key consumer application areas such as pedestrian navigation and social-local aware services.
Abstract » With six billion cellular subscriptions, the mobile phone (or “cellphone”) is an essential part of everyday life. It’s a business tool to clinch important deals; a “remote control” for the real world, helping us cope with daily travel delay frustrations; a “relationship appliance” to say goodnight to loved-ones when away from home; a community device to organize political demonstrations.

This course is about applying interaction design approaches to the mobile arena. It provides an understanding of what makes for successful future mobile user experiences; ones that really connect with what people want, and operate in straightforward, satisfying ways.

As a practice, interaction design owes much to the long-established discipline of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and the associated usability industry.
Interaction design, though, extends the mainstream practices. It is more about crafting the “customer experience” rather than a process that focuses on “ease-of-use”. Interaction designers have to have passion and heart: whereas usability is often seen as a privative – something you only notice when it is not there – interaction design is about making a statement.

This course is about shifting the mobile design perspective away from “smart” phones, to people who are smart, creative, busy, or plain bored. Our aim is to help attendees to provide users with future products and services that can change their (or even the whole) world.

The course will both introduce interesting and empowering mobile design philosophies, principles and methods as well as giving specific guidance on key consumer application areas such as pedestrian navigation and location aware services.

Our aim is to inspire attendees to strive for breathtakingly effective services. We want attendees to leave the course with a fresh perspective on their current projects and an eagerness to build a long-term better future for mobile users.
In session: Course 14: Inspiring Mobile Interaction Design - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Designing for Child Resilience - Short Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing the development of a children's privacy centered online child protection device. Can assist in developing engaging value-centered technologies.
Abstract » This short case study describes the design and initial feedback of a color-changing “mood lamp” that allows children to make informed decisions about risk-taking behavior on the internet. Such a device is a case study of an attempt to improve resilience amongst unsupervised children on the internet: an important goal in child protection studies.
In session: Learning with Children - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Invited Talk: Somaesthetics and its Implications for CHI - Special Events
Abstract » Somaesthetics is an interdisciplinary research product devoted to the critical study and meliorative cultivation of the experience and use of the living body (or soma) as site of sensory appreciation (aesthesis) and creative self-stylization. An ameliorative discipline of both theory and practice, somaesthetics seeks to enrich not only our discursive knowledge of the body but also our lived somatic experience and performance; it aims to improve the meaning, understanding, efficacy, and beauty of our movements and of the environments to which our actions contribute and from which they also derive their energies and significance. To pursue these aims, somaesthetics is concerned with a wide diversity of knowledge forms and discourses, social practices and institutions, cultural traditions, values, and bodily disciplines that structure (or could improve) such somatic understanding and cultivation. As an interdisciplinary project that is not confined to one dominant academic field, professional vocabulary, cultural ideology, or particular set of bodily disciplines, somaesthetics aims to provide an overarching theoretical structure and a set of basic and versatile conceptual tools to enable a more fruitful interaction and integration of the very diverse forms of somatic knowledge currently being practiced and pursued. My talk at CHI will present the fundamental principles of the somaesthetic, examine some of its interdisciplinary impact and then explore its possible applications to the field of interactive design.

BIO: Richard Shusterman is the Dorothy F. Schmidt Eminent Scholar in the Humanities at Florida Atlantic University, where he is also Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Body, Mind, and Culture: http://www.fau.edu/bodymindculture/. His primary research focus is the field of somaesthetics, which evolved in the late nineties from his work in pragmatist philosophy and aesthetics. Author of Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics (Cambridge University Press, 2008), Shusterman has also written Surface and Depth (2002); Performing Live (2000); Practicing Philosophy (1997); Sous l’interprétation (1994), Soma-esthétique et architecture: une alternative critique (2010), and Pragmatist Aesthetics (1992, 2000, and translated into fourteen languages). Formerly chair of the Philosophy Department of Temple University (Philadelphia), he has held academic appointments in France, Germany, Israel, Italy, and Japan, and has been awarded research grants from the NEH, Fulbright, ACLS, Humboldt Foundation, and UNESCO. In 2008 the French government awarded him the rank of Chevalier in the Order of Academic Palms for his cultural contributions. His exploratory research in somaesthetics is informed by his professional practice as a somatic educator and therapist in the Feldenkrais Method.
In session: Invited lecture: Richard Shusterman - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Theories, Methods and Case Studies of Longitudinal HCI Research - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Abstract » The interest in longitudinal studies of users' experiences and behaviors with interactive products is mounting, while recent methodological advances have enabled new ways to elicit as well as process longitudinal data. With this workshop we want to establish a forum for the exchange of knowledge and discussion on novel theories, methods and experiences gained through case studies of longitudinal HCI research. This is an effort towards the collection of best practices for an edited book publication.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
A Transformational Product to Improve Self-Control Strength: the Chocolate Machine - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The Chocolate Machine is an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength. Self-control is at the heart of many desirable behaviours, but often neglected by Persuasive Technologies.
Abstract » Lack of self-control is at the heart of many undesirable behaviors, such as overeating, overspending, and even overworking. While the field of Persuasive Technologies searches for ways to change attitudes and behaviors, it often neglects the science of self-control. We present the Chocolate Machine, an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength based upon Ego Depletion theory. A field study showed the machine to increase perceived self-control over time, while providing a sustained positive experience. This makes the machine transformational, aiming at facilitating behaviors people find worthwhile, but hard to implement.
ACM
In session: Sustainability and Behavior Change - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
A Transformational Product to Improve Self-Control Strength: the Chocolate Machine - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The Chocolate Machine is an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength. Self-control is at the heart of many desirable behaviours, but often neglected by Persuasive Technologies.
Abstract » Lack of self-control is at the heart of many undesirable behaviors, such as overeating, overspending, and even overworking. While the field of Persuasive Technologies searches for ways to change attitudes and behaviors, it often neglects the science of self-control. We present the Chocolate Machine, an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength based upon Ego Depletion theory. A field study showed the machine to increase perceived self-control over time, while providing a sustained positive experience. This makes the machine transformational, aiming at facilitating behaviors people find worthwhile, but hard to implement.
ACM
In session: Sustainability and Behavior Change - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Indy R&D: Doing HCI Research off the Beaten Path - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Indy R&D is an accelerating practice combining real-world concerns with academic curiosity. We provide practical tips to help decide if it's right for you, and help you get started.
Abstract » This panel discusses independent research and development in HCI. We focus on possible models for Indy R&D operations, supporting infrastructures, practical methods, and taking advantage of academic skills in the transition. Panel participants have experience in several different models of funding, conducting, and disseminating results from independent research. We will provide the audience with practical tips to help them decide if Indy R&D is right for them, and if so, help them do it.
In session: Indy R&D: Doing HCI Research off the Beaten Path - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Animal-Computer Interaction SIG - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Beyond HCI: animals as technology users and co-participants in technological interactions, in the context of human-animal relationships and animal engagement with technology in different settings.
Abstract » User-computer interaction research is demonstrating growing interest in the relation between animals and technology (e.g., computer-mediated interspecies interactions and animal-computer interfaces). However, as a research area, this topic is still underexplored and fragmented, and researchers lack opportunities to exchange ideas, identify resources, form collaborations and co-operatively develop a coherent research agenda. The Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) SIG meeting aims to provide such an opportunity, promoting the development of ACI as a distinct area of research which is relevant to both animals and humans.
In session: Animal-Computer Interaction SIG - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Creating the Spectacle: Designing Interactional Trajectories Through Spectator Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Ethnographic study reveals how artists designed and participants experienced a tabletop interface, shedding light on the design of tabletop and tangible interfaces, spectator interfaces, and trajectories through display ecologies
Abstract » An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists created a spectator interface for the interactive game Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height and materials of two tabletop interfaces before carefully arranging them in a local setting. We also show how participants experienced this interface. We consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale notion of interactional trajectory that combined trajectories through individual displays, trajectories through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories through an entire experience. Our findings shed light on discussions within HCI concerning interaction with tangible and tabletop displays, spectator interfaces, ecologies of displays, and trajectories through cultural experiences.
In session: Spectators - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Talking about Implications for Design in Pattern Language - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents our approach to capture and share knowledge from contextual analysis using pattern language. Our study shows that pattern language supports a reflective discussion of novel technology.
Abstract » In this paper we present our approach to capture and share knowledge from field studies using pattern language and thereby inform the design of ubiquitous computing. In our case, we studied frontline firefighting by observing the existing practice, by developing empathy through participation and by introducing new technology as triggering artifacts. Applying grounded theory, we distilled our findings into pattern language describing core aspects of this practice and their interaction. In a workshop, we introduced the pattern language to developers who had no previous knowledge of this practice and, in follow-up interviews, confronted them with new technology proposals for firefighters. Our study shows that pattern language, while not to be confused with an immutable description of the status quo or a direct path from contextual analysis to design, supports a reflective discussion of novel technology and the fit with and potential impact on existing practice.
ACM
In session: Design Theory & Practice - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Does the iPad add Value to Business Environments? - Long Case Study
Community: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing benefits and drawbacks of iPad usage in a business environment. Can assist companies in understanding how they can benefit from the use of mobile tablets.
Abstract » Mobile tablets like the iPad recently had a huge success in the consumer market. This generates the demand to use them productively in business environments. The underlying case study evaluates the introduction of iPads at an applied research company. The study gives evidence that the iPad adds value to this particular business environment especially in terms of productivity and joy of use. A detailed composition of benefits and drawbacks shows major factors that have to be considered when thinking about introducing and integrating iPads to a business environment.
In session: Workplace - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Material Interactions - From Atoms & Bits to Entangled Practices - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme "It's the experience" for CHI2012 by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers.
Abstract » This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme �It�s the experience� for the CHI2012 conference by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers. We take a series of questions as a joint point of departure to consider the nature and character of �material interactions� in HCI. Specifically, we consider theoretical, critical and practical approaches to material interactions and how they inform/become useful to HCI. The panel will include position statements from the panelists as well as high-level audience participation. We envision a fun and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish, Daniela Rosner, Petra Sundstr�m, Anna Vallg�rda and Tobie Kerridge. This panel also features Mark Rolston, Chief Creative Officer at Frog design, Inc.
 
How-to-guide: Collaborating With Executives In A Pro-design World. - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with executives to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.
Abstract » This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with executives to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.
 
Meeting Cancer Patient Needs: Designing a Patient Platform - Works In Progress
Abstract » Cancer patients have a variety of unmet informational and support needs. Yet to date, online cancer resources only address a small number of these needs. The goal of this project, kanker.nl, is to address the changing needs of Dutch cancer patients for both information and support. Kanker.nl is a novel collaboration between institutions that provide complementary patient services: a major cancer charity, patient organizations and comprehensive care centers. To design a platform that is both innovative and useful to patients, we conducted a series of design research studies with patients including focus groups, interviews and surveys. Results suggest a demand for this type of platform, openness towards sharing medical information anonymously, and the inherent complexity of information searches in this environment. Based on these findings, we present an interactive prototype and proof of concept.
 
The SoundsRight CAPTCHA: An Improved Approach to Audio Human Interaction Proofs for Blind Users - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Blind users cannot use visual CAPTCHAs, and audio CAPTCHAs have below 50% task success. Blind users had over 90% task success rate on our new real-time audio CAPTCHA.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the development of a new audio CAPTCHA called the SoundsRight CAPTCHA, and the evaluation of the CAPTCHA with 20 blind users. Blind users cannot use visual CAPTCHAs, and it has been documented in the research literature that the existing audio CAPTCHAs have task success rates below 50% for blind users. The SoundsRight audio CAPTCHA presents a real-time audio-based challenge in which the user is asked to identify a specific sound (for example the sound of a bell or a piano) each time it occurs in a series of 10 sounds that are played through the computer�s audio system. Evaluation results from three rounds of usability testing document that the task success rate was higher than 90% for blind users. Discussion, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also presented.
ACM
In session: See Hear Speak: Redesigning I/O for Effectiveness - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Investigating In-car Safety Services on the Motorway: the Role of Screen Size - Works In Progress
Abstract » Today’s in-car information systems are undergoing an evolution towards device miniaturization as well as to real-time telematics services. In a road study with 26 participants, we investigated whether small smartphone-sized screens are recommendable for the communication of realtime safety services. We did not find strong overall differences between large and small screen setups in any of our investigated measures. However, when no audio was presented, safety services presentation on small screens resulted in significantly more long glances to the HMI than on large screen. Also, subjective comprehensibility of driving recommendations was best when screen size was large and audio presentation was available. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
 
Investigating In-car Safety Services on the Motorway: the Role of Screen Size - Works In Progress
Abstract » Today’s in-car information systems are undergoing an evolution towards device miniaturization as well as to real-time telematics services. In a road study with 26 participants, we investigated whether small smartphone-sized screens are recommendable for the communication of realtime safety services. We did not find strong overall differences between large and small screen setups in any of our investigated measures. However, when no audio was presented, safety services presentation on small screens resulted in significantly more long glances to the HMI than on large screen. Also, subjective comprehensibility of driving recommendations was best when screen size was large and audio presentation was available. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
 
Digitality and Materiality of New Media: Online TV Watching in China - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presenting an analysis of the use of traditional vs. new TV media in China, highlighting the interplay between digitality and materiality in shaping experiences. Contributes a better understanding of media phenomena.
Abstract » This paper examines issues of digitality and materiality of new media, grounded in a study of online TV watching in China. Particularly, by looking at how people make choices and decisions regarding TV watching in everyday life, we highlight material and digital properties of new media TV, and how they support and condition actions and interactions around them. The study illustrates that materiality and digitality are complementary, instead of one substituting the other, and are highly intertwined in the hybrid media environment around which meaningful experiences are conditioned and produced. It also suggests that an analytic distinction between materiality and digitality is fruitful in unpacking the complex relations between media technologies and social experiences.
ACM
In session: Immateriality as a Design Feature - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Designing a tool for exploratory information seeking - Works In Progress
Abstract » We describe an on-going design process in building Querium, a search system for multi-session exploratory search tasks. Querium extends a conventional search interface with a sophisticated search history interface that helps people make sense of their search activity over time. Information seeking is a cognitively demanding process that can benefit from many kinds of information. Our design process has focused on creating interfaces that facilitate on-going sense-making while keeping the interaction efficient, fluid, and enjoyable.
 
Designing a tool for exploratory information seeking - Works In Progress
Abstract » We describe an on-going design process in building Querium, a search system for multi-session exploratory search tasks. Querium extends a conventional search interface with a sophisticated search history interface that helps people make sense of their search activity over time. Information seeking is a cognitively demanding process that can benefit from many kinds of information. Our design process has focused on creating interfaces that facilitate on-going sense-making while keeping the interaction efficient, fluid, and enjoyable.
 
Learning How to Feel Again: Towards Affective Workplace Presence and Communication Technologies - Paper
Community: engineeringCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique for estimating affective state and communication preferences. The technique uses non-invasive data from a presence state stream and provides more accurate predictions than humans who work together.
Abstract » Affect influences workplace collaboration and thereby impacts a workplace's productivity. Participants in face-to-face interactions have many cues to each other's affect, but work is increasingly carried out via computer-mediated channels that lack many of these cues. Current presence systems enable users to estimate the availability of other users, but not their affective states or communication preferences. This work demonstrates the feasibility of estimating affective state and communication preferences from a stream of presence states that are already being shared in a deployed presence system.
ACM
In session: Affective Presence - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Evaluating and Understanding the Usability of a Pen-based Command System for Interactive Paper - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: User studies on a pen-gesture-based interactive paper system for Active Reading. Can help understand how such a system is learned and used in typical scenarios and how researchers evaluate it.
Abstract » To combine the affordance of paper and computers, prior research has proposed numerous interactive paper systems that link specific paper document content to digital operations such as multimedia playback and proofreading. Yet, it remains unclear to what degree these systems bridge the inherent gap between paper and computers when compared to existing paper-only and computer-only interfaces. In particular, given the special properties of paper, such as limited dynamic feedback, how well does an average novice user learn to master an interactive paper system? What factors affect the user performance? And how does the paper interface work in a typical use scenario?

To answer these questions, we conducted two empirical experiments on a generic pen-gesture-based command system, called PapierCraft [Liao, et al., 2008], for paper-based interfaces. With PapierCraft, people can select sections of printed documents and issue commands such as copy and paste, linking and in-text search. The first experiment focused on the user performance of drawing pen gestures on paper. It proves that users can learn the command system in about 30 minutes and achieve a performance comparable to a Table PC-based interface
supporting the same gestures. The second experiment examined the application of the command system in active reading tasks. The results show promise for seamless integration of paper and computers in active reading for their combined affordance. In addition, our study reveals some key design issues, such as the pen form factor and feedback of gestures. This paper contributes to better understanding on pros and cons of paper and computers, and sheds light on the design of future interfaces for document interaction.
In session: Pen + Touch - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
LightBeam: Nomadic Pico Projector Interaction with Real World Objects - Works In Progress
Abstract » Pico projectors have lately been investigated as mobile display and interaction devices. We propose to use them as ‘light beams’: Everyday objects sojourning in a beam are turned into dedicated projection surfaces and tangible interaction devices. While this has been explored for large projectors, the affordances of pico projectors are fundamentally different: they have a very small and strictly limited projection ray and can be carried around in a nomadic way during the day. Thus it is unclear how this could be actually leveraged for tangible interaction with physical, real world objects. We have investigated this in an exploratory field study and contribute the results. Based upon these, we present exemplary interaction techniques and early user feedback.
G
 
Tangible Interfaces for Children: Cognitive, Social, & Physical Benefits and Challenges - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Presentation and discussion of children using a variety of tangible interfaces, the challenges and benefits they encountered, and the importance of looking at the connection between psychological factors and design.
Abstract » With the rise of prevalence of tangible interfaces of all kinds for children, this panel will present diverse perspectives on the benefits and challenges of these interfaces. These will include: exergames, mobile applications, and using digitally enhanced feedback for non-digital environments
 
Herding Nerds on your Table: NerdHerder, a Mobile Augmented Reality Game - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a casual mobile game NerdHerder that involves motion-based puzzle solving. Augmented reality interfaces are integrated to support physical and spatial aspects of gameplay.
Abstract » In this paper, we introduce NerdHerder, a mobile game with an augmented reality interface. The game’s premise is that you are hired as an IT manager, and your job is to use “management skills” to get the nerd employees back to work in their cubicles. The core game mechanic relies on the physical position and movement of the handheld device in relation to the physical-digital game world. NerdHerder creatively integrates puzzle-solving and motion-based action with a mobile Augmented Reality interface. This paper introduces the system implementation, design process and design rationales of the game.
In session: Student Game Competition - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Personal Informatics in Practice: Improving Quality of Life Through Data - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses themes relevant to personal informatics in practice, such as practical lessons from prior work in designing systems, requirements for building effective tools, and development of infrastructures.
Abstract » Personal informatics refers to a class of software and hardware systems that help individuals collect personal information to improve self-understanding. Improving self-understanding can foster self-insight and promote positive behaviors: healthy living, energy conservation, etc. The development of personal informatics applications poses new challenges for human-computer interaction and creates opportunities for applications in various domains related to quality of life, such as fitness, nutrition, wellness, mental health, and sustainability. This workshop will continue the conversations from the CHI 2010 and CHI 2011 workshops on personal informatics [6][7]. The focal themes for this workshop are: (1) practical lessons from previous research and development experiences that can guide interface design for systems that allow users to collect and reflect on personal data; (2) requirements for building robust personal informatics applications; and (3) design and development of infrastructures that make personal informatics applications easier to create and evaluate.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Designing and Evaluating Text Entry Methods - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop serves to unify the text entry community and center it at CHI.
Abstract » Our workshop has three primary goals. The first goal is community building: we want to get text entry researchers that are active in different communities into one place. Our second goal is to promote CHI as a natural and compelling focal point for all kinds of text entry research. The third goal is to discuss some difficult issues that are hard or near impossible to handle within the traditional format of research papers.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
 
Herding Nerds on your Table: NerdHerder, a Mobile Augmented Reality Game - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a casual mobile game NerdHerder that involves motion-based puzzle solving. Augmented reality interfaces are integrated to support physical and spatial aspects of gameplay.
Abstract » In this paper, we introduce NerdHerder, a mobile game with an augmented reality interface. The game’s premise is that you are hired as an IT manager, and your job is to use “management skills” to get the nerd employees back to work in their cubicles. The core game mechanic relies on the physical position and movement of the handheld device in relation to the physical-digital game world. NerdHerder creatively integrates puzzle-solving and motion-based action with a mobile Augmented Reality interface. This paper introduces the system implementation, design process and design rationales of the game.
In session: Student Game Competition - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Hunting for Fail Whales: Lessons from Deviance and Failure in Social Computing - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel discusses how social behaviors like theft, anonymity, deviance, and polarization contribute to both the failure and success in diverse online communities.
Abstract » Social computing technologies are pervasive in our work, relationships, and culture. Despite their promise for transforming the structure of communication and human interaction, the complex social dimensions of these technological systems often reproduce offline social ills or create entirely novel forms of conflict and deviance. This panel brings together scholars who study deviance and failure in diverse social computing systems to examine four design-related themes that contribute to and support these problematic uses: theft, anonymity, deviance, and polarization.
 
Breaking News on Twitter - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of how Twitter broke and spread the news of Osama Bin Laden's death. Contributes to our understanding of trust and information flow on Twitter.
Abstract » After the news of Osama Bin Laden's death leaked through Twitter, many people wondered if Twitter would fundamentally change the way we produce, spread, and consume news. In this paper we provide an in-depth analysis of how the news broke and spread on Twitter. We confirm the claim that Twitter broke the news first, and find evidence that Twitter had convinced a large number of its audience before mainstream media confirmed the news. We also discover that attention on Twitter was highly concentrated on a small number of "opinion leaders" and identify three groups of opinion leaders who played key roles in spreading the news: individuals affiliated with media played a large part in breaking the news, mass media brought the news to a wider audience and provided eager Twitter users with content on external sites, and celebrities helped to spread the news and stimulate conversation. Our findings suggest Twitter has great potential as a news medium.
ACM
In session: Tweet, Tweet, Tweet! - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Sketch It, Make It: Sketching Precise Drawings for Laser Cutting - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Sketch It, Make It is a modeling tool that lets non-experts to design specifications for items for fabrication with laser cutters.
Abstract » Sketch It, Make It (SIMI) is a modeling tool that enables non-experts
to design items for fabrication with laser cutters. SIMI recognizes
rough, freehand input as a user iteratively edits a structured vector
drawing. The tool combines the strengths of sketch-based interaction
with the power of constraint-based modeling. Several interaction
techniques are combined to present a coherent system that makes it
easier to make precise designs for laser cutters.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Health Promotion as Activism: Building Community Capacity to Effect Social Change - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the design and evaluation of a tool that supports community-based health advocacy. Provides recommendations for HCI research focused on health inequalities and the ecological influences on behaviors and attitudes.
Abstract » As HCI researchers have designed tools to promote wellness, disease has often been approached as a general problem. In contrast, public health research argues for an activist approach focused on how certain groups disproportionately experience disease and eliminating these disparities. Taking this activist stance, we examine how technology can reduce health inequalities by disrupting power relationships and helping communities pursue social change. We discuss our tool, Community Mosaic (CM), which allows individuals to share their healthy eating ideas with one another as a means of advocating behavior change. Our results characterize how CM helped facilitate activism (i.e., collective efforts to counter local challenges to healthy living) and shift users� attitudes regarding their role as advocates for health. We contribute to the field of HCI by using our findings to present a set of recommendations for future research focused on designing and evaluating health promotion tools using an activist lens.
ACM
In session: Eating + Cooking - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Participation and Publics: Supporting Community Engagement - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: In the findings reported here, I continue to develop the framing of Deweyan publics as a way to scaffold an environmental approach to technology design in contexts with diverse stakeholders.
Abstract » CHI researchers are beginning a shift from studying technology use in uncommon or exotic communities to designing and deploying technology interventions into those same settings. This paper picks up on these recent developments and further examines the impact and implication of using a bespoke technology platform within the context of providing shelter and basic social services to homeless mothers and their children. I build on findings from a previous system deployment by describing targeted changes made to the technology, the design impetus for making those changes, and the resulting impact those changes had on the relationship between shelter staff, residents, and the information they shared via the system. By way of the findings reported here, I continue to develop the framing of Deweyan publics as a way to scaffold an environmental approach to technology design in contexts with multiple and diverse stakeholders.
ACM
In session: Publics and Civic Virtues - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Socially Computed Scripts to Support Social Problem Solving Skills - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We describe an approach to using crowdsourcing to create models of complex social scenarios, and confirm that they may help an author create instructional modules for an individual with autism.
Abstract » The social world that most of us navigate effortlessly can prove to be a perplexing and disconcerting place for individuals with autism. Interactive tools to teach social skills that are personalized to the individual's needs show promise, but it is challenging to author them. We describe the design, development, and preliminary evaluation of an approach to using human computation that enables the creation of models of complex and interesting social scenarios, possible obstacles that may arise in those scenarios, and potential solutions to those obstacles. Our preliminary evaluation of the models confirms that these models have the potential to help an author create a social skills instructional module.
ACM
In session: Social Support and Collaboration - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Emerging Technologies for Healthcare and Aging - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will address interaction issues relevant to emerging health technologies for older adults. Attendees will develop use cases that can inform healthcare technology developers during the formative evaluation stage.
Abstract » The aging population is growing rapidly and technology has great potential to meet older adults' healthcare needs. However, the technologies being developed must take into account older adults' needs and related interaction issues. This workshop explores interaction issues such as accepting, integrating, efficacy, sharing, and privacy for emerging health technologies, including tablets, ambient systems, robotics, electronic medical records, mobile systems, and tracking and monitoring devices. We also consider the user characteristics of care recipients, informal caregivers, and formal caregivers. An outcome of this workshop will be the development of use cases to provide guidance for designing technologies for older adults and their caregivers.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - SIG Meeting
In session: Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Sustainably Unpersuaded: How Persuasion Narrows our Vision of Sustainability - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Critically analyzes persuasive technology as a modernist approach to solving social problems. Identifies structural limitations of persuasive technology as an approach to sustainability and offers alternatives.
Abstract » In this paper we provide a critical analysis of persuasive sustainability research from 2009-2011. Drawing on critical sociological theory of modernism, we argue that persuasion is based on a limited framing of sustainability, human behavior, and their interrelation-ship. This makes supporting sustainability easier, but leads to characteristic patterns of breakdown. We then detail problems that emerge from this narrowing of vision, such as how the framing of sustainability as the optimization of a simple metrics places technologies incorrectly as objective arbiters over complex issues of sustainability. We conclude by suggesting alternative approaches to move beyond these problems.
ACM
In session: Critical Perspectives on Design - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Designing Social Translucence Over Social Networks - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Social translucence is a landmark theory in social computing. However, we argue that it breaks down over modern social network sites and build a theory relating network structure to design.
Abstract » Social translucence is a landmark theory in social computing. Modeled on physical life, it guides designers toward elegant social technologies. However, we argue that it breaks down over modern social network sites because social networks resist its physical metaphors. In this paper, we build theory relating social translucence to social network structure. To explore this idea, we built a tool called Link Different. Link Different addresses a structural awareness problem by letting users know how many of their Twitter followers already a saw link via someone else they follow. During two months on the web, nearly 150K people used the site a total of 1.3M times. Its widespread, viral use suggests that people want social translucence, but network structure gets in the way. We conclude the paper by illustrating new design problems that lie at the intersection of social translucence and other unexplored network structures.
ACM
In session: Tweet, Tweet, Tweet! - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Asking the Right Person: Supporting Expertise Selection in the Enterprise - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Lab study demonstrating that providing additional information about experts in expertise recommenders leads to better selections, and indicating which information is most useful. Offers design implications for expertise recommender creators
Abstract » Expertise selection is the process of choosing an expert from a list of recommended people. This is an important and nuanced step in expertise location that has not received a great deal of attention. Through a lab-based, controlled investigation with 35 enterprise workers, we found that presenting additional information about each recommended person in a search result list led the participants to make quicker and better-informed selections. These results focus attention on a currently understudied aspect of expertise location--expertise selection--that could greatly improve the usefulness of supporting systems. We also asked participants to rate the type of information that might be most useful for expertise selection on a paper prototype containing 36 types of potentially helpful information. We identified sixteen types of this information that may be most useful for various expertise selection tasks.
ACM
In session: Check This Out: Recommender Systems - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Discussion about review process at CHI focusing on 1) ways to improve reviewing, 2) alternative peer review models, and 3) educational materials for new reviewers.
Abstract » The HCI research community grows bigger each year, refining and expanding its boundaries in new ways. The ability to effectively review submissions is critical to the growth of CHI and related conferences. The review process is designed to produce a consistent supply of fair, high-quality reviews without overloading individual reviewers; yet, after each cycle, concerns are raised about limitations of the process. Every year, participants are left wondering why their papers were not accepted (or why they were). This SIG will explore reviewing through a critical and constructive lens, discussing current successes and future opportunities in the CHI review process. Goals will include actionable conclusions about ways to improve the system, potential alternative peer models, and the creation of materials to educate newcomer reviewers.
In session: Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Digital Art: Evaluation, Appreciation, Critique (Invited SIG) - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: We examine the evaluation of Digital Art and how ideas on evaluation can be exchanged between the arts and HCI. We start by a critique of standard approaches to evaluation.
Abstract » This SIG examines the vexed question of evaluation of Digital Art and how lessons on evaluation can be exchanged between the arts and mainstream HCI. We start by looking at critiques of standard approaches to evaluation in HCI. We then look at approaches, which have been developed in Digital Art to merge qualitative and quantitative methods. These investigations set the agenda for the SIG with the aim of uncovering the audience’s knowledge and attempts at Digital Art evaluation, appreciation and critique. The chief outcome will be an exchange of experiences and proposals for ways forward for both the Digital Arts community and the broader CHI community.
 
The Humanities and/in HCI - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
Abstract » In the past two decades, as technology has moved from the workplace to nearly all aspects of our everyday lives, HCI has also increased the breadth and depth of its research agenda. The breadth increase can be seen in the increasingly broad understanding of stakeholders and long-term socio-cultural-environmental consequences of interactive technologies. The depth increase can be seen in the seriousness with which HCI takes complex, subjective dimensions of interaction, such as affect, identity, experience, aesthetics. Humanistic forms of scholarship, including theories, methodologies, and scholarly forms, have increasingly been used to address many of these breadth and depth issues. In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
In session: The Humanities and/in HCI - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
TopicViz: Interactive Topic Exploration in Document Collections - Works In Progress
Abstract » Existing methods for searching and exploring large
document collections focus on surface-level matches to
user queries, ignoring higher-level semantic structure. In
this paper we show how topic modeling -- a technique for
identifying latent themes across a large collection of
documents -- can support semantic exploration. We
present TopicViz: an interactive environment which
combines traditional search and citation-graph exploration
with a force-directed layout that links documents to the
latent themes discovered by the topic model. We describe
usage scenarios in which TopicViz supports rapid
sensemaking on large document collections.
 
"You're Capped!" Understanding the Effects of Bandwidth Caps on Broadband Use in the Home - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Study of households living with bandwidth caps. Challenges assumptions about users having unlimited Internet connections and suggests design implications for those on capped bandwidth plans.
Abstract » Bandwidth caps, a limit on the amount of data users can upload and download in a month, are common globally for both home and mobile Internet access. With caps, each bit of data consumed comes at a cost against a monthly quota or a running tab. Yet, relatively little work has considered the implications of this usage-based pricing model on the user experience. In this paper, we present results from a qualitative study of households living with bandwidth caps. Our findings suggest home users grapple with three uncertainties regarding their bandwidth usage: invisible balances, mysterious processes, and multiple users. We discuss how these uncertainties impact their usage and describe the potential for better tools to help monitor and manage data caps. We conclude that as a community we need to cater for users under Internet cost constraints.
ACM
In session: Home and Family - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Activity-Based Interaction: Designing with Child Life Specialists in a Children's Hospital - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a framework for analyzing mediating activities, especially between children and adults. Can assist understanding of relationship between technical system characteristics, actors and observed collaborative versus co-present interactions.
Abstract » Child Life Specialists (CLS's) are medical professionals who use activities to educate, comfort, entertain and distract children in hospitals. Adapting to a shifting cast of children, context and mediating activities requires CLS's to be experts at a kind of articulation work. This expertise means CLS's are well equipped to help technologists introduce child-facing interventions to the hospital. We conducted participatory design activities with 9 CLS's to develop two mobile systems to explore how CLS-child interactions are shaped by activities. We observed 18 child-CLS pairs using these systems in a hospital setting. By analyzing these encounters, we describe a continuum for classifying activities as either Co-Present or Collaborative. We then introduce a framework, Activity-Based Interaction, to describe structural components of activities that impact their position on this continuum. These concepts suggest new approaches to designing mediating technologies for adults and children.
ACM
In session: Health + Design - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Articulating Lines of Research in Digital Arts, HCI, and Interaction (Invited SIG) - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG initiates an essential step in establishing the Digital Arts at CHI by working with the audience to articulate traditions of contribution.
Abstract » The establishment of a Digital Arts Featured Community at CHI 2012 indicates the general acceptance of mutually beneficial synergies between digital arts and HCI. At this juncture, the Digital Arts Community has an opportunity to build upon this established community platform to begin articulating lines of research. This SIG initiates this essential step in establishing traditions of contribution.
 
Artistic Robot Please Smile - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: When a person steps in front of “Please Smile”, the skeleton arms point at the person and follow his/her movements. When someone smiles at it, the arms wave their hands.
Abstract » This paper explains how people interpret artistic robots as more than mere machines in the theory of intentionality and introduces the implementation of the artistic robot, Please Smile, which consists of five robotic skeleton arms that gesture in response to a viewer’s facial expressions.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
From Texting App to Braille Literacy - Works In Progress
Abstract » We report the results of a pilot study that explores potential uses for BrailleTouch in the instruction of braille literacy for the visually impaired. BrailleTouch is an eyes-free text entry application for smart phones. We conducted individual semi-structured interviews and a focus group with four domain expert participants.
 
Course 5: Art and HCI in Collaboration - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will enable participants to develop skills in planning and carrying out collaborative projects in the intersection of HCI and the digital arts.
Abstract » In this two-session course, we address how CHI
practitioners and researchers can work collaboratively
with digital artists on interaction projects. We establish
the context of the relationship between digital arts and
HCI through the forty-year history of interactive digital
art. We then address the benefits and challenges of
collaboration across disciplines through presentation,
discussion, and appeal to case studies. We guide
participants to understand potential issues that may
emerge in collaborative projects they would like to
undertake, or are undertaking, and work with them to
establish an agenda to move forward with
collaboration.

The course will proceed through a series of topics:
• An introduction featuring the promises of collaboration between HCI and digital arts
• A presentation of the history of interactive digital art
• Discussions of challenges to collaboration
• Encouragement of participants to submit ideas for collaborative projects they would like to work on, or are currently
working on, with issues they are facing or anticipate facing
• Case studies to ground the discussion of issues
• Reflective discussion of the digital art represented at CHI2012
• Encouragement of participants to write an agenda for their collaborative projects based on results of the course.
In session: Course 5: Art and HCI in Collaboration - May 7, 2012, 14:30