Chair: Olav W. Bertelsen, Aarhus University, Denmark
The Team Coordination Game: Zero-Fidelity Simulation Abstracted from Emergency Response Practice
Contribution & Benefit: Zero-fidelity simulation develops and invokes the principle of abstraction, focusing on human-information and human-human transfers of meaning, to derive design from work practice.
Abstract » Crisis response engenders a high-stress environment in which teams gather, transform, and mutually share information. Prior educational approaches have not successfully addressed these critical skills. The assumption has been that the highest fidelity simulations result in the best learning. Deploying high-fidelity simulations is expensive and dangerous; they do not address team coordination. Low-fidelity approaches are ineffective because they are not stressful.
Zero-fidelity simulation develops and invokes the principle of abstraction, focusing on human-information and human-human transfers of meaning, to derive design from work practice. Our principal hypothesis is that crisis responders will experience zero-fidelity simulation as effective simulation of team coordination. We synthesize the sustained iterative design and evaluation of the Team Coordination Game. We develop and apply new experimental methods to show that participants learn to cooperate and communicate, applying what they learn in practice. Design implications address how to employ the abstraction principle to develop zero-fidelity simulations.
“Act Natural”: Instructions, Compliance and Accountability in Ambulatory Experiences
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents an ethnographic study of instruction compliance in an ambulatory experience. Four levels of compliance are uncovered of broad relevance to instruction design.
Abstract » This paper uses a detailed ethnographic study of an ambulatory experience, where participants were invited to explore the perspective of two notorious terrorists, in order to discuss the nature of instruction-giving and, most particularly, the methodical ways in which such instructions are complied with. Four distinct layers of compliance are identified, as are three different kinds of accountability, all of which stand potentially at odds with one another. The paper examines the tensions created by this, tensions that are further aggravated by instructions usually being delivered down a thin channel, with considerable surrounding contextual complexity and little opportunity for repair, and uncovers some core challenges for future design in relation to providing instructions for, and orchestrating a range of possible activities.ACM
Supporting Improvisation Work in Inter-organizational Crisis Management
Contribution & Benefit: We present an empirical study about the improvisation work during medium to large power outages in Germany. We examined the cooperation of firefighters, police, public administration, electricity providers and citizens.
Abstract » Improvisation is necessary when planned decision-making ACM
as the main managerial activity does not fit the conditions
the practice provides. In these cases, information
technology should not just automate planned and structured
decisions, but support improvisational practice. In this
contribution we present an empirical study about the
improvisation work in scenarios of medium to large power
outages in Germany. Our focus is on inter-organizational
cooperation practices, thus we examined the cooperation of
fire departments, police, public administration, electricity
infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material
allows to describe reasons and conditions for improvisation.
Our resulting recommendations address the support of
aggregation and visualization of information, a necessary
individualization of information compositions, options for
collaborative situation assessment, requirements for
informal and formal communication, and accessibility of
Supporting Knowledge Sharing and Activity Awareness in Distributed Emergency Management Planning: A Design Research Project
Contribution & Benefit: Design research project on knowledge sharing and activity awareness in distributed emergency management planning. Discusses how the designs enhanced aspects of distributed group performance, in some respects beyond face-to-face groups.
Abstract » We present a design research project on knowledge sharing and activity awareness in distributed emergency management planning. In three experiments we studied groups using three different prototypes, respectively: a paper-prototype in a collocated work setting, a first software prototype in a distributed setting, and a second, enhanced software prototype in a distributed setting. In this series of studies we tried to better understand the processes of knowledge sharing and activity awareness in complex cooperative work by developing and investigating new tools that can support these processes. We explicate the design rationale behind each prototype and report the results of each experiment investigating it. We discuss how the results from each prototyping phase brought us closer to defining properties of a system that facilitate the sharing and awareness of both content and process knowledge. Our designs enhanced aspects of distributed group performance, in some respects beyond that of comparable face-to-face groups.