Chair: Jodi Forlizzi, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Activity-Based Interaction: Designing with Child Life Specialists in a Children's Hospital
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a framework for analyzing mediating activities, especially between children and adults. Can assist understanding of relationship between technical system characteristics, actors and observed collaborative versus co-present interactions.
Abstract » Child Life Specialists (CLS's) are medical professionals who use activities to educate, comfort, entertain and distract children in hospitals. Adapting to a shifting cast of children, context and mediating activities requires CLS's to be experts at a kind of articulation work. This expertise means CLS's are well equipped to help technologists introduce child-facing interventions to the hospital. We conducted participatory design activities with 9 CLS's to develop two mobile systems to explore how CLS-child interactions are shaped by activities. We observed 18 child-CLS pairs using these systems in a hospital setting. By analyzing these encounters, we describe a continuum for classifying activities as either Co-Present or Collaborative. We then introduce a framework, Activity-Based Interaction, to describe structural components of activities that impact their position on this continuum. These concepts suggest new approaches to designing mediating technologies for adults and children.ACM
Using Context to Reveal Factors that Affect Physical Activity
Contribution & Benefit: Describes three explorations of using contextual information to support reflection on factors that affect physical activity. Informs the design of physical activity awareness systems and, generally, personal informatics systems.
Abstract » There are many physical activity awareness systems available in today's market. These systems show physical activity information (e.g., step counts, energy expenditure, heart rate) which is sufficient for many self-knowledge needs, but information about the factors that affect physical activity may be needed for deeper self-reflection and increased self-knowledge. We explored the use of contextual information, such as events, places, and people, to support reflection on the factors that affect physical activity. We present three findings from our studies. First, users make associations between physical activity and contextual information that help them become aware of factors that affect their physical activity. Second, reflecting on physical activity and context can increase people’s awareness of opportunities for physical activity. Lastly, automated tracking of physical activity and contextual information benefits long-term reflection, but may have detrimental effects on immediate awareness.
Adaptation as Design: Learning from an EMR Deployment Study
Contribution & Benefit: An observational study in an Emergency Department to examine clinicians' adaptation process after deploying an Electronic Medical Records (EMR) system.
Abstract » We conducted an observational study in an Emergency Department (ED) to examine the adaptation process after deploying an Electronic Medical Records (EMR) system. We investigated how EMR was adapted to the complex clinical work environment and how doctors and nurses engaged in the adaptation process. In this paper, we present three cases in which ED clinicians designed workarounds in order to adapt to the new work practice. Our findings reveal a rich picture of ED clinicians� active reinterpretation and modification of their work practice through their engagement with the system-in-use and its organizational and physical context. These findings call for the adaptation period in designing a socio-technical system in healthcare settings to be critically considered as an active end-user design process, a negotiating process, and a re-routinized process.ACM
User Centered Design in the OR
- Short Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: This case study illustrates how HCI techniques can be applied to the design of a User Experience for a computer-based surgical device. Video and photography from research will be shown.
Abstract » This case study examines the application of User Centered Design techniques for the design of a mission-critical medical device for spinal surgery. It suggests that HCI practitioners need to extend their work beyond the computer in order to achieve usability in the operating room.