Chair: Mary Beth Rosson, Penn State, USA
I did that! Measuring Users' Experience of Agency in their own Actions
Contribution & Benefit: We draw on theoretical perspectives in cognitive neuroscience and describes two implicit methods through which personal agency can be empirically investigated. We report two experiments applying these methods to HCI problems.
Abstract » Cognitive neuroscience defines the sense of agency as the experience of controlling one's own actions and, through this control, affecting the external world. We believe that the sense of personal agency is a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. This paper draws on theoretical perspectives in cognitive neuroscience and describes two implicit methods through which personal agency can be empirically investigated. We report two experiments applying these methods to HCI problems. One shows that a new input modality - skin-based interaction - can substantially increase users' sense of agency. The second demonstrates that variations in the parameters of assistance techniques such as predictive mouse acceleration can have a significant impact on users' sense of agency. The methods presented provide designers with new ways of evaluating and refining empowering interaction techniques and interfaces, in which users experience an instinctive sense of control and ownership over their actions.ACM
The Design Space of Opinion Measurement Interfaces: Exploring Recall Support for Rating and Ranking
Contribution & Benefit: Characterizes and explores through user studies the design space of opinion measurement interfaces. Presents key directions for future research, and informs the design of future rating and ranking interfaces.
Abstract » Rating interfaces are widely used on the Internet to elicit people's opinions. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of these interfaces and their design space is relatively unexplored. We provide a taxonomy for the design space by identifying two axes: Measurement Scale for absolute rating vs. relative ranking, and Recall Support for the amount of information provided about previously recorded opinions. We present an exploration of the design space through iterative prototyping of three alternative interfaces and their evaluation. Among many findings, the study showed that users do take advantage of recall support in interfaces, preferring those that provide it. Moreover, we found that designing ranking systems is challenging; there may be a mismatch between a ranking interface that forces people to specify a total ordering for a set of items, and their mental model that some items are not directly comparable to each other.ACM
Conceptualizing and advancing research networking systems
Contribution & Benefit: Comprehensive research agenda for Research Networking Systems, a new type of application designed to help scientists find collaborators. Presents research challenges for system foundations, presentation, architecture and evaluation.
Abstract » Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose “research networking systems” (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: Foundations, Presentation, Architecture and Evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, Evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this paper stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems
Assessing the Vulnerability of Magnetic Gestural Authentication to Video-Based Shoulder Surfing Attacks
Contribution & Benefit: The vulnerability of magnetic gestural authentication to video-based shoulder surfing attacks is assessed through a realistic scenario by videotaping the authentication interaction from four different angles and providing them to adversaries
Abstract » Secure user authentication on mobile phones is crucial, as they store highly sensitive information. Common approaches to authenticate a user on a mobile phone are based either on entering a PIN, a password, or drawing a pattern. However, these authentication methods are vulnerable to the shoulder surfing attack. The risk of this attack has increased since means for recording high-resolution videos are cheaply and widely accessible. If the attacker can videotape the authentication process, PINs, passwords, and patterns do not even provide the most basic level of security. In this project, we assessed the vulnerability of a magnetic gestural authentication method to the video-based shoulder surfing attack. We chose a scenario that is favourable to the attack-er. In a real world environment, we videotaped the interactions of four users performing magnetic signatures on a phone, in the presence of HD cameras from four different angles. We then recruited 22 participants and asked them to watch the videos and try to forge the signatures. The results revealed that with a certain threshold, i.e, th=1.67, none of the forging attacks was successful, whereas at this level all eligible login attempts were successfully recognized. The qualitative feedback also indicated that users found the magnetic gestural signature authentication method to be more secure than PIN-based and 2D signature methods.ACM
A Room with a View: Understanding Users' Stages in Picking a Hotel Online
- Short Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing how a framework derived from lab usability study and literature guided development of Google Hotel Finder. Shows how even small research efforts can help guide product development.
Abstract » We describe how we built a model for user decision-making during local search tasks, specifically hotels. We differentiate between affective and functional needs and identify the following stages and related information needs: 0. Lay of the land; 1. Generating options; 2. Scanning for attractors and detractors; 3. Due diligence. We contrast this framework with existing consumer decision-making models. We close by describing how this model influenced the development of the recently launched experiment, Google Hotel Finder.