&
 
Mind Maps as Behavior Controllers for Virtual Characters - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose a new mind map interface method for
controlling virtual character’s artificial intelligence and
behavior in games. Commonly used techniques, such as
scripting, require an extensive analysis and discrimination
of all the possible behaviors that are triggered by the
stimuli received by the virtual character. Scripting is also
subject to strict syntax rules that may be hard to
comprehend by non-expert users. Instead, our method can
be easily created by users that do not have any technical
background, since they graphically represent the natural
process of organizing information in the human brain.
Our mind map interface method follows a behavior-based
architecture combined with an emotional depth module to
control the character’s behaviors individually in a game.
We implemented a graph-based visual editor to ease the
definition of the mind map nodes interactively. We also
show how mind maps were implemented in the
LIFEisGAME (LearnIng of Facial Expressions usIng
Serious GAMEs) project as a proof of concept.
A
 
Kinetic Device: Designing Interactions with a Deformable Mobile Interface - Works In Progress
Abstract » We introduce the user-centered research that we are conducting using functional deformable research prototypes. This work has recently crystallized in the demonstration of the Nokia Kinetic Device (figure 1). In the large design space that opens before us around deformable user interfaces (DUIs), we have chosen to focus on mobile personal interfaces. We aim to investigate how human factors should influence the transition from rigid to deformable hardware. In this paper, we propose the topics that a research agenda should cover, and we discuss our research methodology. We also describe the functional deformable research prototype (called Kinetic DUI-RP) that we are using to conduct our research. Finally, we present an initial set of design guidelines that future research will develop further.
 
EasyGroups: Binding Mobile Devices for Collaborative Interactions - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present a touch and proximity based method for binding a group of mobile devices into an ecosystem for collaborative interactions. We aim to provide a seamless user experience by integrating the binding method with the application start-up flow. Our method also determines the order of the devices, allowing implementation of spatial interactions.
 
A Framework for Designing Assistive Technologies for Teaching Children with ASDs Emotions - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents a theory-driven serious game design framework for teaching emotions to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The framework is based on the integration of two theoretical models, Kolb’s experiential learning model and Piaget’s cognitive development model. Based on these theories, we extracted six essential elements (factors) for designing games (and other assistive technologies) to teach children with ASDs emotions: matching, recognizing, observing, understanding, generalizing and mimicking.
 
Socially Computed Scripts to Support Social Problem Solving Skills - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We describe an approach to using crowdsourcing to create models of complex social scenarios, and confirm that they may help an author create instructional modules for an individual with autism.
Abstract » The social world that most of us navigate effortlessly can prove to be a perplexing and disconcerting place for individuals with autism. Interactive tools to teach social skills that are personalized to the individual's needs show promise, but it is challenging to author them. We describe the design, development, and preliminary evaluation of an approach to using human computation that enables the creation of models of complex and interesting social scenarios, possible obstacles that may arise in those scenarios, and potential solutions to those obstacles. Our preliminary evaluation of the models confirms that these models have the potential to help an author create a social skills instructional module.
ACM
In session: Social Support and Collaboration - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
RobotBuddha - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Twitter messages are converted to Morse code and played back by robotic arms on Moktaks - traditional percussive instruments used by Buddhist clergy.
Abstract » Using a dedicated twitter account, participants are encouraged to send their prayers, blessings and wishes to the RobotBuddha shrine. Incoming messages are converted to Morse code and “chanted” by the robotic arms, i.e., played back on Korean Moktaks – traditional wooden percussion instruments ritualistically used by Buddhist clergy.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Lovely Rita - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: “Lovely Rita” is a dress constructed of zippers and the embedded light arrays they control.
Abstract » “Lovely Rita” is a dress constructed solely out of variations on a single modular unit: a zipper and the embedded light array it controls. The zipper module is both the fundamental structural unit of the garment as well as a versatile interactive design element, which provides the wearer with the flexibility to dynamically shape the look and feel of the dress.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Seamless and Continuous User Identification for Interactive Tabletops Using Personal Device Handshaking and Body Tracking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Touch-based tabletops are a form of embedded device for group collaboration. This work tackles two key problems for effective use of such tabletops: there is currently no easy way for people to identify themselves to the table; and most current hardware does not link a person's touches to their identity. This paper presents a system which tackles these problems as it can identify users and keeps track of their actions around interactive tabletops. To start the user identification, a user puts their personal device onto the interactive surface. Once this is paired with the tabletop, linking the device owner's identity to the table, the system continuously tracks any touch by that user. The system seamlessly and continuously associates each user touch with an identity.
 
Successful Classroom Deployment of a Social Document Annotation System - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: NB supports collaborative student annotation of online lecture notes. Our study of NB use shows its efficacy and demonstrates that the time for annotation systems has finally arrived.
Abstract » NB is an in-place collaborative document annotation website targeting students reading lecture notes and draft textbooks. Serving as a discussion forum in the document margins, NB lets users ask and answer questions about their reading material as they are reading. NB users can read and annotate documents using their web browsers, without any special plug-ins. We describe the NB system and its evaluation in real class environment, where students used it to submit their reading assignments, ask questions and get or provide feedback.
We show that this tool can be and has been successfully incorporated into a number of different classes at different institutions. To understand how and why, we focus on a particularly successful class deployment where the instructor adapted his teaching style to take students' comment into account. We analyze the annotation practices that were observed---including the way geographic locality was exploited in ways unavailable in traditional forums---and discuss general design implications for online annotation tools in academia.
ACM
In session: Beyond Paper - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Discovery-based Games for Learning Software - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a discovery-based learning game that teaches people how to use complex software such as Adobe Photoshop using the Jigsaw metaphor. Can scaffold and motivate learning new tools and techniques.
Abstract » We propose using discovery-based learning games to teach people how to use complex software. Specifically, we developed Jigsaw, a learning game that asks players to solve virtual jigsaw puzzles using tools in Adobe Photoshop. We conducted an eleven-person lab study of the prototype, and found the game to be an effective learning medium that can complement demonstration-based tutorials. Not only did the participants learn about new tools and techniques while actively solving the puzzles in Jigsaw, but they also recalled techniques that they had learned previously but had forgotten.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
The Way I Talk to You: Sentiment Expression in an Organizational Context - Note
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically identifies the relationships between sentiment expression and the four primary dimensions of social interactions in organizations: involvement, tie strength, network size, and performance.
Abstract » Sentiment is a rich and important dimension of social interaction. However, its presence in computer-mediated communication in corporate settings is not well understood. This paper provides a preliminary study of people�s expression of sentiment in email conversations in an organizational context. The study reveals that sentiment levels evolve over time during the process of newcomers� socialization, that sentiment varies according to tie-strength with the recipient, and that sentiment patterns can be indicative of one�s position in the corporate social network as well as job performance. These findings shed light on the complex and dynamic nature of sentiment patterns, and would inspire further explorations and applications of sentiment analysis in organizations.
ACM
In session: Empathy and Technology: Focus on the End User - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
The Way I Talk to You: Sentiment Expression in an Organizational Context - Note
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically identifies the relationships between sentiment expression and the four primary dimensions of social interactions in organizations: involvement, tie strength, network size, and performance.
Abstract » Sentiment is a rich and important dimension of social interaction. However, its presence in computer-mediated communication in corporate settings is not well understood. This paper provides a preliminary study of people�s expression of sentiment in email conversations in an organizational context. The study reveals that sentiment levels evolve over time during the process of newcomers� socialization, that sentiment varies according to tie-strength with the recipient, and that sentiment patterns can be indicative of one�s position in the corporate social network as well as job performance. These findings shed light on the complex and dynamic nature of sentiment patterns, and would inspire further explorations and applications of sentiment analysis in organizations.
ACM
In session: Empathy and Technology: Focus on the End User - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Designing a Debugging Interaction Language for Cognitive Modelers: An Initial Case Study in Natural Programming Plus - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates how a debugging environment should support cognitive modelers. Suggests design implications as well as validation opportunities for interactive programming tools and languages.
Abstract » In this paper, we investigate how a debugging environment should support a population doing work at the core of HCI research: cognitive modelers. In conducting this investigation, we extended the Natural Programming methodology (a user-centered design method for HCI researchers of programming environments), to add an explicit method for mapping the outcomes of NP's empirical investigations to a language design. This provided us with a concrete way to make the design leap from empirical assessment of users' needs to a language. The contributions of our work are therefore: (1) empirical evidence about the content and sequence of cognitive modelers' information needs when debugging, (2) a new, empirically derived, design specification for a debugging interaction language for cognitive modelers, and (3) an initial case study of our "Natural Programming Plus" methodology.
ACM
In session: Programming, Performance, and Sense Making - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Creating the Spectacle: Designing Interactional Trajectories Through Spectator Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Ethnographic study reveals how artists designed and participants experienced a tabletop interface, shedding light on the design of tabletop and tangible interfaces, spectator interfaces, and trajectories through display ecologies
Abstract » An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists created a spectator interface for the interactive game Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height and materials of two tabletop interfaces before carefully arranging them in a local setting. We also show how participants experienced this interface. We consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale notion of interactional trajectory that combined trajectories through individual displays, trajectories through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories through an entire experience. Our findings shed light on discussions within HCI concerning interaction with tangible and tabletop displays, spectator interfaces, ecologies of displays, and trajectories through cultural experiences.
In session: Spectators - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
“Act Natural”: Instructions, Compliance and Accountability in Ambulatory Experiences - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents an ethnographic study of instruction compliance in an ambulatory experience. Four levels of compliance are uncovered of broad relevance to instruction design.
Abstract » This paper uses a detailed ethnographic study of an ambulatory experience, where participants were invited to explore the perspective of two notorious terrorists, in order to discuss the nature of instruction-giving and, most particularly, the methodical ways in which such instructions are complied with. Four distinct layers of compliance are identified, as are three different kinds of accountability, all of which stand potentially at odds with one another. The paper examines the tensions created by this, tensions that are further aggravated by instructions usually being delivered down a thin channel, with considerable surrounding contextual complexity and little opportunity for repair, and uncovers some core challenges for future design in relation to providing instructions for, and orchestrating a range of possible activities.
ACM
In session: Performative Emergency Simulation - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Findings of e-ESAS: A Mobile Based Symptom Monitoring System for Breast Cancer Patients in Rural Bangladesh - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS - the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system developed for rural BC patients.
Abstract » Breast cancer (BC) patients need traditional treatment as well as long term monitoring through an adaptive feedback-oriented treatment mechanism. Here, we present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS � the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system (RSMS) developed for rural BC patients where patients are the prime users rather than just the source of data collection at some point of time. We have also shown how �motivation� and �automation� have been integrated in e-ESAS and creating a unique motivation-persuasion-motivation cycle where the motivated patients become proactive change agents by persuading others. Though in its early deployment stages (2 months), e-ESAS demonstrates the potential to positively impact the cancer care by (1) helping the doctors with graphical charts of long symptom history (automation), (2) facilitating timely interventions through alert generation (automation) and (3) improving three way communications (doctor-patient-attendant) for a better decision making process (motivation) and thereby improving the quality of life of BC patients.
ACM
In session: Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients First - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
BreathTray: Augmenting Respiration Self-Regulation 
without Cognitive Deficit
 - Works In Progress
Abstract » Concerns grow concerning the negative impact information work has on stress, anxiety, and cognitive performance. This has led to recent research on technological methods that attempt to augment the user’s psycho-physiological self-regulatory processes. Rather than explicit prompting and reminders, BreathTray incentivizes calm respiration with continuous monitoring and feedback integrated into the desktop. This paper shows that such techniques do not significantly distract users from their work. The feedback effectively influenced users’ respiration patterns when they worked on a single intensive task but not while multi-tasking.
 
MEASURING MULTITASKING BEHAVIOR WITH ACTIVITY-BASED METRICS - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Proposed multitasking metrics to establish a conceptual foundation for future multitasking studies. Understanding the extent to which multitasking occurs can assist designers in improving applications that are used simultaneously.
Abstract » Multitasking is the result of time allocation decisions made by individuals faced with multiple tasks. Multitasking research is important in order to improve the design of systems and applications. Since people typically use computers to perform multiple tasks at the same time, insights into this type of behavior can help develop better systems and ideal types of computer environments for modern multitasking users. In this paper, we define multitasking based on the principles of task independence and performance concurrency and develop a set of metrics for computer-based multitasking. The theoretical foundation of this metric development effort stems from an application of key principles of Activity Theory and a systematic analysis of computer usage from the perspective of the user, the task and the technology. The proposed metrics, which range from a lean dichotomous variable to a richer measure based on switches, were validated with data from a sample of users who self-reported their activities during a computer usage session. This set of metrics can be used to establish a conceptual and methodological foundation for future multitasking studies.
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
The Effects of Positive and Negative Self-Interruptions in Discretionary Multitasking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Human multitasking is often the result of self-initiated interruptions in the performance of an ongoing task. Compared to externally induced interruptions, self-interruptions have not received enough research attention. To address this gap, this paper develops a detailed classification of self-interruptions rooted in positive and negative feelings of task progress based on responses subjects provided after completing a multitasking laboratory experiment. The results suggest that multitasking due to negative feelings is associated with more self-interruptions than those triggered by positive feelings and that more self-interruptions may produce lower accuracy in all tasks. Therefore, negative internal triggers of self-interruptions seem to unleash a downward spiral that ultimately affects performance.
 
Balancing Exertion Experiences - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines from "Jogging over a Distance", a mobile system used by jogging partners with different fitness levels between Europe and Australia. Aids designers of exertion games and sports apps.
Abstract » Exercising with others, such as jogging in pairs, can be socially engaging. However, if exercise partners have different fitness levels then the activity can be too strenuous for one and not challenging enough for the other, compromising engagement and health benefits. Our system, Jogging over a Distance, uses heart rate data and spatialized sound to create an equitable, balanced experience between joggers of different fitness levels who are geographically distributed. We extend this prior work by analyzing the experience of 32 joggers to detail how specific design features facilitated, and hindered, an engaging and balanced exertion experience. With this knowledge, we derive four dimensions that describe a design space for balancing exertion experiences: Measurement, Adjustment, Presentation and Control. We also present six design tactics for creating balanced exertion experiences described by these dimensions. By aiding designers in supporting participants of different physical abilities, we hope to increase participation and engagement with physical activity and facilitate the many benefits it brings about.
ACM
In session: Movement-Based Gameplay - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Interactive Paper Substrates to Support Musical Creation - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Explores the design of typed paper components for manipulating musical data. Support layers and modules of data rearranged in time and space through tangible interactions with pen and paper.
Abstract » We present paper substrates, interactive paper components that support the creation and manipulation of complex musical data. Substrates take different forms, from whole pages to movable strips, and contain or control typed data representations. We conducted participatory design sessions with five professional musicians with extensive experience with music creation tools. All generated innovative uses of paper substrates, manipulating their data, linking multiple representation layers and creating modular, reusable paper elements. The substrates reflect the structure of their computer-based data, but in a much more flexible and adaptable form. We use their prototypes to provide concrete examples of substrates, identify their roles, properties and functions. Finally, we explore their physical and interaction design with an interactive prototype.
ACM
In session: Music - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Interactive Paper Substrates to Support Musical Creation - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Improving Literacy in Developing Countries Using Speech Recognition-Supported Games on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Field study discussing the extent to which productive training - enabled by speech-recognition-supported games - is superior to receptive vocabulary training for reading skills. Benefits development of speech-user interfaces for literacy.
Abstract » Learning to read in a second language is challenging, but highly rewarding. For low-income children in developing countries, this task can be significantly more challenging because of lack of access to high-quality schooling, but can potentially improve economic prospects at the same time. A synthesis of research findings suggests that practicing recalling and vocalizing words for expressing an intended meaning could improve word reading skills – including reading in a second language – more than silent recognition of what the given words mean. Unfortunately, many language learning software do not support this instructional approach, owing to the technical challenges of incorporating speech recognition support to check that the learner is vocalizing the correct word. In this paper, we present results from a usability test and two subsequent experiments that explore the use of two speech recognition-enabled mobile games to help rural children in India read words with understanding. Through a working speech recognition prototype, we discuss two major contributions of this work: first, we give empirical evidence that shows the extent to which productive training (i.e. vocalizing words) is superior to receptive vocabulary training, and discuss the use of scaffolding hints to “unpack” factors in the learner’s linguistic knowledge that may impact reading. Second, we discuss what our results suggest for future research in HCI.
ACM
In session: Literacy on the Margin - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Two-Handed Marking Menus for Multitouch Devices - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes two-handed marking menu techniques. One variant reduces menu selection times over the one-handed technique and another variant doubles the number of menu items.
Abstract » We investigate multistroke marking menus for multitouch devices and we show that using two hands can improve performance. We present two new two-handed multistroke marking menu variants in which users either draw strokes with both hands simultaneously or alternate strokes between hands. In a pair of studies we find that using two hands simultaneously is faster than using a single, dominant-handed marking menu by 10-15%. Alternating strokes between hands doubles the number of accessible menu items for the same number of strokes, and is similar in performance to using a one-handed marking menu. We also examine how stroke direction affects performance. When using thumbs on an iPod Touch, drawing strokes upwards and inwards is faster than other directions. For two-handed simultaneous menus, stroke pairs that are bilaterally symmetric or share the same direction are fastest. We conclude with design guidelines and sample applications to aid multitouch application developers interested in using one- and two-handed marking menus.
In session: Triple T: Touch, Tables, Tablets - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Delta: A Tool For Representing and Comparing Workflows - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system that aids users in comparing workflows, specifically those used in image-editing tasks. Can assist designers in developing tools for comparing workflows in various domains.
Abstract » Tutorials and sample workflows for complicated, feature-rich software packages are widely available online. As a result users must differentiate between workflows to choose the most suitable one for their task. We present Delta, an interactive workflow visualization and comparison tool that helps users identify the tradeoffs between workflows. We conducted an initial study to identify the set of attributes users attend to when comparing workflows, finding that they consider result quality, their knowledge of commands, and the efficiency of the workflow. We then designed Delta to surface these attributes at three granularities: a high-level, clustered view; an intermediate-level list view that contains workflow summaries; and a low-level detail view that allows users to compare two individual workflows. Finally, we conducted an evaluation of Delta on a small corpus of 30 workflows and found that the intermediate list view provided the best information density. We conclude with thoughts on how such a workflow comparison system could be scaled up to larger corpora in the future.
ACM
In session: Visionary Models + Tools - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Strategies for Crowdsourcing Social Data Analysis - Paper
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: Introduces a workflow in which data analysts enlist crowds to help explore data visualizations and generate hypotheses, and demonstrates seven strategies for eliciting high-quality explanations of data at scale.
Abstract » Web-based social data analysis tools that rely on public discussion to produce hypotheses or explanations of the patterns and trends in data, rarely yield high-quality results in practice. Crowdsourcing offers an alternative approach in which an analyst pays workers to generate such explanations. Yet, asking workers with varying skills, backgrounds and motivations to simply "Explain why a chart is interesting" can result in irrelevant, unclear or speculative explanations of variable quality. To address these problems, we contribute seven strategies for improving the quality and diversity of worker-generated explanations. Our experiments show that using (S1) feature-oriented prompts, providing (S2) good examples, and including (S3) reference gathering, (S4) chart reading, and (S5) annotation subtasks increases the quality of responses by 28% for US workers and 196% for non-US workers. Feature-oriented prompts improve explanation quality by 69% to 236% depending on the prompt. We also show that (S6) pre-annotating charts can focus workers' attention on relevant details, and demonstrate that (S7) generating explanations iteratively increases explanation diversity without increasing worker attrition. We used our techniques to generate 910 explanations for 16 datasets, and found that 63% were of high quality. These results demonstrate that paid crowd workers can reliably generate diverse, high-quality explanations that support the analysis of specific datasets.
ACM
In session: Leveraging the Crowd - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Proton: Multitouch Gestures as Regular Expressions - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a framework that allows developers to declaratively specify multitouch gestures as regular expressions. Supports static analysis of gesture conflicts and the creation of gestures via a graphical editor.
Abstract » Current multitouch frameworks require application developers to write recognition code for custom gestures; this code is split across multiple event-handling callbacks. As the number of custom gestures grows it becomes increasingly difficult to 1) know if new gestures will conflict with existing gestures, and 2) know how to extend existing code to reliably recognize the complete gesture set. Proton is a novel framework that addresses both of these problems. Using Proton, the application developer declaratively specifies each gesture as a regular expression over a stream of touch events. Proton statically analyzes the set of gestures to report conflicts, and it automatically creates gesture recognizers for the entire set. To simplify the creation of complex multitouch gestures, Proton introduces gesture tablature, a graphical notation that concisely describes the sequencing of multiple interleaved touch actions over time. Proton contributes a graphical editor for authoring tablatures and automatically compiles tablatures into regular expressions. We present the architecture and implementation of Proton, along with three proof-of-concept applications. These applications demonstrate the expressiveness of the framework and show how Proton simplifies gesture definition and conflict resolution.
ACM
In session: What a Lovely Gesture - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Implanted User Interfaces - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the effect of skin on traditional components for sensing input, providing output, and for communicating, synchronizing and charging wirelessly.
Abstract » We investigate implanted user interfaces that small devices provide when implanted underneath human skin. Such devices always stay with the user, making their implanted user interfaces available at all times. We discuss four core challenges of implanted user interfaces: how to sense input through the skin, how to produce output, how to communicate amongst one another and with external infrastructure, and how to remain powered. We investigate these four challenges in a technical evaluation where we surgically implant study devices into a specimen arm. We find that traditional interfaces do work through skin. We then demonstrate how to deploy a prototype device on participants, using artificial skin to simulate implantation. We close with a discussion of medical considerations of implanted user interfaces, risks and limitations, and project into the future.
ACM
In session: Brain and Body - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Findings of e-ESAS: A Mobile Based Symptom Monitoring System for Breast Cancer Patients in Rural Bangladesh - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS - the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system developed for rural BC patients.
Abstract » Breast cancer (BC) patients need traditional treatment as well as long term monitoring through an adaptive feedback-oriented treatment mechanism. Here, we present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS � the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system (RSMS) developed for rural BC patients where patients are the prime users rather than just the source of data collection at some point of time. We have also shown how �motivation� and �automation� have been integrated in e-ESAS and creating a unique motivation-persuasion-motivation cycle where the motivated patients become proactive change agents by persuading others. Though in its early deployment stages (2 months), e-ESAS demonstrates the potential to positively impact the cancer care by (1) helping the doctors with graphical charts of long symptom history (automation), (2) facilitating timely interventions through alert generation (automation) and (3) improving three way communications (doctor-patient-attendant) for a better decision making process (motivation) and thereby improving the quality of life of BC patients.
ACM
In session: Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients First - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Digging in the Crates: An Ethnographic Study of DJs' Work - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an analysis of how DJs collect, prepare, perform and promote music. Raises implications for technologies to support DJs and for studies of music consumption and sharing in other settings.
Abstract » An ethnographic study uncovers the work of nightclub DJs, which extends far beyond the act of mixing tracks to also encompass collecting music, preparing for performances, and promotion and networking. We reveal how DJs value vinyl and digital formats in different ways, acquire music through 'crate digging', prepare physical and digital crates of music before gigs, and how these underpin improvised selections during their performances. We document how DJs interact with promoters, venues, dancers and other DJs, revealing an etiquette that governs how they select and share music, and manage an ongoing tension between revealing and hiding metadata so as to maintain a competitive edge. We raise implications for technologies to support DJs, while also shedding light on previous studies of music consumption and sharing in other settings.
ACM
In session: Music - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Biometric-Rich Gestures: A Novel Approach to Authentication on Multi-touch Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new approach to login/authentication on multi-touch devices, using behavior-based biometrics gleaned from five-finger gestures. This approach better aligns usability with security, than is the case for text-based passwords.
Abstract » In this paper, we present a novel multi-touch gesture-based authentication technique. We take advantage of the multi- touch surface to combine biometric techniques with gestural input. We defined a comprehensive set of five-finger touch gestures, based upon classifying movement characteristics of the center of the palm and fingertips, and tested them in a user study combining biometric data collection with usability questions. Using pattern recognition techniques, we built a classifier to recognize unique biometric gesture characteristics of an individual. We achieved a 90% accuracy rate with single gestures, and saw significant improvement when multiple gestures were performed in sequence. We found user ratings of a gestures desirable characteristics (ease, pleasure, excitement) correlated with a gestures actual biometric recognition ratethat is to say, user ratings aligned well with gestural security, in contrast to typical text-based passwords. Based on these results, we conclude that multi-touch gestures show great promise as an authentication mechanism.
ACM
In session: I Am How I Touch: Authenticating Users - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Mobile Service Distribution From the End-User Perspective - The Survey Study on Recommendation Practices - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A presentation on findings from a study focused on recommendation practices of users of mobile services, including motivations, means, context and types of services recommended to others.
Abstract » Vast amounts of mobile services and applications are being offered to end users via app stores and service providers' web sites. In addition, users take part in the distribution of services by recommending services to each other, i.e. through various word-of-mouth practices. To understand the current patterns of user-initiated service distribution, we conducted an exploratory survey study (N=203) to investigate the recommendation practices and motivations of mobile service users in situations where they recommend to other(s) and other(s) recommend to them. We found that the dominating way to recommend mobile services to others is to tell about the service in face-to-face situations, despite available support for electronic sharing in mobile situations. Social media was also used, but clearly less frequently. Based on the findings of this study, we present design ideas for supporting users in their recommendation practices.
In session: Mobile Computing and Interaction - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
CTArcade: Learning Computational Thinking While Training Virtual Characters Through Game Play - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we describe CTArcade, a web application framework that seeks to engage users through game play resulting in the improvement of computational thinking (CT) skills. Our formative study indicates that CT skills are employed when children are asked to define strategies of common games such as Connect Four. In CTArcade, users can train their own virtual characters while playing games with it. Trained characters then play matches against other virtual characters. Based on reviewing the matches played, users can improve their game character. A basic usability evaluation was performed on the system, which helped to define plans for improving CTArcade and assessing its design goals.
 
SINQ: Scientific INQuiry Learning using Social Media - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we describe SINQ, a prototype web application that utilizes social participation to guide learners through the scientific inquiry process. The paper outlines the challenges associated with scientific inquiry learning within natural environments, and describes initial research to leverage technology mediated social participation (TMSP) to scaffold inquiry learning.
 
MixT: Automatic Generation of Step-by-Step Mixed Media Tutorials - Works In Progress
Abstract » As software interfaces become more complicated, users rely on tutorials to learn, creating an increasing demand for effective tutorials. Existing tutorials, however, are limited in their presentation: Static step-by-step tutorials are easy to scan but hard to create and don't always give all of the necessary information for how to accomplish a step. In contrast, video tutorials provide very detailed information and are easy to create, but they are hard to scan as the video-player timeline does not give an overview of the entire task. We present MixT, which automatically generates mixed media tutorials that combine the strengths of these tutorial types. MixT tutorials include step-by-step text descriptions and images that are easy to scan and short videos for each step that provide additional context and detail as needed. We ground our design in a formative study that shows that mixed-media tutorials outperform both static and video tutorials.
 
A Candor in Reporting: Designing Dexterously for Fire Preparedness - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Study of improvisational practices illustrates weakness of design research accounts that stress reproducibility. Candid reflection encourages learning about why and what we design, as well as how.
Abstract » This paper challenges the domination of repeatable methods in HCI discourse and, instead, offers a design case study that details ad-hoc, contextually-driven decisions as to how processes can unfold in a community-based project, taking on fire awareness in Australia. The paper draws out details which enable us to understand why and how methods were modified or abandoned to overcome obstacles, and what was made a priority in arriving at greater understanding of communicating risk. This reporting differs from an established research accounting, but offers complexity and richness in human-centered research as we seek to develop our epistemologies of design research practice.
In session: alt.chi: Design Matters - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
"Listen2dRoom": Helping Blind Individuals Understand Room Layouts - Works In Progress
Abstract » Over half a million Americans are legally blind. Despite much effort in assistive technology, blindness remains a major challenge to accessibility. For individuals who are blind, there has been considerable research on indoor/outdoor way finding, but there has been little research on room layout information. The purpose of the current research is to support blind individuals to understand the layout of an unfamiliar room. We found some important applications for this type of assistive technology such as safety, easy-to-use furniture and home appliances. To this end, we identified user needs and variables with blind participants, designed and evaluated prototype systems, and iteratively improved the system. The overall process, findings, and on-going future works are discussed. This effort is expected to enhance independence for persons who are blind.
 
Interactive Block Device System with Pattern Drawing Capability on Matrix LEDs - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Draw on dot-matrix LED by light, connect them, and play!
Abstract » This paper describes an interactive block device with dot-matrix LED, with capabilities of drawing patterns by lights, physical and signal connections of devices with magnet connectors, and interaction using accelerometer and sounder. The pattern drawing is implemented by the technique of using matrix LEDs as light sensor array, which saves the additional hardware cost. Three applications of this block device, pattern morphing, function definable block, and musical box, are also described.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
The Relationship between Industrial Design and Interaction Design in Product Development Activities - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the relationship between industrial designers and interaction designers in product development activities. It can assist both design professions to collaborate with each other in fuzzy frond end pervasively.
Abstract » This paper describes the relationship between industrial design and interaction design in product development activities based on a case study. The case study is grounded on a specific product's design and development activity. This study shows that the most intense collaboration takes place in early phases of the development activity such as concept generation and creation of design alternatives. This study also shows that there are differences in terms of methods, techniques and design languages in approaching the design problem, understanding users between industrial designers and interaction designers. Therefore conducting more case studies regarding this result might contribute to develop thriving techniques, design and representation languages.
In session: Design Theory & Practice - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Postboard: free-form tangible messaging for people with aphasia (and other people) - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we report the design of a communication system for people with aphasia. It consists of pairs of physical whiteboards that are connected over the internet. This allows users to combine any personal language skills with visuals and already existing materials at hand. The design has been based on feedback and evaluation sessions with aphasics and their therapists. The user test results show that the design provides a low entry barrier and enables relaxed conversations.
 
Bridging Between Organizations and the Public: Volunteer Coordinators' Uneasy Relationship with Social Computing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a study of the social computing use of volunteer coordinators. Identifies challenges and opportunities for designing social computing technologies to bridge more effectively between the public and nonprofit sector.
Abstract » We present the results of a qualitative study of the use of social computing technologies by volunteer coordinators at nonprofit organizations. The work of volunteer coordinators is bridge-building work-bringing together numerous public constituencies as well as constituencies within their organizations. One might expect this class of work to be well supported by social software, some of which has been found to enable bridging social capital. However, we find that, in many ways, this class of technology fails to adequately support volunteer coordinators' bridge-building work. We discuss a number of strategies for bridge-building via social computing technologies, numerous challenges faced by volunteer coordinators in their use of these technologies, and opportunities for designing social software to better support bridge-building between organizations and the public.
ACM
In session: Social Support and Collaboration - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Transcribing Handwritten Text Images with a Word Soup Game - Works In Progress
Abstract » The major contribution presented here is
the transformation of the tedious process of transcribing text images into an enjoyable game.
A web-based application is composed by a word soup interface and
a game engine that uses a system for automatic handwriting transcription as input to play the game.
This WiP describes the rationale and design principles for the game,
envisioning evaluation strategies
and deriving insights for future developments.
 
An Automatically Generated Interlanguage Tailored to Speakers of Minority but Culturally Influenced Languages - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique to compensate for resource-scarce languages in machine translation. Can assist in developing UIs tailored to speakers of minority languages.
Abstract » Automatic localization of cultural resources and UIs is crucial for the survival of minority languages, for which there are insufficient parallel corpora (or no corpus at all) to build machine translation systems. This paper proposes a new way to compensate for such resource-scarce languages, based on the fact that most languages share a common vocabulary. Concretely, our approach leverages a family of languages closely related to the speaker's native language to construct translations in a coherent mix of these languages. Experimental results indicate that these translations can be easily understood, being also a useful aid for users who are not proficient in foreign languages. Therefore this work significantly contributes to HCI in two ways: it establishes a language that can improve how applications communicate to their users, and it reports insights on the user acceptance towards the method.
ACM
In session: AI & Machine-Learning & Translation - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Reducing Compensatory Motions in Video Games for Stroke Rehabilitation - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Series of studies about creating video games that use operant conditioning to correct therapeutic exercises for stroke rehabilitation. Can assist video game designers in modifying unconscious behavior through games.
Abstract » Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability among adults in industrialized nations; approximately 80% of people who survive a stroke experience motor disabilities. Recovery requires hundreds of daily repetitions of therapeutic exercises, often without therapist supervision. When performing therapy alone, people with limited motion often compensate for the lack of motion in one joint by moving another one. This compensation can impede the recovery progress and create new health problems. In this work we contribute (1) a methodology to reliably sense compensatory torso motion in the context of shoulder exercises done by persons with stroke and (2) the design and experimental evaluation of operant-conditioning-based strategies for games that aim to reduce compensatory torso motion. Our results show that these strategies significantly reduce compensatory motions compared to alternatives.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Comparing Averages in Time Series Data - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper explores visualizations for efficient summarization through perceptually-motivated design and empirical assessment.
Abstract » ABSTRACT
Visualizations often seek to aid viewers in assessing the big
picture in the data, that is, to make judgments about aggregate
properties of the data. In this paper, we present an empirical
study of a representative aggregate judgment task: finding regions
of maximum average in a series. We show how a theory
of perceptual averaging suggests a visual design other than
the typically-used line graph. We describe an experiment that
assesses participants' ability to estimate averages and make
judgments based on these averages. The experiment confirms
that this color encoding significantly outperforms the standard
practice. The experiment also provides evidence for a
perceptual averaging theory.
ACM
In session: Tools and Stats in Evaluation Studies - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Ultra-Tangibles: Creating Movable Tangible Objects on Interactive Tables - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a system that uses ultrasound-based air pressure waves to move multiple tangible objects, independently, around an interactive surface. Allows the creation of new actuated tangible interfaces for interactive surfaces.
Abstract » Tangible objects placed on interactive surfaces allow users to employ a physical object to manipulate digital content. However, creating the reverse effect�having digital content manipulate a tangible object placed on the surface�is a more challenging task. We present a new approach to this problem, using ultrasound-based air pressure waves to move multiple tangible objects, independently, around an interactive surface. We describe the technical background, design, implementation, and test cases for such a system. We conclude by discussing practical uses of our system, Ultra-Tangibles, in the creation of new tangible user interfaces.
ACM
In session: Dimensions of Sensory Interaction - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Putting Your Best Foot Forward: Investigating Real-World Mappings for Foot-based Gestures - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates real-world mappings of foot-based gestures to virtual workspaces. It conducts a series of studies exploring: user-defined mappings, gesture detection and continuous interaction parameters.
Abstract » Foot-based gestures have recently received attention as an alternative interaction mechanism in situations where the hands are pre-occupied or unavailable. This paper investigates suitable real-world mappings of foot gestures to invoke commands and interact with virtual workspaces. Our first study identified user preferences for mapping common mobile-device commands to gestures. We distinguish these gestures in terms of discrete and continuous command input. While discrete foot-based input has relatively few parameters to control, continuous input requires careful design considerations on how the user's input can be mapped to a control parameter (e.g. the volume knob of the media player). We investigate this issue further through three user-studies. Our results show that rate-based techniques are significantly faster, more accurate and result if far fewer target crossings compared to displacement-based interaction. We discuss these findings and identify design recommendations.
ACM
In session: Kick it! Interfaces for Feet and Walking - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Family interaction for responsible natural resource consumption - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we propose a novel approach to persuasive technology, based on children-parent interaction, to be implemented in a smart pad ludic application; to contribute to the natural resource consumption problem, not only by raising awareness, but by encouraging informed decisions on their use. We conducted a survey to see which natural resources are more relevant to Japanese society. We designed an attractive multimedia tool, considering the family interaction, that uses eco-visualizations, a narrative and cartoon characters. If successful, we would achieve better informed consumption of food and other natural resources, reinforcing positive attitudes within the family.
 
HCI RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN ARABIC UNIVERSITIES - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: “HCI Research and Education in Arabic Universities” SIG objective is to identify the century challenges for Arabic universities to improve the HCI research and promote the international presence in cooperation projects.
Abstract » The main topic of this SIG is to discuss how the Human-Computer Interaction subject is present in the universities degrees and research groups from the Arabic countries. The SIG will contribute to disseminate the teaching and research activities from several Arabic universities of reference, and also will allow participants to exchange experiences and research opportunities.
In session: HCI RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN ARABIC UNIVERSITIES - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Researching the User Experience for Connected TV - A Case Study - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study presenting a variety of projects that highlight UX challenges and opportunities around internet-connected television. Can inspire developers to exploit this emerging platform to create novel experiences.
Abstract » This paper presents a Case Study of the BBC’s recent research and development work into the user experience of Internet-Connected Television. User expectations and aspirations around their TV experiences are changing radically as the platform increasingly supplements broadcast network connectivity with IP connectivity. Despite the relative youth of the platform, it is clear that Connected TV and its users support and seek user experiences which are quite distinctive from web browsing on personal computers, or earlier forms of interactive TV platforms. We describe a number of the BBC’s recent research projects developing knowledge and tools to support future user experiences for TV, ranging from typography to alternative input interfaces. In each case, we describe the motivation, the development approach and the empirical assessment of impact of the technology and experiences embodied by our prototypes.
In session: Future Design - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Sensor-Based Physical Interactions as Interventions for Change in Residential Energy Consumption - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interventions for behavior change in domestic energy consumption rely critically on energy usage data. To obtain this data, collection systems must be established. Pervasive sensing systems enable such monitoring, but populating homes with sensors is challenging. We offer an alternative to feedback approaches that depend on the assumption that users are motivated by energy data in its raw state. Physical Experiential Technology Systems (PETS) is a behavior-and sensor-based platform supporting rich experiences and the diffusion of sensors in homes. In this paper, we present our novel approach to building sensor feedback systems and our initial product concepts.
 
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of a Shop Window - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This video shows how passers-by interact with the Looking Glass, an interactive shop window.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice inter- activity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows (the honeypot effect).
ACM
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of Shop Windows - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a field study on how passers-by notice whether a public display is interactive. Can be useful to design public displays and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. The lab study reveals: (1) Mirrored user silhouettes and images are more effective than avatar-like representations. (2) It takes time to notice the interactivity (approx. 1.2s). In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice interactivity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows. Our findings can be used to design public display applications and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
ACM
In session: Spectators - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Increasing the Security of Gaze-Based Cued-Recall Graphical Passwords Using Saliency Masks - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a gaze-based authentication scheme that uses saliency maps to mask image areas that most likely attract visual attention. Can significantly increase the security of gaze-based graphical passwords.
Abstract » With computers being used ever more ubiquitously in situations where privacy is important, secure user authentication is a central requirement. Gaze-based graphical passwords are a particularly promising means for shoulder-surfing-resistant authentication, but selecting secure passwords remains challenging. In this paper, we present a novel gaze-based authentication scheme that makes use of cued-recall graphical passwords on a single image. In order to increase password security, our approach uses a computational model of visual attention to mask those areas of the image that are most likely to attract visual attention. We create a realistic threat model for attacks that may occur in public settings, such as filming the user's interaction while drawing money from an ATM. Based on a 12-participant user study, we show that our approach is significantly more secure than a standard image-based authentication and gaze-based 4-digit PIN entry.
ACM
In session: Do You See What Eye See - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Using a High-Resolution Wall-Sized Virtual Microscope to Teach Undergraduate Medical Students - Works In Progress
Abstract » The Leeds Virtual Microscope is an interactive visualization system, capable of rendering gigapixel virtual slides onto high-resolution, wall-sized displays. We describe the evaluation of this technology for teaching pathology to undergraduate medical students, providing insights into the use of high-resolution, wall-sized displays in an educational context. Students were quickly able to become confident in using the technology, collaboratively exploring virtual slides in order to understand the mechanisms of disease. Being able to point with a finger to features on virtual slides promoted multi-way interaction between the students and tutor, led to the spontaneous expansion of the tutorial’s scope, and was indicative of a high level of engagement. Students were very positive about being able to interact with the virtual slides and described their increased enthusiasm for pathology as a subject.
 
ReGroup: Interactive Machine Learning for On-Demand Group Creation in Social Networks - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents ReGroup, a novel end-user interactive machine learning system for helping people create custom, on-demand groups in online social networks. Can facilitate in-context sharing, potentially encouraging better online privacy practices.
Abstract » We present ReGroup, a novel end-user interactive machine learning system for helping people create custom, on demand groups in online social networks. As a person adds members to a group, ReGroup iteratively learns a probabilistic model of group membership specific to that group. ReGroup then uses its currently learned model to suggest additional members and group characteristics for filtering. Our evaluation shows that ReGroup is effective for helping people create large and varied groups, whereas traditional methods (searching by name or selecting from an alphabetical list) are better suited for small groups whose members can be easily recalled by name. By facilitating on demand group creation, ReGroup can enable in-context sharing and potentially encourage better online privacy practices. In addition, applying interactive machine learning to social network group creation introduces several challenges for designing effective end-user interaction with machine learning. We identify these challenges and discuss how we address them in ReGroup.
ACM
In session: AI & Machine-Learning & Translation - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Trajectory-Aware Mobile Search - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a novel application of destination prediction to generate a trajectory-aware local search experience. The approach shows how predicting mobile users' destinations can help enhance user experience.
Abstract » Most location-aware mobile applications only make use of the user's current location, but there is an opportunity for them to infer the user's future locations. We present Trajectory-Aware Search (TAS), a mobile local search application that predicts the user's destination in real-time based on location data from the current trip and shows search results near the predicted location. TAS demonstrates the feasibility of destination prediction in an interactive mobile application. Our user study of TAS shows using predicted destinations to help select search results positively augments the local search experience.
ACM
In session: Right Where I Am: UX in Complex Environments - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Music Interaction Research - Let's Get the Band Back Together - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel discusses music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become marginal in HCI and how to revive it.
Abstract » The ubiquity of music consumption is overarching. Statistics for digital music sales, streaming video videos, computer games, and illegal sharing all speak of a huge interest. At the same, an incredible amount of data about every day interactions (sales and use) with music is accumulating through new cloud services. However, there is an amazing lack of public knowledge about everyday music interaction. This panel discusses the state of music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become so marginal in HCI and discuss how to revive it. Our two discussion themes are: orientation towards design vs. research in music related R&D, and the question if and how private, big data on music interactions could enlighten our understanding of ubiquitous media culture.
 
Combiform: Beyond Co-attentive Play, a Combinable Social Gaming Platform - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Combiform is a gaming console that enables players to combine their controllers, opening up a new level of collaborative and competitive experiences where body-to-body and body-to-screen interactions happen in parallel.
Abstract » Combiform is a novel digital gaming console featuring four combinable handheld controllers. It is a new and unique tangible gaming interface that stresses the importance of co-located, co-attentive social interactions among players. In particular, multiple players may freely combine and lock together their handheld game controllers, thereby creating a very flexible collective and transformable tangible interface. Combiform emphasizes social interaction through controller-to-controller contact. The platform and its 10 games introduce novel, tangible and physical co-attentive experiences that are not found in traditional co-located gaming platforms using ‘embodied’ controllers (e.g. Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect). Based on observations, this new interactive technique has successfully transformed typical co-located social play experiences into a multisensory physical activity.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Combiform: Beyond Co-attentive Play, a Combinable Social Gaming Platform - Student Game Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Combiform is a gaming console that enables players to combine their controllers, opening up a new level of collaborative and competitive experiences where body-to-body and body-to-screen interactions happen in parallel.
Abstract » Combiform is a novel digital gaming console featuring four combinable handheld controllers. It is a new and unique tangible gaming interface that stresses the importance of co-located, co-attentive social interactions among players. In particular, multiple players may freely combine and lock together their handheld game controllers, thereby creating a very flexible collective and transformable tangible interface. Combiform emphasizes social interaction through controller-to-controller contact. The platform and its 10 games introduce novel, tangible and physical co-attentive experiences that are not found in traditional co-located gaming platforms using ‘embodied’ controllers (e.g. Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect). Based on observations, this new interactive technique has successfully transformed typical co-located social play experiences into a multisensory physical activity.
In session: Student Game Competition - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a multivariate study of tutorials in three video games with 45,000 players. Shows that tutorials may only have value for games with mechanics that cannot be discovered through experimentation.
Abstract » One of the key challenges of video game design is teaching new players how to play. Although game developers frequently use tutorials to teach game mechanics, little is known about how tutorials affect game learnability and player engagement. Seeking to estimate this value, we implemented eight tutorial designs in three video games of varying complexity and evaluated their effects on player engagement and retention. The results of our multivariate study of over 45,000 players show that the usefulness of tutorials depends greatly on game complexity. Although tutorials increased play time by as much as 29% in the most complex game, they did not significantly improve player engagement in the two simpler games. Our results suggest that investment in tutorials may not be justified for games with mechanics that can be discovered through experimentation.
ACM
In session: Game Experiences - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
The Reality of Fantasy: Uncovering Information-Seeking Behaviors and Needs in Online Fantasy Sports - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a first study of information-seeking behaviors and needs for online fantasy sports players across different sports, and identifies tools they might want and need for better performances and experiences.
Abstract » Online fantasy sports are rapidly growing in popularity. Fantasy sports players consume massive amounts of sports and player statistics in order to manage their teams, such as to determine who they want on their fantasy sports team and what changes they want to make during the season. With more people actively engaging in this activity and increasing investment in this industry, this case study performs the first detailed investigation into information-seeking behaviors and information needs of online fantasy sports players. Two online fantasy sports were studied: fantasy football and NASCAR. Common themes from one-on-one interviews with active fantasy sports players are discussed and areas for future research identified. Implications for system design include more targeted data provision throughout the sports seasons, better aggregation of online sports statistics and data, development of mobile applications, and innovation in fantasy sports gaming.
In session: Understanding Gamers - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Tabletops in Motion: The Kinetics and Kinematics of Interactive Surface Physical Therapy - Works In Progress
Abstract » Technology-based rehabilitation methods have shown promise for improving physical therapy programs, but much of the research is lacking quantitative analysis. We present a study conducted with healthy participants where we compared traditional “table-based” therapy methods with new technology-based methods. Using motion analysis and electromyography recordings, we assessed the kinetic and kinematic dimensions of participant motion during four activities. While technology-based methods are more enjoyable, our results indicate that it is the design of an activity that has a significant impact on the movements performed.
 
The 3rd Dimension of CHI (3DCHI): Touching and Designing 3D User Interfaces - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatial 3D space in which we live.
Abstract » In recent years 3D has gained increasing amount of attention - interactive visualization of 3D data has become increasingly important and widespread due to the requirements of several application areas, and entertainment industry has brought 3D experience to the reach of wide audiences through games, 3D movies and stereoscopic displays. However, current user interfaces (UIs) often lack adequate support for 3D interactions: 2D metaphors still dominate in GUI design, 2D desktop systems are often limited in cases where natural interaction with 3D content is required, and sophisticated 3D user interfaces consisting of stereoscopic projections and tracked input devices are rarely adopted by ordinary users. In the future, novel interaction design solutions are needed to better support the natural interaction and utilize the special features of 3D technologies.
In this workshop we address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatially complex, 3D space in which we live. The workshop will provide a common forum for researchers to share their visions of the future and recent results in the area of improving 3D interaction and UI design.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Representing Our Information Structures for Research and for Everyday Use - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: To realize a scientific inquiry of personal information management (PIM), researchers need methods for representing and measuring information structure. These methods, with small extension, have direct application to end users.
Abstract » We argue for a methodology and supporting infrastructure that promotes a cross-study investigation of information structure to advance the science of personal information management. Moreover, we observe that the infrastructure to support a methodology of scientific inquiry may have direct application to users as they struggle to manage their information. Research on information structure reaches towards a new age in information management wherein organizing information structures grow and change over time based on the internal needs of their owners and not the external demands of tools.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Women in UX Leadership in Business - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership in business. Our panelists of women leaders will share their insights with the UX community.
Abstract » The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership. Despite ongoing progress toward equality, women still haven’t reached significant representation in leadership positions in the high-tech industry. Is the field of User Experience an exception to this norm? Does the interdisciplinary nature of UX play a role in making it easier or more difficult for women in our field? Does a career in UX, regardless of gender place a glass ceiling on upward mobility into “C” level positions? Our accomplished panel of UX managers will share their professional journeys, their observations on advantages and disadvantages, and their advice for the next generation.
In session: Women in UX Leadership in Business - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Problems of Data Mobility and Reuse in the Provision of Computer-based Training for Screening Mammography - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the problems encountered reusing clinical data to deliver training in breast cancer screening. Details how data curation processes and tools can be better designed to improve data reuse.
Abstract » This paper explores some of the problems encountered in using a data archive to build tools for training radiologists to interpret breast screening images. We detail our experiences of taking images and case notes created as part of the work of breast cancer screening and using them as resources for training. Four instances of the use of the archive in training are described in detail and the problems they reveal are discussed. We formulate some general lessons for the mobility and re-use of rich ensembles of data and artefacts drawn from complex professional settings. We argue for a richer representation of the context from which the data was taken than can be achieved through making selected relations explicit in metadata. We also conclude that facilities for correcting and elaborating data should be available at the point of use, and not separated out as distinct activities.
ACM
In session: Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients First - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
CrowdCamp: Rapidly Iterating Ideas Related to Collective Intelligence & Crowdsourcing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Hands-on workshop for the development of ideas, designs, and prototypes related to collective intelligence and crowdsourcing. Will enable diverse disciplines to rapidly test new ideas.
Abstract » The field of collective intelligence -- encompassing aspects of crowdsourcing, human computation, and social computing -- is having tremendous impact on our lives, and the fields are rapidly growing. We propose a hands-on event that takes the main benefits of a workshop -- provocative discussion and community building -- and allows time to focus on developing ideas into actual outputs: experiment designs, in-depth thoughts on wicked problems, paper or coded prototypes. We will bring together researchers to discuss future visions and make tangible headway on those visions, as well as seeding collaboration. The outputs from brainstorming, discussion, and building will persist after the workshop for attendees and the community to view, and will be written up.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Creating and Using Interactive Narratives: Reading and Writing Branching Comics - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design and development of a novel form of interactive, multi-touch comics, which can facilitate the authoring of, and engagement with, interactive narratives.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the design and development of a multi-touch surface and software that challenges current approaches to the production and consumption of comics. Authorship of the comics involves drawing the 'top level' of the story directly onto paper and projecting lower-level narrative elements, such as objects, characters, dialogue, descriptions and/or events onto the paper via a multi-touch interface. In terms of the impact this has upon the experience of reading and writing, the implementation of paper is intended to facilitate the creation of high-level overviews of stories, while the touch surface allows users to generate branches through the addition of artifacts in accordance with certain theories about interactive narratives. This provides the opportunity to participate in the reading and authoring of both traditional, paper-based texts and interactive, digital scenarios. Prototype comics are used to demonstrate this approach to reading and writing top-level and low-level narratives.
ACM
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Tagging Might not be Slower than Filing in Folders - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tagging is a promising method for organising and refinding
information. However, studies comparing tagging mechanisms to
organising information in folder hierarchies are relatively
scarce. A study with the software framework tagstore shows
that tagging does not necessarily mean slower filing
performance. For experienced users, tagging required less time,
fewer mouse clicks, and had very high acceptance rates.
 
Designing Effective Gaze Mechanisms for Virtual Agents - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A model for designing effective gaze mechanisms for virtual agents and its evaluation. The model will allow designers to create gaze behaviors that accomplish specific high-level outcomes.
Abstract » Virtual agents hold great promise in human-computer interaction with their ability to afford embodied interaction using nonverbal human communicative cues. Gaze cues are particularly important to achieve significant high-level outcomes such as improved learning and feelings of rapport. Our goal is to explore how agents might achieve such outcomes through seemingly subtle changes in gaze behavior and what design variables for gaze might lead to such positive outcomes. Drawing on research in human physiology, we developed a model of gaze behavior to capture these key design variables. In a user study, we investigated how manipulations in these variables might improve affiliation with the agent and learning. The results showed that an agent using affiliative gaze elicited more positive feelings of connection, while an agent using referential gaze improved participants' learning. Our model and findings offer guidelines for the design of effective gaze behaviors for virtual agents.
ACM
In session: Interacting With Robots & Agents - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Boneshaker – A generic framework for building physical therapy games - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present the Boneshaker framework, a generic framework developed to facilitate the design of physical therapy games with the Unity 3D engine. The Boneshaker framework lowers the threshold for developing a variety of physical therapy games as it allows both developer and therapist to quickly add input devices and change specific game dynamics/therapy exercises.
 
Tabletops in Motion: The Kinetics and Kinematics of Interactive Surface Physical Therapy - Works In Progress
Abstract » Technology-based rehabilitation methods have shown promise for improving physical therapy programs, but much of the research is lacking quantitative analysis. We present a study conducted with healthy participants where we compared traditional “table-based” therapy methods with new technology-based methods. Using motion analysis and electromyography recordings, we assessed the kinetic and kinematic dimensions of participant motion during four activities. While technology-based methods are more enjoyable, our results indicate that it is the design of an activity that has a significant impact on the movements performed.
 
Using the Kinect to Encourage Older Adults to Exercise: A Prototype - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper reports current progress on a project that aims to find the factors that play an important role in motivating older adults to maintain a physical exercise routine, a habit recommended by doctors but difficult to sustain. Our initial data gathering includes an interview with an expert in aging and physical therapy, and a focus group with older adults on the topics of exercise and technology. Based on these data, an early prototype game has been implemented for the Microsoft Kinect that aims to help encourage older adults to exercise. The Kinect application has been tested for basic usability and found to be promising. Next steps include play-tests with older adults, iterative development of the game to add motivational features, and evaluation of the game’s success in encouraging older adults to maintain an exercise regimen.
 
Social Desirability Bias and Self-Reports of Motivation: A Cross-Cultural Study of Amazon Mechanical Turk in the US and India - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Demonstrates that survey self-reports of motivation to participate in crowdsourcing can be inaccurate due to social desirability bias. Shows differential patterns of motivation and bias between US and India samples.
Abstract » In this study we extend research on online collaboration
by examining motivation to do work on the crowdsoucing
service Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). We address a
challenge to many existing studies of motivation in online contexts:
they are based on survey self-reports, which are
susceptible to effects such as social desirability bias. In
addition we investigate a second challenge to the extant research on
motivation in the context of MTurk: a failure to examine potential
differences between MTurk workers (Turkers) from different parts
of the world, especially those from the US and India, MTurk's two
largest worker groups. Using a survey technique called the list
experiment, we observe distinct profiles of motivation and patterns of
social desirability effects among Turkers in the US and India.
Among US Turkers, we find that social desirability
encourages over-reporting of each of four motivating
factors we examined. The over-reporting was particularly large in
the case of money as a motivator. In contrast, among Turkers in
India we find a more complex pattern of social desirability effects,
with workers under-reporting ``killing time'' and ``fun'' as
motivations, and drastically over-reporting ``sense of purpose.''
We conclude by discussing these results and proposing implications
for future research and design.
ACM
In session: Crowdsourcing and Peer Production II - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Profanity Use in Online Communities - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Exposes poor performance of list-based profanity detection systems through evaluation of systems and failures. Analysis of community differences regarding creation/tolerance of profanity on social news site suggests new approach.
Abstract » As user-generated Web content increases, the amount of inappropriate and/or objectionable content also grows. Several scholarly communities are addressing how to detect and manage such content: research in computer vision focuses on detection of inappropriate images, natural language processing technology has advanced to recognize insults. However, profanity detection systems remain flawed. Current list-based profanity detection systems have two limitations. First, they are easy to circumvent and easily become stale–that is, they cannot adapt to misspellings, abbreviations, and the fast pace of profane slang evolution. Secondly, they offer a one-size fits all solution; they typically do not accommodate domain, community and context specific needs. However, social settings have their own normative behaviors–what is deemed acceptable in one community may not be in another. In this paper, through analysis of comments from a social news site, we provide evidence that current systems are performing poorly and evaluate the cases on which they fail. We then address community differences regarding creation/tolerance of profanity and suggest a shift to more contextually nuanced profanity detection systems.
ACM
In session: Understanding Online Communication - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
The User as a Sensor: Navigating Users with Visual Impairments in Indoor Spaces using Tactile Landmarks - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an indoor navigation system that appropriates the user to be a sensor. The system can improve mobility for users with visual impairments and can be installed at low cost.
Abstract » Indoor navigation systems for users who are visually impaired typically rely upon expensive physical augmentation of the environment or expensive sensing equipment; consequently few systems have been implemented. We present an indoor navigation system called Navatar that allows for localization and navigation by exploiting the physical characteristics of indoor environments, taking advantage of the unique sensing abilities of users with visual impairments, and minimalistic sensing achievable with low cost accelerometers available in smartphones. Particle filters are used to estimate the user's location based on the accelerometer data as well as the user confirming the presence of anticipated tactile landmarks along the provided path. Navatar has a high possibility of large-scale deployment, as it only requires an annotated virtual representation of an indoor environment. A user study with six blind users determines the accuracy of the approach, collects qualitative experiences and identifies areas for improvement.
ACM
In session: Supporting Visually Impaired Users - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Dwell-and-Spring: Undo for Direct Manipulation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents Dwell-and-Spring a technique that uses the metaphor of springs to enable users to undo direct manipulations. Evaluation shows that users quickly adopt it as soon as discovered.
Abstract » In graphical user interfaces, direct manipulation consists in incremental actions that should be reversible. Typical examples include manipulating geometrical shapes in a vector graphics editor, navigating a document using a scrollbar, or moving and resizing windows on the desktop.
As in many such cases, there will not be any mechanism to undo them, requiring users to manually revert to the previous state using a similar sequence of direct manipulation actions. The associated motor and cognitive costs can be high. We argue that proper and consistent mechanisms to support undo in this context are lacking, and present Dwell-and-Spring, an interaction technique that uses the metaphor of springs to enable users to undo direct manipulations. A spring widget pops up whenever the user dwells during a press-drag-release interaction, giving her the opportunity to either cancel the current manipulation or undo the last one. The technique is generic and can easily be implemented on top of existing applications to complement the traditional undo command. Empirical evaluation shows that users quickly adopt it as soon as they discover it.
ACM
In session: Old Mouse, New Tricks: Desktop Interfaces - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
VizDeck: A Card Game Metaphor for Fast Visual Data Exploration - Works In Progress
Abstract » Scientists in all fields are acquiring data at a rate that is challenging the limits of human cognitive capacity. At the same time, researchers’ attention is increasingly claimed by ever more diverse demands on their time. Visual perception is the highest bandwidth channel into the human brain, yet many existing visualization tools require a period of training rendering them inaccessible from a practical standpoint for many users. In addition, appropriate visualizations for cognitively overloaded users may differ from those optimized for analysis.
We present VizDeck, a web-based visualization system for relational data that uses a card game metaphor and automatic visualization techniques to assist scientists and researchers in creating interactive visual dashboard applications in seconds with no programming necessary.
 
Dream Drill: Learning Application - Works In Progress
Abstract » Some evidence indicates that sleep supports memory consolidation. Items studied before sleeps are memorized more efficiently than those not followed by sleep. Consequently, we propose a learning management system based on these findings. The system includes an alarm clock, whose alarm is set only if a user answers some questions. The user also has to answer the same questions once the clock has awakened him or her in the morning. We implemented a prototype and conducted a user study with five participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the system.
 
A Longitudinal Study of Facebook, LinkedIn, & Twitter Use - Paper
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: Our longitudinal study of attitudes and behaviors around popular social networking sites in an enterprise context will contribute to understanding and potentially to design in this dynamic technology area.
Abstract » We conducted four annual comprehensive surveys of social networking at Microsoft between 2008 and 2011. We are interested in how employees use these tools and whether they consider then useful for organizational communication and information-gathering. Our study is longitudinal and based on random sampling. Between 2008 and 2011social networking went from being a niche activity to being very widely and heavily used. Growth in use and acceptance was not uniform, with differences based on gender, age and level (individual contributor vs. manager). Behaviors and concerns changed, with some showing signs of leveling off.
ACM
In session: Tweet, Tweet, Tweet! - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Avatarians: Playing with your Friends’ Data - Works In Progress
Abstract » This article describes a new game mechanic called Game Entity Social Mapping (GESM) based on using social networking data fetched from a remote site about the player and his contacts to create characters, items or scenarios. A preliminary evaluation consisting of applying this mechanic to three different games was conducted. A small number of users tested those games to measure the enjoyment and learning about their contacts information.
 
The 3rd Dimension of CHI (3DCHI): Touching and Designing 3D User Interfaces - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatial 3D space in which we live.
Abstract » In recent years 3D has gained increasing amount of attention - interactive visualization of 3D data has become increasingly important and widespread due to the requirements of several application areas, and entertainment industry has brought 3D experience to the reach of wide audiences through games, 3D movies and stereoscopic displays. However, current user interfaces (UIs) often lack adequate support for 3D interactions: 2D metaphors still dominate in GUI design, 2D desktop systems are often limited in cases where natural interaction with 3D content is required, and sophisticated 3D user interfaces consisting of stereoscopic projections and tracked input devices are rarely adopted by ordinary users. In the future, novel interaction design solutions are needed to better support the natural interaction and utilize the special features of 3D technologies.
In this workshop we address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatially complex, 3D space in which we live. The workshop will provide a common forum for researchers to share their visions of the future and recent results in the area of improving 3D interaction and UI design.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Deriving Requirements for an Online Community Interaction Scheme: Indications from Older Adults - Works In Progress
Abstract » Social media and online communication encourage social interaction but do little to strengthen community relations between people who live in the same area. The aim of this work is to develop a set of requirements, in this initial case from a group of older adults, for an online system aimed at increasing local face-to-face communication and enhancing community interaction. Eleven older adults took part in two discussion groups to develop this list of requirements. The results of these discussions are presented and come under six broad categories, these being: Security/Information, Social, Physical, Interface, Crime and Management. We also suggest additional requirements we think would benefit the system and future directions.
 
Turning Personal Calendars into Scheduling Assistants - Works In Progress
Abstract » Personal calendars have long played a major role in time management, but they have evolved little over the years, and their contribution to productivity has stagnated. Inspired by logical theories of intention as well as experimental results on human productivity, and leveraging the power of optimization algorithms, we seek to reinvent the digital calendar. First, we increase the expressive power of calendar systems by deriving new entity types that go beyond simple events to better represent human intentions, plans, and goals. Next, we build on social psychological research to characterize the properties of a schedule best engineered for human productivity. Finally, we develop an optimization framework and algorithm to generate these schedules from a set of entities. With these tools combined, we transform the digital calendar from a passive repository into an active scheduling assistant.
 
Socially Computed Scripts to Support Social Problem Solving Skills - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We describe an approach to using crowdsourcing to create models of complex social scenarios, and confirm that they may help an author create instructional modules for an individual with autism.
Abstract » The social world that most of us navigate effortlessly can prove to be a perplexing and disconcerting place for individuals with autism. Interactive tools to teach social skills that are personalized to the individual's needs show promise, but it is challenging to author them. We describe the design, development, and preliminary evaluation of an approach to using human computation that enables the creation of models of complex and interesting social scenarios, possible obstacles that may arise in those scenarios, and potential solutions to those obstacles. Our preliminary evaluation of the models confirms that these models have the potential to help an author create a social skills instructional module.
ACM
In session: Social Support and Collaboration - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Embedded interaction in a Water Fountain for Motivating Behavior Change in Public Space - Note
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an augmented water fountain with audiovisual feedback aimed at improving and motivating the water-drinking experience. Shows an inspiring way of conducting long-term in-the-wild studies that affect users and public space.
Abstract » This paper presents an interactive installation for a public space aimed at motivating new behaviors by augmenting the space with subtle and playful audiovisual interaction aesthetically integrated in a shared environment. Designed to complement an existing water fountain with projected light and sound, the embedded installation encouraged people to take a drink, increasing the proportion of people who used the water fountain by 42% to 57% approximately for nine months. Sensors evaluated the impact of multiple interaction modalities on actual water usage. We found that subtle interaction can improve the experience of a space, in particular for those that use it frequently, and lead to sustained behavior change, especially when its modalities are responsive to the level of activity in the space.
ACM
In session: Sustainability and Behavior Change - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
XICE Windowing Toolkit: Seamless Display Annexation - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a vision for safer, flexible, ubiquitous nomadic computing. Demonstrates a resource-efficient approach to annexing screens in the environment. The next level of mobile computing.
Abstract » Users are increasingly nomadic, carrying computing power with them. To gain rich input and output, users could annex displays and input devices when available, but annexing via VGA cable is insufficient. This article introduces XICE, which uses wireless networks to connect portable devices to display servers. Network connections eliminate cables, allow multiple people to share a display, and ease input annexation. XICE mitigates potentially malicious input, and facilitates comfortable viewing on a variety of displays via view-independent coordinates. The XICE-distributed graphics model greatly reduces portable device CPU usage and extends portable device battery life.
 
Martian Boneyards: Can a Community of Players be a Community of Practice? - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of Martian Boneyards, an MMO-based science-mystery game designed to foster collaborative inquiry. Demonstrates how designers can shape an evolving game narrative, responding to players’ activities and accumulating knowledge.
Abstract » Martian Boneyards is a prototype game run in a massively-multiplayer online environment designed to entice gamers to partake in collaborative scientific inquiry. This case study examines the steps designers took to foster a community of inquiry within the game. Designers played characters in the game, allowing them to be responsive to players’ activities and accumulating knowledge. Players were drawn to the narrative and close relationships they developed with the designers’ characters and other players. An informal and communal reward system was used to further nurture collaboration among the community. Findings suggest games like this one show promise for fostering science identity and scientific inquiry.
In session: Games: Community + Communication - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Invited Panel: Managing UX Teams: Insights from Executive Leaders - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Lively interviews of well-known executive leaders in User Experience, discussing their experiences with building and managing teams, their advice on best practices, and their vision for the future.
Abstract » A number of well-known corporations were earlier adopters of creating and building User Experience departments, which has resulted in a small set of executive leaders in User Experience who have decades of corporate User Experience management experience. This session is an interview of some of these executive leaders to learn how the field has changed over the decades, their recommendations for best practices, lessons learned, and their vision for the future. The panel will be of interest to managers, practitioners and those who work closely with these teams, including developers, project managers, market researchers, test managers, and executives.
 
Developing IDEAS: Supporting Children with Autism within a Participatory Design Team - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes IDEAS, a design method for involving children with autism in the technology design process. Provides structured support for difficulties contributing to the design process within a collaborative design team.
Abstract » IDEAS (Interface Design Experience for the Autistic Spectrum) is a method for involving children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the technology design process. This paper extends the IDEAS method to enable use with a design team, providing specific added support for communication and collaboration difficulties that may arise. A study to trial this extended method was conducted with two design teams, each involving three children with ASD, in a series of six, weekly design sessions focused on designing a math game. The findings from this study reveal that the children were able to successfully participate in the sessions and collaborate with other children. The findings also highlight the positive experience that involvement in such a process can offer this population.
ACM
In session: Health and Children - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Supporting children with autism to participate throughout a design process - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This short film portrays a representative participatory design session involving children with autism collaborating to generate ideas for user interface characters or personas, as active participants within a design team.
Abstract » A deficit in social communication is one of a number of core features of autism that can result in the exclusion of individuals with autism from the design process. Individuals with autism can be highly motivated by new technology, and the design of technologies for individuals with autism could potentially benefit from their direct input. We structured participatory design sessions using Cooperative Inquiry specifically to support the needs of individuals with autism. This video highlights how, when appropriately supported, the challenges of the social communication deficits associated with autism can be overcome and individuals with autism can take a full and active role within the design process.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Legible, are you sure ? An Experimentation-based Typographical Design in Safety-Critical Context - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a study involving the design of typeface suited for the cockpit. More widely than for Safety-critical contexts, Experimentation-based design process helps designers validate usability of text display.
Abstract » Designing Safety-critical interfaces entails proving the safety and operational usability of each component. Largely taken for granted in everyday interface design, the typographical component, through its legibility and aesthetics, weighs heavily on the ubiquitous reading task at the heart of most visualizations and interactions. In this paper, we present a research project whose goal is the creation of a new typeface to display textual information on future aircraft interfaces. After an initial task analysis leading to the definition of specific needs, requirements and design principles, the design constantly evolves from an iterative cycle of design and experimentation. We present three experiments (laboratory and cockpit) used mainly to validate initial choices and fine-tune font properties. Results confirm the importance of rigorously testing the typographical component as a part of text output evaluation in interactive systems.
ACM
In session: See Hear Speak: Redesigning I/O for Effectiveness - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
<Insert Image>: Helping the Legal Use of Creative Commons Images - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present an Open Media Retrieval model for searching and using Creative Commons content. The design will reduce accidental copyright infringements and the time needed for searching open content.
Abstract » Media creation applications cater poorly to one very common usage: Situations in which the users need media that they do not own and for which they are unwilling to pay. Finding and using externally produced media is currently a cumbersome process. Often, users locate the content using a search engine, copy it into their work, cross their fingers, and hope they do not infringe on any copyrights. While the authors have shared hundreds of millions of images with permissive licenses, the license terms are too complicated for other users to follow. In our studies, we found that even the well-intentioned users still fail to respect copyrights in simple image reuse situations. We therefore introduce an Open Media Retrieval (OMR) model to remedy this problem and supplement it with prototypes that access various legal image sources directly within the creative work flow and provide automatic credits to the original authors.
ACM
In session: Uses of Media & Creation of Web Experiences - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Crowdsourcing an Emotional Wardrobe - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Investigating the possibility of designing a multi-modal language to enable the crowdsourcing of tactile perceptions of garments and the values that such a process would bring to our society.
Abstract » Selecting clothing online requires decision-making about sensorial experiences, but online environments provide only limited sensorial information. Inferences are therefore made on the basis of product pictures and their textual description. This is often unreliable as it is either based on the designer’s understanding of the product or deprived of perceptual content due to the difficulty of expressing such experiences. Using a purpose built website that combines and cross references multi-modal descriptive media, this study aims at investigating the possibility of using crowdsourcing mechanisms and multi-modal language to engage consumers in providing enriched descriptions of their tactile experiences of garments.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Course 30: Multimodal Detection of Affective States: A Roadmap from Brain-Computer Interfaces, Face-Based Emotion Recognition, Eye Tracking and Other Sensors - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course presents devices and explores methodologies for multimodal detection of affective states, as well as a discussion about presenter’s experiences using them both in learning and gaming scenarios.
Abstract » One novel part of the design of interactions between people and computers, related with the facet of securing user satisfaction, is the capability of systems to adapt to their individual users showing empathy. Being empathetic implies that the computer is able to recognize user’s affective states and understand the implication of those states. Automatic detection of affective states requires the computer: to sense information; to process and understand information integrating several sources that could range from brain-waves signals and biofeedback readings, passing from gestures recognition, to posture and pressure sensing; and to apply algorithms and data processing tools to understand user’s affective states.

Through this course, attendees will:

a) Learn about sensing approaches used to detect affective states: brain-computer interfaces, face-based emotion recognition systems, eye-tracking system, and physiological sensors –including skin conductivity, posture, and pressure sensors—.

b) Understand the pros and cons of the diverse sensing approaches used to detect affective states.

c) Learn about the data that is gathered from each device and understand its characteristics.

d) Learn about approaches and tools to pre-process, synchronize, and analyze data.

This course is open to researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in incorporating affective computing as part of their adaptive and personalized technology toolbox.

The presentation will be a mix of enthusiastic instruction with demonstrations and exercises, all aimed to help making the topic concrete, memorable, and actionable.
 
Of BATs and APEs: An Interactive Tabletop Game for Natural History Museums - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes user experiences with a tabletop game on evolution at a natural history museum. Can help designers approach evaluation of interactive surfaces in museums. Presents qualitative results on visitor engagement.
Abstract » In this paper we describe visitor interaction with an interactive tabletop exhibit on evolution that we designed for use in natural history museums. We video recorded 30 families using the exhibit at the Harvard Museum of Natural History. We also observed an additional 50 social groups interacting with the exhibit without video recording. The goal of this research is to explore ways to develop "successful" interactive tabletop exhibits for museums. To determine criteria for success in this context, we borrow the concept of Active Prolonged Engagement (APE) from the science museum literature. Research on APE sets a high standard for visitor engagement and learning, and it offers a number of useful concepts and measures for research on interactive surfaces in the wild. In this paper we adapt and expand on these measures and apply them to our tabletop exhibit. Our results show that visitor groups collaborated effectively and engaged in focused, on-topic discussion for prolonged periods of time. To understand these results, we analyze visitor conversation at the exhibit. Our analysis suggests that social practices of game play contributed substantially to visitor collaboration and engagement with the exhibit.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Invited SIG: Designing for the living room TV experience - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG brings together practitioners and academic user researchers and designers who are interested in or working on defining both the software and hardware aspects of the user experience for TV.
Abstract » This SIG brings together practitioners and academic user researchers and designers who are interested in or working on defining both the software and hardware aspects of the user experience for TV. This SIG will be useful to people at all stages ranging from early research to released products. We especially welcome people from product labs.
 
FlyTalk: Social Media to Meet the Needs of Air Travelers - Works In Progress
Abstract » The aviation industry plays a vital role in supporting economies and connecting people worldwide; it is a cornerstone of modern life. However, user experience of air travel is often marked by frustration, stress and confusion. Indeed, over the last decade, traveler satisfaction with air travel experiences has steadily declined. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews (using a range of user research methods) that aims to understand the needs of air travelers. Key insights from this process are presented and a conceptual system design, based on connecting travelers using existing social media systems, is introduced. Ultimately, this paper argues that applying innovation in social media technology to air travel has the potential to improve user experiences and reduce industry costs, making travelling smoother, cheaper and more satisfying.
 
"Listen2dRoom": Helping Blind Individuals Understand Room Layouts - Works In Progress
Abstract » Over half a million Americans are legally blind. Despite much effort in assistive technology, blindness remains a major challenge to accessibility. For individuals who are blind, there has been considerable research on indoor/outdoor way finding, but there has been little research on room layout information. The purpose of the current research is to support blind individuals to understand the layout of an unfamiliar room. We found some important applications for this type of assistive technology such as safety, easy-to-use furniture and home appliances. To this end, we identified user needs and variables with blind participants, designed and evaluated prototype systems, and iteratively improved the system. The overall process, findings, and on-going future works are discussed. This effort is expected to enhance independence for persons who are blind.
 
FEEL: Frequent EDA and Event Logging – A Mobile Social Interaction Stress Monitoring System - Works In Progress
Abstract » This work proposes a system for the automatic annotation and monitoring of cell phone activity and stress responses of users. While mobile phone applications (e.g., e mail, voice, calendar) are used to non-intrusively extract the context of social interactions, a non-intrusive and comfortable biosensor is used to measure the electrodermal activity (EDA). Then, custom stress recognition software analyses the streams of data in real-time and associates stress levels to each event. Both contextual data and stress levels are aggregated in a searchable journal where the user can reflect on his/her physiological responses.
B
 
Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - Special Events
Contribution & Benefit: In this Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss how to improve and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation.
Abstract » The CHI community is vibrant, growing, and interdisciplinary, and peer review is at the heart of what it means to be a community of researchers. In this Special Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss the question of how to grow and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation. Our community has seen a wide variety of explorations of the best way to change and improve our practices: alt.chi’s open reviewing, CSCW’s revise & resubmit process and UIST’s removal of page limits are all ways to address the changing nature of this research. This Town Hall will provide an opportunity to discuss and address this ongoing question.
In session: Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Walking improves your cognitive map in environments that are large-scale and large in extent - ToCHI
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: No previous studies have used an omni-directional treadmill to investigate navigation. Contrary to previous studies using small-scale spaces, we show that physical locomotion is critical for rapid cognitive map development.
Abstract » This study investigated the effect of body-based information (proprioception, etc.) when participants navigated large-scale virtual marketplaces that were either small (Experiment 1) or large in extent (Experiment 2). Extent refers to the size of an environment, whereas scale refers to whether people have to travel through an environment to see the detail necessary for navigation. Each participant was provided with full body-based information (walking through the virtual marketplaces in a large tracking hall or on an omni-directional treadmill), just the translational component of body-based information (walking on a linear treadmill, but turning with a joystick), just the rotational component (physically turning but using a joystick to translate) or no body-based information (joysticks to translate and rotate). In large and small environments translational body-based information significantly improved the accuracy of participants’ cognitive maps, measured using estimates of direction and relative straight line distance but, on its own, rotational body-based information had no effect. In environments of small extent, full body-based information also improved participants’ navigational performance. The experiments show that locomotion devices such as linear treadmills would bring substantial benefits to virtual environment applications where large spaces are navigated, and theories of human navigation need to reconsider the contribution made by body-based information, and distinguish between environmental scale and extent.
In session: Kick it! Interfaces for Feet and Walking - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Listening Factors: A Large-Scale Principal Components Analysis of Long-Term Music Listening Histories - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a principal component analysis of automatically collected music listening histories. Groups and derives the impact of 48 listening behavior variables based on this analysis.
Abstract » There are about as many strategies for listening to music as there are music enthusiasts. This makes learning about overarching patterns and similarities difficult. In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of long-term music listening histories from the last.fm web service. It gives insight into the most distinguishing factors in music listening behavior. Our sample contains 310 histories with up to six years duration and 48 associated variables describing various user and music characteristics. Using a principal components analysis, we aggregated these variables into 13 components and found several correlations between them. The analysis especially showed the impact of seasons and a listener's interest in novelty on music choice. Using this information, a sample of a user's listening history or even just demographical data could be used to create personalized interfaces and novel recommendation strategies. We close with derived design considerations for future music interfaces.
ACM
In session: Music Across CHI - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Evaluating the Collaborative Critique Method - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce a new usability walkthrough method called Collaborative Critique, inspired by the human-computer collaboration paradigm of system-user interaction, and present the results of its evaluation with usability professionals.
Abstract » We introduce a new usability walkthrough method called Collaborative Critique (CC), which is inspired by the human-computer collaboration paradigm of system-user interaction. This method applies a ``collaboration lens" to assessing the system's behavior and its impact on the user's efforts in the context of the task being performed. We present findings from a laboratory evaluation of the CC method with usability practitioners, in which the results of the CC walkthrough were compared to a benchmark set of problems collected via user testing with two experimental Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system tasks. The development of this new usability evaluation method was driven by the need for an approach that assesses the adequacy of the system's support for reducing the user's cognitive and physical effort in the context of the interaction.
ACM
In session: Usability Methods - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Creating and Using Interactive Narratives: Reading and Writing Branching Comics - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design and development of a novel form of interactive, multi-touch comics, which can facilitate the authoring of, and engagement with, interactive narratives.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the design and development of a multi-touch surface and software that challenges current approaches to the production and consumption of comics. Authorship of the comics involves drawing the 'top level' of the story directly onto paper and projecting lower-level narrative elements, such as objects, characters, dialogue, descriptions and/or events onto the paper via a multi-touch interface. In terms of the impact this has upon the experience of reading and writing, the implementation of paper is intended to facilitate the creation of high-level overviews of stories, while the touch surface allows users to generate branches through the addition of artifacts in accordance with certain theories about interactive narratives. This provides the opportunity to participate in the reading and authoring of both traditional, paper-based texts and interactive, digital scenarios. Prototype comics are used to demonstrate this approach to reading and writing top-level and low-level narratives.
ACM
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Fast and Frugal Shopping Challenge - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: A fast and frugal shopping challenge looks at the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions in a grocery store.
Abstract » There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. A fast and frugal shopping challenge is presented, in the style of a humorous reality TV show, where the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions are demonstrated by shoppers in a grocery store.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Choosing to Interleave: Human Error and Information Access Cost - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Empirical study demonstrating that the cost of accessing information can impact on multitasking performance. Choosing to interleave the programming of medical devices can result in more omission errors.
Abstract » People are prone to making more errors when multitasking. Thus in safety-critical environments, it is often considered safer to perform tasks sequentially. Here we explore how the cost of accessing information affects the way people choose to interleave. An empirical study based on a medical scenario was conducted. Participants had to program infusion pump devices using information from a prescription form. The physical and mental effort involved in accessing information was manipulated. This was achieved by varying the physical distance between the prescription form and the devices. We demonstrate that by increasing information access cost, individuals are less likely to omit a required task step. This is because they adopt a more memory-intensive strategy, which encourages interleaving at natural boundaries, i.e., after completing the programming of one of the pumps. Interleaving during programming can result in task steps being forgotten.
ACM
In session: Future Design - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
GyroTab: A Handheld Device that Provides Reactive Torque Feedback - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents GyroTab, a flat handheld system that utilizes the gyro effect to provide torque feedback on mobile devices. The feedback can be used to convey the feeling of weight or inertia.
Abstract » Haptic devices that provide robust and realistic force feedback are generally grounded to counterweight the applied force, prohibiting their use in mobile devices. Many ungrounded force-feedback devices rely on the gyro effect to produce torques on the human body, but their active control systems render them extremely bulky for implementation in small mobile devices. We present GyroTab, a relatively flat handheld system that utilizes the gyro effect to provide torque feedback. GyroTab relies on the user to produce an input torque and provides feedback by opposing that torque, making its feedback reactive to the user�s motion. We describe the implementation of GyroTab, discuss the kinds of feedback it generates, and explore some of the psychophysical results we obtained from a study with the device.
ACM
In session: Use the Force - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
How Do Couples Use CheekTouch over Phone Calls? - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes how romantic couples use a novel audio-tactile communication technique called CheekTouch over phone calls. Shows a possibility of enriching emotions with touch over phone calls.
Abstract » In this paper we introduce CheekTouch, an affective audio-tactile communication technique that transmits multi-finger touch gestures applied on a sender's mobile phone to a receiver's cheek in real time during a call. We made a pair of CheekTouch prototypes each with a multi-touch screen and vibrotactile display to enable bidirectional touch delivery. We observed four romantic couples in their twenties using our prototype system in a lab setting over five consecutive days, and analyzed how CheekTouch affected their non-verbal and emotional communication. The results of the user study showed that CheekTouch could effectively support audio-tactile communication in various ways - persuading, conveying status, delivering information, emphasizing emotion/words, calling for attention, and being playful.
ACM
In session: Intimacy and Connection - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
The Design and Evaluation of Prototype Eco-Feedback Displays for Fixture-Level Water Usage Data - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Inspired by emerging water sensing systems that provide disaggregated usage data, we explore a range of water-based feedback visualizations and examine issues of accountability, competition, and integration into domestic space.
Abstract » Few means currently exist for home occupants to learn about their water consumption: e.g., where water use occurs, whether such use is excessive and what steps can be taken to conserve. Emerging water sensing systems, however, can provide detailed usage data at the level of individual water fixtures (i.e., disaggregated usage data). In this paper, we perform formative evaluations of two sets of novel eco-feedback displays that take advantage of this disaggregated data. The first display set isolates and examines specific elements of an eco-feedback design space such as data and time granularity. Displays in the second set act as design probes to elicit reactions about competition, privacy, and integration into domestic space. The displays were evaluated via an online survey of 651 North American respondents and in-home, semi-structured interviews with 10 families (20 adults). Our findings are relevant not only to the design of future water eco-feedback systems but also for other types of consumption (e.g., electricity and gas).
ACM
In session: Defying Environmental Behavior Changes - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Consensus Building in Open Source User Interface Design Discussions - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reports on a study of consensus building in user interface design discussions in open source software. Provides design implications for promoting consensus in distributed discussions of user interface design issues.
Abstract » We report results of a study which examines consensus
building in user interface design discussions in open source
software communities. Our methodology consisted of
conducting interviews with designers and developers from
the Drupal and Ubuntu communities (N=17) and analyzing
a large corpus of interaction data collected from Drupal.
The interviews captured user perspectives on the challenges
of reaching consensus, techniques employed for building
consensus, and the consequences of not reaching consensus.
We analyzed the interaction data to determine how different
elements of the content, process, and user relationships in
the design discussions affect consensus. Our main result
shows that design discussions engaging participants with
more experience and prior interaction history are more
likely to reach consensus. Based on all of our results, we
formulated design implications for promoting consensus in
distributed discussions of user interface design issues.
ACM
In session: Understanding Online Communication - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Senior Designers: Empowering Seniors to Design Enjoyable Falls Rehabilitation Tools - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Our findings suggest that seniors are an integral part of the design process and should be directly involved from the concept stages of the design of tools for their rehabilitation.
Abstract » Studies have shown that functional strength and balance exercises can reduce the risk of falling in older people if they are done on a regular basis. However, the repetitive nature of these exercises; as well as the use of instructional booklets and videos for rehabilitation may discourage seniors to exercise in the home, thereby rendering such an intervention ineffective. Our work proposed that the use of multimodal games � co-designed with seniors � could be a way of making falls rehabilitation more enjoyable; thereby improving adherence to home exercise programmes. In this paper, we first explain the process by which we identified barriers to the users� effective interaction with current home rehabilitation tools. We then go on to describe how we actively involved seniors in the initial design, and improvement of useful, enjoyable games for falls rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that seniors are an integral part of the design process and should be directly involved from the concept stages of the design of tools for their rehabilitation.
ACM
In session: Participatory Design with Older People - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of a Shop Window - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This video shows how passers-by interact with the Looking Glass, an interactive shop window.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice inter- activity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows (the honeypot effect).
ACM
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
ShoeSense: A New Perspective on Gestural Interaction and Wearable Applications - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a novel wearable device consisting of a shoe-mounted sensor and offering a novel and unique perspective for eyes-free gestural interaction. Presents and Evaluates three novel gesture sets.
Abstract » When the user is engaged with a real-world task it can be inappropriate or difficult to use a smartphone. To address this concern, we developed ShoeSense, a wearable system consisting in part of a shoe-mounted depth sensor pointing upward at the wearer. ShoeSense recognizes relaxed and discreet as well as large and demonstrative hand gestures. In particular, we designed three gesture sets (Triangle, Radial, and Finger-Count) for this setup, which can be performed without visual attention. The advantages of ShoeSense are illustrated in five scenarios: (1) quickly performing frequent operations without reaching for the phone, (2) discreetly performing operations without disturbing others, (3) enhancing operations on mobile devices, (4) supporting accessibility, and (5) artistic performances. We present a proof-of-concept, wearable implementation based on a depth camera and report on a lab study comparing social acceptability, physical and mental demand, and user preference. A second study demonstrates a 94-99% recognition rate of our recognizers.
ACM
In session: Kick it! Interfaces for Feet and Walking - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Chained Displays: Configurations of Public Displays can be used to influence Actor-, Audience-, and Passer-By Behavior - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a design space and a field study on interactive non-flat public displays. Examines how non-flat displays impact actor-, audience- and passer-by behavior.
Abstract » Most interactive public displays currently rely on flat screens. This form factor impacts how users (1) notice the public display (2) develop motivation and (3) (socially) interact with the public display. In this paper, we present Chained Displays, a combination of several screens to create different form factors for interactive public displays. We also present a design space based on two complementary concepts, Focus and Nimbus, to describe and compare chained display configurations. Finally, we performed a field study comparing three chained displays: Flat, Concave, and Hexagonal. Results show that Flat triggers the strongest honeypot effect, Hexagonal causes low social learning, and Concave triggers the smallest amount of simultaneously interacting users among other findings.
ACM
In session: Spectators - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of Shop Windows - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a field study on how passers-by notice whether a public display is interactive. Can be useful to design public displays and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. The lab study reveals: (1) Mirrored user silhouettes and images are more effective than avatar-like representations. (2) It takes time to notice the interactivity (approx. 1.2s). In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice interactivity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows. Our findings can be used to design public display applications and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
ACM
In session: Spectators - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
ShoeSense: A New Perspective on Hand Gestures and Wearable Applications - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Participants perform hand gesture in the air for controlling interactive applications such as Keynote or iTunes
Abstract » When the user is engaged with a real-world task it can be inappropriate or difficult to use a smartphone. To address this concern, we developed ShoeSense, a wearable system consisting in part of a shoe-mounted depth sensor pointing upward at the wearer. ShoeSense recognizes relaxed and discreet as well as large and demonstrative hand gestures. In particular, we designed three gesture sets (Triangle, Radial, and Finger-Count) for this setup, which can be performed without visual attention. The advantages of ShoeSense are illustrated in five scenarios: (1) quickly performing frequent operations without reaching for the phone, (2) discreetly performing operations without disturbing others, (3) enhancing operations on mobile devices, (4) supporting accessibility, and (5) artistic performances. We present a proof-of-concept, wearable implementation based on a depth camera and report on a lab study comparing social acceptability, physical and mental demand, and user preference. A second study demonstrates a 94-99% recognition rate of our recognizers.
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
The Interactive Punching Bag - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The ‘interactive punching bag’ is a programmable device that adds sensors, sound, lights, and a display to a conventional punching bag.
Abstract » The ‘interactive punching bag’ transforms a conventional punching bag into a programmable ‘smart device’ enhanced to provide various forms of stimulus and feedback (sound, lights, and displayed images). The physical characteristics of each punch are captured using impact sensors and accelerometers, and LEDs, speakers and an associated display can be used to provide different prompts and responses. Interactions are logged over time for analysis. The bag was devised as a means of investigating how to design interactions in the context of a fun, physical, familiar object. Preliminary studies suggest that users are surprised and engaged, and that first-time users spend more time in their first encounter if the bag is running an ‘unexpected’ program (e.g., giggling on impact rather than grunting). However, some users are sensitive about the nature of images and sounds associated with the bag, particularly where there is a conflict with social expectations or values. So far, the interactions that hold users’ attention are those, like the musical ‘punching bag keyboard’, that combine moderate physical activity with a creative element or an intellectual challenge.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Murmur Study - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Murmur Study is an art installation that examines the rise of micro-messaging technologies such as Twitter and Facebook’s status updates.
Abstract » Murmur Study is an art installation that examines the rise of micro-messaging technologies such as Twitter and Facebook’s status updates. One might describe these messages as a type of digital small talk. But unlike face to face conversations, these fleeting thoughts are accumulated, archived and digitally indexed by corporations, governments and research institutions. While the long-term impact of these archives remains to be seen, the sheer volume of publicly accessible, personal, and often emotional expressions should give us pause.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
The Interactive Punching Bag - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The ‘interactive punching bag’ is a programmable device that adds sensors, sound, lights, and a display to a conventional punching bag.
Abstract » The ‘interactive punching bag’ transforms a conventional punching bag into a programmable ‘smart device’ enhanced to provide various forms of stimulus and feedback (sound, lights, and displayed images). The physical characteristics of each punch are captured using impact sensors and accelerometers, and LEDs, speakers and an associated display can be used to provide different prompts and responses. Interactions are logged over time for analysis. The bag was devised as a means of investigating how to design interactions in the context of a fun, physical, familiar object. Preliminary studies suggest that users are surprised and engaged, and that first-time users spend more time in their first encounter if the bag is running an ‘unexpected’ program (e.g., giggling on impact rather than grunting). However, some users are sensitive about the nature of images and sounds associated with the bag, particularly where there is a conflict with social expectations or values. So far, the interactions that hold users’ attention are those, like the musical ‘punching bag keyboard’, that combine moderate physical activity with a creative element or an intellectual challenge.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Magic Land on Interactive Tabletop for Play Therapy with Children - Works In Progress
Abstract » We describe an ongoing study that explores the introduction of digital technology into play therapy. While digital technologies are increasingly used in educational and directive therapeutic contexts with older children, they are largely missing from non-directive play therapy settings with younger children. Based on the play therapy research and practice literature we describe the design and ongoing evaluation of Magic Land, a set of digital play activities for interactive tabletops used in non-directive play therapy with younger children.
 
User Learning and Performance with Bezel Menus - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the performance of different bezel menu layouts. Using the results, presents a bezel-based text entry technique for eyes-free interaction with the phone. Concludes with design implications for bezel menus.
Abstract » Touchscreen phones tend to require constant visual attention, thus not allowing eyes-free interaction. For users with visual impairment, or when occupied with another task that requires a user's visual attention, these phones can be difficult to use. Recently, marks initiating from the bezel, the physical touch-insensitive frame surrounding a touchscreen display, have been proposed as a method for eyes-free interaction. Due to the physical form factor of the mobile device, it is possible to access different parts of the bezel eyes-free. In this paper, we first studied the performance of different bezel menu layouts. Based on the results, we designed a bezel-based text entry application to gain insights into how bezel menus perform in a real-world application. From a longitudinal study, we found that the participants achieved 9.2 words per minute in situations requiring minimal visual attention to the screen. After only one hour of practice, the participants transitioned from novice to expert users. This shows that bezel menus can be adopted for realistic applications.
ACM
In session: Phone Fun: Extending Mobile Interaction - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
mClerk: Enabling Mobile Crowdsourcing in Developing Regions - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new platform for crowdsourcing graphical tasks via SMS messages and studies its deployment in semi-urban India. Demonstrates that paid crowdsourcing can be feasible and viral in developing regions.
Abstract » Global crowdsourcing platforms could offer new employment opportunities to low-income workers in developing countries. However, the impact to date has been limited because poor communities usually lack access to computers and the Internet.

This paper presents mClerk, a new platform for mobile crowdsourcing in developing regions. mClerk sends and receives tasks via SMS, making it accessible to anyone with a low-end mobile phone. However, mClerk is not limited to text: it leverages a little-known protocol to send small images via ordinary SMS, enabling novel distribution of graphical tasks. Via a 5-week deployment in semi-urban India, we demonstrate that mClerk is effective for digitizing local-language documents. Usage of mClerk spread virally from 10 users to 239 users, who digitized over 25,000 words during the study. We discuss the social ecosystem surrounding this usage, and evaluate the potential of mobile crowdsourcing to both deliver and derive value from users in developing regions.
ACM
In session: ICT4D - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Athletes and Street Acrobats: Designing for play as a Community Value in Parkour - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We developed a mobile community service for the Parkour community. We discuss how the successful design relied understanding the culture as a 'fun community', valuing play over achievement and competition.
Abstract » Participatory design methods face challenges when designing for a widespread youth community. In such projects, it is not enough to design in collaboration with a few selected individuals; one must also strive to understand the community at a deeper level and incorporate its values and practices into the design solution.

We report on our process of designing with, and for, an identified youth group: the Parkour and Freerunning community. We show how the successful design relied not only on employing methods of participatory observation and participatory design, but also on acquiring an understanding of the practice as a "fun community", valuing play over achievement and competition.
ACM
In session: Games: Community + Communication - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Investigating In-car Safety Services on the Motorway: the Role of Screen Size - Works In Progress
Abstract » Today’s in-car information systems are undergoing an evolution towards device miniaturization as well as to real-time telematics services. In a road study with 26 participants, we investigated whether small smartphone-sized screens are recommendable for the communication of realtime safety services. We did not find strong overall differences between large and small screen setups in any of our investigated measures. However, when no audio was presented, safety services presentation on small screens resulted in significantly more long glances to the HMI than on large screen. Also, subjective comprehensibility of driving recommendations was best when screen size was large and audio presentation was available. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
 
Why Johnny Can't Opt Out: A Usability Evaluation of Tools to Limit Online Behavioral Advertising - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes usability problems identified through a laboratory study to evaluate tools to limit OBA. Designers will be aware of these problems and could use our methodology to evaluate their tools.
Abstract » We present results of a 45-participant laboratory study investigating the usability of nine tools to limit online behavioral advertising (OBA). We interviewed participants about OBA and recorded their behavior and attitudes as they configured and used a privacy tool, such as a browser plugin that blocks requests to specific URLs, a tool that sets browser cookies indicating a user's preference to opt out of OBA, or the privacy settings built into a web browser.

We found serious usability flaws in all tools we tested. Participants found many tools difficult to configure, and tools' default settings were often minimally protective. Ineffective communication, confusing interfaces, and a lack of feedback led many participants to conclude that a tool was blocking OBA when they had not properly configured it to do so. Without being familiar with many advertising companies and tracking technologies, it was difficult for participants to use the tools effectively.
ACM
In session: Uses of Media & Creation of Web Experiences - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Augmented Perception of Satiety: Controlling Food Consumption by Changing Apparent Size of Food with Augmented Reality - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: The main contribution of this paper is to realize a method for modifying perception of satiety and controlling nutritional intake by changing the apparent size of food with augmented reality.
Abstract » The main contribution of this paper is to realize a method for modifying perception of satiety and controlling nutritional intake by changing the apparent size of food with augmented reality. As a possible method for decreasing rates of obesity, we focused on controlling food intake implicitly without any effort.
We hypothesized that ambiguous perception of satiety can be applied to control our food intake. Recent psychological studies have revealed that the amount of food consumed is influenced by both its actual volume and external factors during eating. Based on this knowledge, we sought to control perception of satiety gained from the same amount of food by changing its apparent size. We also proposed a method for food-volume augmentation using real-time shape deformation. Our results suggest that this augmentation can control the perception of satiety and food intake.
ACM
In session: Eating + Cooking - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Programming by Voice: A Hands-Free Approach for Motorically Challenged Children - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper introduces a voice-driven tool applied to an Initial Programming Environment (IPE), which gives motorically challenged individuals the opportunity to learn programming skills; in particular, our project allows programming by voice within Scratch. Although the native Scratch environment allows users to create a program by arranging graphical blocks logically, such visual languages are completely dependent on the use of a mouse and keyboard. This modality of interaction limits users based on physical abilities. Our solution is a tool, called Myna, which is a voice-driven Java application executed parallel to Scratch. Myna processes voice commands from the user, interprets those commands according to a pre-defined grammar, and simulates synonymous actions of a mouse and keyboard within Scratch. The resulting environment assists those with a motor disability (particularly young children) in learning the joy of programming. This extended abstract describes the motivation behind the project, a technical description of Myna, and defines the current work in progress.
 
Sensor-Based Physical Interactions as Interventions for Change in Residential Energy Consumption - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interventions for behavior change in domestic energy consumption rely critically on energy usage data. To obtain this data, collection systems must be established. Pervasive sensing systems enable such monitoring, but populating homes with sensors is challenging. We offer an alternative to feedback approaches that depend on the assumption that users are motivated by energy data in its raw state. Physical Experiential Technology Systems (PETS) is a behavior-and sensor-based platform supporting rich experiences and the diffusion of sensors in homes. In this paper, we present our novel approach to building sensor feedback systems and our initial product concepts.
 
Turning Personal Calendars into Scheduling Assistants - Works In Progress
Abstract » Personal calendars have long played a major role in time management, but they have evolved little over the years, and their contribution to productivity has stagnated. Inspired by logical theories of intention as well as experimental results on human productivity, and leveraging the power of optimization algorithms, we seek to reinvent the digital calendar. First, we increase the expressive power of calendar systems by deriving new entity types that go beyond simple events to better represent human intentions, plans, and goals. Next, we build on social psychological research to characterize the properties of a schedule best engineered for human productivity. Finally, we develop an optimization framework and algorithm to generate these schedules from a set of entities. With these tools combined, we transform the digital calendar from a passive repository into an active scheduling assistant.
 
At Home With Surface Computing - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents findings from field study of novel tabletop system, including design guidelines.
Abstract » This paper describes a field study of an interactive surface deployed in three family homes. The tabletop technology provides a central place where digital content, such as pho-tos, can be easily archived, managed and viewed. The tab-letop affords multi-touch input, allowing digital content to be sorted, triaged and interacted with using one or two-handed interactions. A physics-based simulation adds dy-namics to digital content, providing users with rich ways of interacting that borrows from the real-world. The field study is one of the first of a surface computer within a do-mestic environment. Our goal is to uncover people�s inter-actions, appropriations, perceptions and experiences with such technologies, exploring the potential barriers to use. Given these devices provide such a revolutionary shift in interaction, will people be able to engage with them in eve-ryday life in the ways we intend? In answering this ques-tion, we hope to deepen our understanding of the design of such systems for home and consumer domains.
ACM
In session: Touch in Context - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Technology Heirlooms? Considerations for Passing Down and Inheriting Digital Materials - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes new knowledge about the design of technologies to support (and potentially complicate) inheriting, living with and passing down treasured digital content among family members and across generations.
Abstract » Material artifacts are passed down as a way of sustaining relationships and family history. However, new issues are emerging as families are increasingly left with the digital remains of their loved ones. We designed three devices to investigate how digital materials might be passed down, lived with and inherited in the future. We conducted in-home interviews with 8 families using the devices to provoke discussion about how technology might support (or complicate) their existing practices. Sessions revealed families desired to treat their archives in ways not fully supported by technology as well as potential tensions that could emerge. Findings are interpreted to detail design considerations for future work in this emerging space.
ACM
In session: Immateriality as a Design Feature - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Memento Mori: Technology Design for the End of Life - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Addresses end of life issues and technology use, with a focus on the design and development of systems that engage with death, dying, mortality, and bereavement.
Abstract » The role of interactive technologies at End of Life (EoL) is a recently established and quickly growing topic in the CHI community. In this workshop, we focus on the design space, methodologies and processes associated with EoL, moving forward the research agenda initiated in the successful CHI 2010 workshop �HCI at the End of Life� [8]. In particular, we focus on moving from fieldwork to thanatosensitive design � a process which engages with EoL issues as part of the design concept. We invite participation from a wide range of people interested in technology and EoL, from the HCI community, academic and professional communities with a variety of perspectives/disciplines, and entrepreneurs developing applications in this space.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
"You're Capped!" Understanding the Effects of Bandwidth Caps on Broadband Use in the Home - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Study of households living with bandwidth caps. Challenges assumptions about users having unlimited Internet connections and suggests design implications for those on capped bandwidth plans.
Abstract » Bandwidth caps, a limit on the amount of data users can upload and download in a month, are common globally for both home and mobile Internet access. With caps, each bit of data consumed comes at a cost against a monthly quota or a running tab. Yet, relatively little work has considered the implications of this usage-based pricing model on the user experience. In this paper, we present results from a qualitative study of households living with bandwidth caps. Our findings suggest home users grapple with three uncertainties regarding their bandwidth usage: invisible balances, mysterious processes, and multiple users. We discuss how these uncertainties impact their usage and describe the potential for better tools to help monitor and manage data caps. We conclude that as a community we need to cater for users under Internet cost constraints.
ACM
In session: Home and Family - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
SpaceSense: Representing Geographical Information to Visually Impaired People Using Spatial Tactile Feedback - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates a mobile interface that helps people with visual impairments learn directions to a location and its spatial relationships with other locations on a map through spatial tactile feedback.
Abstract » Learning an environment can be challenging for people with visual impairments. Braille maps allow their users to understand the spatial relationship between a set of places. However, physical Braille maps are often costly, may not always cover an area of interest with sufficient detail, and might not present up-to-date information. We built a handheld system for representing geographical information called SpaceSense, which includes custom spatial tactile feedback hardware�multiple vibration motors attached to different locations on a mobile touch-screen device. It offers high-level information about the distance and direction towards a destination and bookmarked places through vibrotactile feedback to help the user maintain the spatial relationships between these points. SpaceSense also adapts a summarization technique for online user reviews of public and commercial venues. Our user study shows that participants could build and maintain the spatial relationships between places on a map more accurately with SpaceSense compared to a system without spatial tactile feedback. They pointed specifically to having spatial tactile feedback as the contributing factor in successfully building and maintaining their mental map.
ACM
In session: Supporting Visually Impaired Users - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Triggering Triggers and Burying Barriers to Customizing Software - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes a methodology for empirically studying software customization and the impact of customization factors. Shows that increasing exposure and awareness of customization features, and adding social influence affects customization behavior.
Abstract » General-purpose software applications are usually not tailored for a specific user with specific tasks, strategies or preferences. In order to achieve optimal performance with such applications, users typically need to transition to an alternative efficient behavior. Often, features of such alternative behaviors are not initially accessible and first need to be customized. However, few research works formally study and empirically measure what drives a user to customize. In this paper, we describe the challenges involved in empirically studying customization behaviors, and propose a methodology for formally measuring the impact of potential customization factors. We then demonstrate this methodology by studying the impact of different customization factors on customization behaviors. Our results show that increasing exposure and awareness of customization features, and adding social influence can significantly affect the user's customization behavior.
ACM
In session: Programming and Debugging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Omnipedia: Bridging the Wikipedia Language Gap - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We present Omnipedia, a system that allows users to gain insight from 25 Wikipedia language editions simultaneously. We discuss the system, its multilingual data mining algorithms, and a 27-user study.
Abstract » We present Omnipedia, a system that allows Wikipedia readers to gain insight from up to 25 language editions of Wikipedia simultaneously. Omnipedia highlights the similarities and differences that exist among Wikipedia language editions, and makes salient information that is unique to each language as well as that which is shared more widely. We detail solutions to numerous front-end and algorithmic challenges inherent to providing users with a multilingual Wikipedia experience. These include visualizing content in a language-neutral way and aligning data in the face of diverse information organization strategies. We present a study of Omnipedia that characterizes how people interact with information using a multilingual lens. We found that users actively sought information exclusive to unfamiliar language editions and strategically compared how language editions defined concepts. Finally, we briefly discuss how Omnipedia generalizes to other domains facing language barriers.
ACM
In session: It's a Big Web! - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
SpeckleEye: Gestural Interaction for Embedded Electronics in Ubiquitous Computing - Works In Progress
Abstract » We introduce SpeckleEye, design and implementation of an embedded gesture and real-time motion tracking system using laser speckle. SpeckleEye is a low-cost, scalable, open source toolkit for embedded speckle sensing and gestural interaction with ubiquitous devices in the environment. We describe embedded speckle sensing hardware and firmware, a cross-platform gesture recognition library optimized to run on embedded processors, and a set of prototypes that illustrate the flexibility of our platform.
 
The eLabBench in the Wild - Supporting Exploration in a Molecular Biology Lab - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the long-term deployment of the eLabBench, a tabletop system for laboratories. We highlight its impact on biologists' practices in offices and labs and discuss implications for tabletop research.
Abstract » In this paper we present a field trial of the eLabBench, a digital tabletop-based laboratory bench designed to support the exploratory practices of molecular biologists in the laboratory. The eLabBench supports the organization of personal information, capture of experimental work for later access, and the use of a variety of computational resources directly at the lab bench. We deployed the eLabBench in a biology laboratory for 16 weeks, and invited seven molecular biologists to run experiments on it. We report on how they used the bench and how it fitted within their larger experimental process. The main impact of the eLabBench lies in the changes it sparked off in preparing, running, and documenting lab experiments. By supporting computation at the bench and management of physical objects in the office, the eLabBench blurred the separation between office and laboratory work. Based on our observations, we discuss how interactive systems for laboratories such as the eLabBench can support a more exploratory or design-oriented way of "doing" science.
ACM
In session: Designing for Learners' Complex Needs - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
ReticularSpaces: Activity-Based Computing Support for Physically Distributed and Collaborative Smart Spaces - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: ReticularSpaces extends smart spaces technology with Activity-Based Computing. It offers a unified user interface across multiple displays designed to support complex information management, collaboration and mobility.
Abstract » Smart spaces research focuses on technology for multiple displays and devices for collocated participants. In most approaches, however, users have to cope with heterogeneous interfaces and information organization, as well as a lack of support for collaboration with mobile and remote users outside the smart space. In this paper, we present ReticularSpaces; a multi-display smart space system built on the principles of activity-based computing. The focus of ReticularSpaces is to support: (i) unified interaction with applications and documents through ReticularUI, a novel distributed user interfaces design; (ii) management of the complexity of tasks between users and displays; (iii) mobile users in a local, remote or `nomadic' settings; and (iv) collaboration among local and remote users. We describe the motivation, design, and architecture of ReticularSpaces, and report from a preliminary feasibility study. The study shows that participants found ReticularSpaces useful and effective, but at the same time reveals new areas for research on smart environments.
ACM
 
I Just Made Love: The System and the Subject of Experience - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: In this work, we propose a new paradigm to understand experience design by focusing on the subject of interaction as opposed to the existing paradigm which is the user.
Abstract » Experience has become increasingly relevant to the field of HCI in recent decades and a number of approaches have been drawn from multiple disciplines to engage this rich and elusive topic. In this work, we provide a critical interpretative account of the experience of using a sexually oriented social media website called I Just Made Love. We do this by critically interpreting the traces of interaction, user data populating the site, to understand the role of the systemic structures that shape the subject of interaction and in turn the experience. We approach this experience from the perspective of the “subject of interaction” as opposed to the “user” and introduce some benefits of such a strategy. Through our insights and discussion, we explore how design choices at IJML contribute to certain types of sexual performances and intimate experiences.
In session: alt.chi: Physical Love - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - Special Events
Contribution & Benefit: In this Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss how to improve and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation.
Abstract » The CHI community is vibrant, growing, and interdisciplinary, and peer review is at the heart of what it means to be a community of researchers. In this Special Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss the question of how to grow and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation. Our community has seen a wide variety of explorations of the best way to change and improve our practices: alt.chi’s open reviewing, CSCW’s revise & resubmit process and UIST’s removal of page limits are all ways to address the changing nature of this research. This Town Hall will provide an opportunity to discuss and address this ongoing question.
In session: Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
The Humanities and/in HCI - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
Abstract » In the past two decades, as technology has moved from the workplace to nearly all aspects of our everyday lives, HCI has also increased the breadth and depth of its research agenda. The breadth increase can be seen in the increasingly broad understanding of stakeholders and long-term socio-cultural-environmental consequences of interactive technologies. The depth increase can be seen in the seriousness with which HCI takes complex, subjective dimensions of interaction, such as affect, identity, experience, aesthetics. Humanistic forms of scholarship, including theories, methodologies, and scholarly forms, have increasingly been used to address many of these breadth and depth issues. In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
In session: The Humanities and/in HCI - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
I Just Made Love: The System and the Subject of Experience - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: In this work, we propose a new paradigm to understand experience design by focusing on the subject of interaction as opposed to the existing paradigm which is the user.
Abstract » Experience has become increasingly relevant to the field of HCI in recent decades and a number of approaches have been drawn from multiple disciplines to engage this rich and elusive topic. In this work, we provide a critical interpretative account of the experience of using a sexually oriented social media website called I Just Made Love. We do this by critically interpreting the traces of interaction, user data populating the site, to understand the role of the systemic structures that shape the subject of interaction and in turn the experience. We approach this experience from the perspective of the “subject of interaction” as opposed to the “user” and introduce some benefits of such a strategy. Through our insights and discussion, we explore how design choices at IJML contribute to certain types of sexual performances and intimate experiences.
In session: alt.chi: Physical Love - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
The Humanities and/in HCI - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
Abstract » In the past two decades, as technology has moved from the workplace to nearly all aspects of our everyday lives, HCI has also increased the breadth and depth of its research agenda. The breadth increase can be seen in the increasingly broad understanding of stakeholders and long-term socio-cultural-environmental consequences of interactive technologies. The depth increase can be seen in the seriousness with which HCI takes complex, subjective dimensions of interaction, such as affect, identity, experience, aesthetics. Humanistic forms of scholarship, including theories, methodologies, and scholarly forms, have increasingly been used to address many of these breadth and depth issues. In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
In session: The Humanities and/in HCI - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
Abstract » The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
In session: Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Understanding Designer Brainstorms: The Effect of Analog and Digital Interfaces on Dominance - Works In Progress
Abstract » Brainstorming has long been an integral part of the design
process. However, only recently have technological advances
given rise to collaborative interfaces for facilitating brainstorming
activities. While there has been some research on
the effects of these technologies on group dynamics, little is
known about how collaborative interfaces affect dominance
within a brainstorm in interaction design. In this paper, we
explore the relationship between one collaborative technology,
the DiamondTouch Tabletop, and dominance in designer
brainstorms.
 
The Mismeasurement of Privacy: Using Contextual Integrity to Reconsider Privacy in HCI - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: The paper criticizes the ways in which privacy issues have been studied within HCI and ubicomp. It provides an analysis of privacy on the basis of contextual integrity.
Abstract » Privacy is a widely studied concept in relation to social computing and sensor-based technologies; scores of research papers have investigated people's "privacy preferences" and apparent reluctance to share personal data. In this paper we explore how Ubicomp and HCI studies have approached the notion of privacy, often as a quantifiable concept. Leaning on several theoretical frameworks, but in particular Nissenbaum's notion of contextual integrity, we question the viability of obtaining universal answers in terms of people's "general" privacy practices and apply elements of Nissenbaum's theory to our own data in order to illustrate its relevance. We then suggest restructuring inquiries into information sharing in studies of state-of-the-art technologies and analyze contextually grounded issues using a different, more specific vocabulary. Finally, we provide the first building blocks to such vocabulary.
ACM
In session: Privacy + Self Disclosure - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
No Place Like Home: Pet-to-Family Reunification After Disaster - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce No Place Like Home, a socially networked web and mobile platform that facilitates reunification of non-human with human family members following disaster events.
Abstract » Pets are important household members, and their welfare and safety are imperative to the emotional welfare of the family. Displacement of pets after disaster events is a serious matter to families and for public safety at large. People are not willing to evacuate without their non-human family members; many will break through evacuation zones to recover animals left behind. In the 2005 Hurricane Katrina event, over 200,000 pets were displaced, and 95% of them were never reunited with their families. The US Department of Agriculture confirms that the problem of reuniting displaced pets and their guardians at this scale is unfortunately common in disaster events. We introduce No Place Like Home, a socially networked web and mobile platform that facilitates reunification of non-human with human family members following disaster events. No Place Like Home is an effort that supports the formation of small cadres of micro-tasking “digital volunteers” that converge after disasters to do photo- and description-matching; employs a reputation and reward system to encourage use; and uses match-based machine learning techniques to accelerate the manual matching tasks performed by digital volunteers.
In session: Student Design Competition - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
No Place Like Home: Pet-to-Family Reunification After Disaster - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce No Place Like Home, a socially networked web and mobile platform that facilitates reunification of non-human with human family members following disaster events.
Abstract » Pets are important household members, and their welfare and safety are imperative to the emotional welfare of the family. Displacement of pets after disaster events is a serious matter to families and for public safety at large. People are not willing to evacuate without their non-human family members; many will break through evacuation zones to recover animals left behind. In the 2005 Hurricane Katrina event, over 200,000 pets were displaced, and 95% of them were never reunited with their families. The US Department of Agriculture confirms that the problem of reuniting displaced pets and their guardians at this scale is unfortunately common in disaster events. We introduce No Place Like Home, a socially networked web and mobile platform that facilitates reunification of non-human with human family members following disaster events. No Place Like Home is an effort that supports the formation of small cadres of micro-tasking “digital volunteers” that converge after disasters to do photo- and description-matching; employs a reputation and reward system to encourage use; and uses match-based machine learning techniques to accelerate the manual matching tasks performed by digital volunteers.
In session: Student Design Competition - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
StoryCrate: Tabletop Storyboarding for Live Film Production - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity.
Abstract » Creating film content for broadcast is a high pressure and complex activity involving multiple experts and highly specialized equipment. Production teams are under continuous pressure to produce ever more creative and groundbreaking content while reducing the budgets and human resources required. While technologies are being developed for digitizing and streamlining sections of the production workflow, a gap remains between creative decisions made on location, and those made during digital editing and post-production. We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface to be deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity. We define creativity in terms of team production, discuss our implementation and describe a deployment in which the prototype was used by a professional production team during a film shoot. Finally we describe a number of interesting interactions that were observed and consider the implications of our design decisions on the creative process of film making and the benefits of tangible, tabletop collaborative interactive displays in live film production.
ACM
In session: Touch in Context - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Exploring HCI's Relationship with Liveness - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop aims to explore how HCI might contribute to the understanding of, and design response to, shifting values of liveness brought about by advances in digitally mediated performance.
Abstract » Liveness has long been a valued quality of mass media presentation in areas such as music, sports and debate. The rapid development of new digital media, and the interpenetration of these media and staged performance, places liveness center stage in attempts to understand emerging human-computer configurations. This workshop will bring together insights from a variety of disciplines and perspectives to explore how HCI can benefit from critical engagement with theoretical and practical treatment of liveness. To seed discussion and action, participants will engage reflectively with the liveness of an authentic performance, experienced firsthand and at one-remove through a mediating technology, using an innovative video-based methodology.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Toolset to explore visual motion designs in a video game - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Tool to adapt the visual complexity of a simple mouse-click game. Evaluated by 8 expert game designers and 105 players. Supports visual perception theories within the context of a game.
Abstract » We describe a research toolset to explore visual designs in a video game. We focus specifically on visual motion, defined by attributes of motion, and their effect on accessibility, which may lead to a diminished experience for novice players. Eight expert game designers evaluated the tool embedded into a simple point and click game. Specifically they controlled attributes of speed, size of game elements, and amount of elements on screen associated to game targets, distractions, and feedback. The tool allowed experts to define difficulty settings and expose patterns, which they verified. As a game, we then investigated the effect of visual motion on accessibility in a formal user study comprised of 105 participants. As a follow-up to this work, we expanded the toolset to include 8 additional attributes of motion.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
StoryPlace.me: The Path From Studying Elder Communication to a Public Location-Based Video Service - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present the design path from studying communication across generations and distance to an open location-based media platform. Can help anyone involved in designing from field data.
Abstract » We describe our research path that took us from studying communication needs across distance and generations, to a small-scale study of a person-to-person location-based video service, and finally to a public beta of StoryPlace.me which extends this service to support public video sharing and historical content. The process was not a clear, linear design path, but one of an unexpected change in focus that resulted in the current service which goes beyond the original vision of tools for inter-generational communication. We will describe our research methods as well as key findings from each step of our journey and conclude with implications for similar product concept generation activities.
In session: Comfortable Aging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Drawing the City: Differing Perceptions of the Urban Environment - Note
Contribution & Benefit: We provide an updated study of the Milgram Mental Maps experiment, also considering demographic and tech-use attributes. Useful to those working on mobile LBS and Urban Computing services.
Abstract » In building location-based services, it is important to present information in ways that fit with how individuals view and navigate the city. We conducted an adaptation of the 1970s Mental Maps study by Stanley Milgram in order to better understand differences in people's views of the city based on their backgrounds and technology use. We correlated data from a demographic questionnaire with the map data from our participants to perform a first-of-its-kind statistical analysis on differences in hand-drawn city maps. We describe our study, findings, and design implications for location-based services.
ACM
In session: Mobile Computing and Interaction - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
The Search Dashboard: How Reflection and Comparison Impact Search Behavior - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design of a reflective interface for search. A 5-week study showed that after brief contact, users adopted new behavior. Provides clear next steps for improving the search experience.
Abstract » Most searchers do not know how to use Web search engines as effectively as possible. This is due, in part, to search engines not providing feedback about how search behavior can be improved. Because feedback is an essential part of learning, we created the Search Dashboard, which provides an interface for reflection on personal search behavior. The Dashboard aggregates and presents an individual's search history and provides comparisons with that of archetypal expert profiles. Via a five-week study of 90 Search Dash-board users, we find that users are able to change aspects of their behavior to be more in line with that of the presented expert searchers. We also find that reflection can be beneficial, even without comparison, by changing participants' views about their own search skills, what is possible with search, and what aspects of their behavior may influence search success. Our findings demonstrate a new way for search engines to help users modify their search behavior for positive outcomes.
ACM
In session: Search Interfaces - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Tactile Feedback on Flat Surfaces for the Visually Impaired - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we introduce a mobile, generic, and inexpensive visuo-tactile sensory substitution device for the visually impaired. The device helps users to explore the world around them, by pointing it towards objects of the environment and rendering tactile information to the objects sensed by a camera. With the help of two visually impaired participants, we conducted three preliminary experiments and evaluated the performance of the device in detecting, reaching and exploring tasks. Both participants were able to detect, explore and reach for a given object of interest in a controlled room setting using only the tactile information rendered on the flat panel of the device. The implication of results and future directions for tactile assistive devices are discussed.
 
Bootstrapper: Recognizing Tabletop Users by their Shoes - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Reformulating the user recognition problem as a shoe recognition problem and present a prototype that recognizes tabletop users.
Abstract » In order to enable personalized functionality, such as to log tabletop activity by user, tabletop systems need to recognize users. DiamondTouch does so reliably, but requires users to stay in assigned seats and cannot recognize users across sessions. We propose a different approach based on distinguishing users� shoes. While users are interacting with the table, our system Bootstrapper observes their shoes using one or more depth cameras mounted to the edge of the table. It then identifies users by matching camera images with a database of known shoe images. When multiple users interact, Bootstrapper associates touches with shoes based on hand orientation. The approach can be implemented using consumer depth cameras because (1) shoes offer large distinct features such as color, (2) shoes naturally align themselves with the ground, giving the system a well-defined perspective and thus reduced ambiguity. We report two simple studies in which Bootstrapper recognized participants from a database of 18 users with 95.8% accuracy.
ACM
In session: Kick it! Interfaces for Feet and Walking - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
CapStones and ZebraWidgets: Sensing Stacks of Building Blocks, Dials and Sliders on Capacitive Touch Screens - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Demonstrates how to create stackable tangibles that can be tracked on capacitive touch screens.
Abstract » Recent research proposes augmenting capacitive touch pads with tangible objects, enabling a new generation of mobile applications enhanced with tangible objects, such as game pieces and tangible controllers. In this paper, we extend the concept to capacitive tangibles consisting of multiple parts, such as stackable gaming pieces and tangible widgets with moving parts. We achieve this using a system of wires and connectors inside each block that causes the capacitance of the bottom-most block to reflect the entire assembly. We demonstrate three types of tangibles, called CapStones, Zebra Dials and Zebra Sliders that work with current consumer hardware and investigate what designs may become possible as touchscreen hardware evolves.
ACM
In session: Dimensions of Sensory Interaction - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
360° Panoramic Overviews for Location-Based Services - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates how visualizing 360° panoramas of the environment surrounding the user can help her locating objects in the environment. Helps designers understanding how to integrate panoramic overviews into location-based services.
Abstract » We investigate 360° panoramas as overviews to support users in the task of locating objects in the surrounding environment. Panoramas are typically visualized as rectangular photographs, but this does not provide clear cues for physical directions in the environment. In this paper, we conduct a series of studies with three different shapes: Frontal, Top-Down and Bird's Eye; the last two shapes are chosen be-cause they provide a clearer representation of the spatial mapping between panorama and environment. Our results show that good readability of the panorama is most important and that a clear representation of the spatial mapping plays a secondary role. This paper is the first to provide understanding on how users exploit 360° panoramic over-views to locate objects in the surrounding environment and how different design factors can affect user performance.
ACM
In session: Right Where I Am: UX in Complex Environments - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Rock-Paper-Fibers: Bringing Physical Affordance to Mobile Touch Devices - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: bringing physical affordance to mobile touch devices by making the touch device deformable.
Abstract » We explore how to bring physical affordance to mobile touch devices. We present Rock-Paper-Fibers, a device that is functionally equivalent to a touchpad, yet that users can reshape so as to best match the interaction at hand. For efficiency, users interact bimanually: one hand reshapes the device and the other hand operates the resulting widget.

We present a prototype that achieves deformability using a bundle of optical fibers, demonstrate an audio player and a simple video game each featuring multiple widgets. We demonstrate how to support applications that require responsiveness by adding mechanical wedges and clamps.
ACM
In session: Sensory Interaction Modalities - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
ShutEye: Encouraging Awareness of Healthy Sleep Recommendations with a Mobile, Peripheral Display - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a field study of an application for mobile phones that uses a peripheral display to promote healthy sleep habits. Can help designers of mobile applications for behavioral awareness.
Abstract » Sleep is a basic physiological process essential for good health. However, 40 million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with sleep disorders, with many more undiagnosed. To help address this problem, we developed an application, ShutEye, which provides a peripheral display on the wall-paper of the user's mobile phone to promote awareness about recommended activities that promote good sleep quality. Based on preferences about the user's desired bed-time and activities' for example, consuming caffeine or performing vigorous exercise. ShutEye displays guidance about when engaging in those activities is likely to affect sleep without requiring any explicit interaction from the user. In this paper, we describe ShutEye and results from a four-week field study with 12 participants. Results indicate that a simple, recommendation-based peripheral display can be a very low-effort but still effective method for improving awareness of healthy sleep habits. We also provide recommendations about designing peripheral displays and extend insights for designing health-based mobile applications.
ACM
In session: Interfaces for Health & Well Being - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Tag, You Can See It! Using Tags for Access Control in Photo Sharing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Lab study exploring whether intuitive access-control policies can be made from photo tags created for organizational and access-control purposes. Can increase understanding of user engagement with tag-based access control systems.
Abstract » Users often have rich and complex photo-sharing preferences, but properly configuring access control can be difficult and time-consuming. In an 18-participant laboratory study, we explore whether the keywords and captions with which users tag their photos can be used to help users more intuitively create and maintain access-control policies. We find that (a) tags created for organizational purposes can be repurposed to create efficient and reasonably accurate access-control rules; (b) users tagging with access control in mind develop coherent strategies that lead to significantly more accurate rules than those associated with organizational tags alone; and (c) participants can understand and actively engage with the concept of tag-based access control.
ACM
In session: Privacy + Self Disclosure - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Sustainably Unpersuaded: How Persuasion Narrows our Vision of Sustainability - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Critically analyzes persuasive technology as a modernist approach to solving social problems. Identifies structural limitations of persuasive technology as an approach to sustainability and offers alternatives.
Abstract » In this paper we provide a critical analysis of persuasive sustainability research from 2009-2011. Drawing on critical sociological theory of modernism, we argue that persuasion is based on a limited framing of sustainability, human behavior, and their interrelation-ship. This makes supporting sustainability easier, but leads to characteristic patterns of breakdown. We then detail problems that emerge from this narrowing of vision, such as how the framing of sustainability as the optimization of a simple metrics places technologies incorrectly as objective arbiters over complex issues of sustainability. We conclude by suggesting alternative approaches to move beyond these problems.
ACM
In session: Critical Perspectives on Design - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Virtual Projection: Exploring Optical Projection as a Metaphor for Multi-Device Interaction - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Virtual Projection: Exploring Optical Projection as a Metaphor for Multi-Device Interaction - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the concept of virtualizing optical projections as a metaphor for interacting between handhelds and stationary displays. We present characteristics, implementation and evaluation of such virtual projections.
Abstract » Handheld optical projectors provide a simple way to over-come the limited screen real-estate on mobile devices. We present virtual projection (VP), an interaction metaphor inspired by how we intuitively control the position, size, and orientation of a handheld optical projector�s image. VP is based on tracking a handheld device without an optical projector and allows selecting a target display on which to position, scale, and orient an item in a single gesture. By relaxing the optical projection metaphor, we can deviate from modeling perspective projection, for example, to con-strain scale or orientation, create multiple copies, or offset the image. VP also supports dynamic filtering based on the projection frustum, creating overview and detail applications, and selecting portions of a larger display for zooming and panning. We show exemplary use cases implemented using our optical feature-tracking framework and present the results of a user study demonstrating the effectiveness of VP in complex interactions with large displays.
ACM
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Listening Factors: A Large-Scale Principal Components Analysis of Long-Term Music Listening Histories - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a principal component analysis of automatically collected music listening histories. Groups and derives the impact of 48 listening behavior variables based on this analysis.
Abstract » There are about as many strategies for listening to music as there are music enthusiasts. This makes learning about overarching patterns and similarities difficult. In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of long-term music listening histories from the last.fm web service. It gives insight into the most distinguishing factors in music listening behavior. Our sample contains 310 histories with up to six years duration and 48 associated variables describing various user and music characteristics. Using a principal components analysis, we aggregated these variables into 13 components and found several correlations between them. The analysis especially showed the impact of seasons and a listener's interest in novelty on music choice. Using this information, a sample of a user's listening history or even just demographical data could be used to create personalized interfaces and novel recommendation strategies. We close with derived design considerations for future music interfaces.
ACM
In session: Music Across CHI - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Crowdsourcing an Emotional Wardrobe - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Investigating the possibility of designing a multi-modal language to enable the crowdsourcing of tactile perceptions of garments and the values that such a process would bring to our society.
Abstract » Selecting clothing online requires decision-making about sensorial experiences, but online environments provide only limited sensorial information. Inferences are therefore made on the basis of product pictures and their textual description. This is often unreliable as it is either based on the designer’s understanding of the product or deprived of perceptual content due to the difficulty of expressing such experiences. Using a purpose built website that combines and cross references multi-modal descriptive media, this study aims at investigating the possibility of using crowdsourcing mechanisms and multi-modal language to engage consumers in providing enriched descriptions of their tactile experiences of garments.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Understanding Designer Brainstorms: The Effect of Analog and Digital Interfaces on Dominance - Works In Progress
Abstract » Brainstorming has long been an integral part of the design
process. However, only recently have technological advances
given rise to collaborative interfaces for facilitating brainstorming
activities. While there has been some research on
the effects of these technologies on group dynamics, little is
known about how collaborative interfaces affect dominance
within a brainstorm in interaction design. In this paper, we
explore the relationship between one collaborative technology,
the DiamondTouch Tabletop, and dominance in designer
brainstorms.
 
Using Rhythmic Patterns as an Input Method - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the use of Rhythmic Patterns for Interaction. Reports the results of two experiments showing that users can reliably reproduce and memorize rhythmic patterns.
Abstract » While interaction techniques that use the temporal dimension have been used for a long time, such as multiple clicks or spring-loaded widgets, more advanced uses of rhythmic patterns have received little attention in HCI. Using such temporal structures to convey information can be particularly useful in situations where the visual channel is overloaded or even not available. In this paper we introduce Rhythmic Interaction as the use of rhythms for input. We report the results of two experiments that show that (i) rhythmic patterns can be efficiently reproduced by novice users and recognized by computer algorithms, and (ii) rhythmic patterns can be memorized as efficiently as traditional shortcuts when associating them with visual commands. Overall, these results demonstrate the potential of Rhythmic Interaction and open the way to a richer repertoire of interaction techniques.
ACM
In session: Music Across CHI - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Evaluating the Benefits of Real-time Feedback in Mobile Augmented Reality with Hand-held Devices - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Adding real-time feedback to a mobile Augmented Reality system to reflect the status of the physical objects being manipulated improves performance by reducing the division of attention.
Abstract » Augmented Reality (AR) has been proved useful to guide operational tasks in professional domains by reducing the shift of attention between instructions and physical objects. Modern smartphones make it possible to use such techniques in everyday tasks, but raise new challenges for the usability of AR in this context: small screen, occlusion, operation ``through a lens''. We address these problems by adding real-time feedback to the AR overlay. We conducted a controlled experiment comparing AR with and without feedback, and with standard textual and graphical instructions. Results show significant benefits for mobile AR with feedback and reveals some problems with the other techniques.
ACM
In session: Usability and User Research - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Informing the Design of Group Recommender Systems - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we present a literature study on social psychological concepts, which informs the design of group recommender process models in group recommender systems. We matched core concepts to well-established factors influencing satisfaction in groups, and obtained three most relevant social psychological concepts: group identification, group norms, and social roles.
 
Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
Abstract » The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
In session: Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Deploying MonoTrans Widgets in the Wild - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Our first attempt to deploy a crowd-sourced monolingual translation system to the wild finds interesting lesson dealing with crowds with different sizes simultaneously.
Abstract » In this paper, we report our experience deploying the MonoTrans Widgets system in a public setting. Our work follows a line of crowd-sourced monolingual translation systems, and it is the first attempt to deploy such a system "in the wild". The results are promising, but we also found out that simultaneously drawing from multiple crowds with different expertise and sizes poses unique problems in the design of such crowd-sourcing systems.
ACM
In session: Crowdsourcing and Peer Production II - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
CTArcade: Learning Computational Thinking While Training Virtual Characters Through Game Play - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we describe CTArcade, a web application framework that seeks to engage users through game play resulting in the improvement of computational thinking (CT) skills. Our formative study indicates that CT skills are employed when children are asked to define strategies of common games such as Connect Four. In CTArcade, users can train their own virtual characters while playing games with it. Trained characters then play matches against other virtual characters. Based on reviewing the matches played, users can improve their game character. A basic usability evaluation was performed on the system, which helped to define plans for improving CTArcade and assessing its design goals.
 
The Case of the Missed Icon: Change Blindness on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents evidence that change blindness occurs on small displays and is affected by interface designs. Can assist mobile application developers in improving the delivery of information through visual changes.
Abstract » Insights into human visual attention have benefited many areas of computing, but perhaps most significantly visualisation and UI design [3]. With the proliferation of mobile devices capable of supporting significantly complex applications on small screens, demands on mobile UI design and the user�s visual system are becoming greater. In this paper, we report results from an empirical study of human visual attention, specifically the Change Blindness phenomenon, on handheld mobile devices and its impact on mobile UI design. It is arguable that due to the small size of the screen - unlike a typical computer monitor - a greater visual coverage of the mobile device is possible, and that these phenomena may occur less frequently during the use of the device, or even that they may not occur at all. Our study shows otherwise.

We tested for Change Blindness (CB) and Inattentional Blindness (IB) in a single-modal, mobile context and attempted to establish factors in the application interface design that induce and/or reduce their occurrences. The results show that both CB and IB can and do occur while using mobile devices. The results also suggest that the number of separate attendable items on-screen is directly proportional to rates of CB. Newly inserted objects were correctly identified more often than changes applied to existing on-screen objects. These results suggest that it is important for mobile UI designers to take these aspects of visual attention into account when designing mobile applications that attempt to deliver information through visual changes or notifications.
ACM
In session: Needle in the Haystack - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Meeting Cancer Patient Needs: Designing a Patient Platform - Works In Progress
Abstract » Cancer patients have a variety of unmet informational and support needs. Yet to date, online cancer resources only address a small number of these needs. The goal of this project, kanker.nl, is to address the changing needs of Dutch cancer patients for both information and support. Kanker.nl is a novel collaboration between institutions that provide complementary patient services: a major cancer charity, patient organizations and comprehensive care centers. To design a platform that is both innovative and useful to patients, we conducted a series of design research studies with patients including focus groups, interviews and surveys. Results suggest a demand for this type of platform, openness towards sharing medical information anonymously, and the inherent complexity of information searches in this environment. Based on these findings, we present an interactive prototype and proof of concept.
 
Super Mirror: A Kinect Interface for Ballet Dancers - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose the Super Mirror, a Kinect-based system that combines the functionality of studio mirrors and prescriptive images to provide the user with instructional feedback in real-time. In this study, we developed a working prototype of this system, which records ballet movements (also called “positions” and “poses”), captures live motion, and shows the difference between the two.
 
The User as a Sensor: Navigating Users with Visual Impairments in Indoor Spaces using Tactile Landmarks - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an indoor navigation system that appropriates the user to be a sensor. The system can improve mobility for users with visual impairments and can be installed at low cost.
Abstract » Indoor navigation systems for users who are visually impaired typically rely upon expensive physical augmentation of the environment or expensive sensing equipment; consequently few systems have been implemented. We present an indoor navigation system called Navatar that allows for localization and navigation by exploiting the physical characteristics of indoor environments, taking advantage of the unique sensing abilities of users with visual impairments, and minimalistic sensing achievable with low cost accelerometers available in smartphones. Particle filters are used to estimate the user's location based on the accelerometer data as well as the user confirming the presence of anticipated tactile landmarks along the provided path. Navatar has a high possibility of large-scale deployment, as it only requires an annotated virtual representation of an indoor environment. A user study with six blind users determines the accuracy of the approach, collects qualitative experiences and identifies areas for improvement.
ACM
In session: Supporting Visually Impaired Users - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Employing Virtual Worlds for HCI Education: A Problem-Based Learning Approach - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: This case study documents experiences from teaching an HCI course by employing 3D virtual worlds. Problem-based learning activities and interactive tools are presented along with key findings and educational implications.
Abstract » In this paper we describe our experience focused on teaching an introductory course in HCI by employing a 3D virtual world. Our main pedagogical philosophy is presented which claims that problem-based learning activities are necessary for HCI education. To this end, appropriate new interactive media such as virtual worlds that can support these activities must be embedded in the educational procedure. The learning activities and the interactive tools that were used are presented. Key findings and educational implications are discussed.
In session: Teaching with New Interfaces - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Do Cognitive Styles of Users affect Preference and Performance related to CAPTCHA Challenges? - Works In Progress
Abstract » A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is nowadays a widely used security mechanism for constructing a high-confidence proof that the entity interacting with a remote service is actually a human being. Aiming to investigate the relation among users' cognitive styles, and CAPTCHA challenges in terms of preference and performance, a study is in progress which entails a psychometric-based survey for extracting users' cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario with two variations of CAPTCHA mechanisms. A total of 131 participants of age between 19 and 25 participated in the reported study providing interesting insights with respect to users' cognitive styles and CAPTCHA preference and performance issues.
 
Age-Specific Predictive Models of Human Performance - Works In Progress
Abstract » Designers often struggle to create interfaces that are optimal for both younger and older adults, as they may interact differently with the same interface. Human-performance models have been used to aid designers in evaluating the efficiency of user interfaces. Can we create age-specific models to help designers create interfaces that are efficient for all age groups? We modeled a target acquisition task using published younger and older person parameters. While the younger model’s mean prediction matches younger human data well (within 3.2%), the older model overestimates older users’ mean task times by 34.6%. Further work should explore the influence of device type and the role of error-avoidance on parameter values for models of older adult interactions with technology.
 
Reactive Information Foraging: An Empirical Investigation of Theory-Based Recommender Systems for Programmers - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically investigates how programmers behave with different recommender systems based on Reactive Information Foraging Theory. Can assist tool builders in how to design recommender systems for programmers.
Abstract » Information Foraging Theory (IFT) has established itself as an important theory to explain how people seek information, but most work has focused more on the theory itself than on how best to apply it. In this paper, we investigate how to apply a reactive variant of IFT (Reactive IFT) to design IFT-based tools, with a special focus on such tools for ill-structured problems. Toward this end, we designed and implemented a variety of recommender algorithms to empirically investigate how to help people with the ill-structured problem of finding where to look for information while debugging source code. We varied the algorithms based on scent type supported (words alone vs. words + code structure), and based on use of foraging momentum to estimate rapidity of foragers' goal changes. Our empirical results showed that (1) using both words and code structure significantly improved the ability of the algorithms to recommend where software developers should look for information; (2) participants used recommendations to discover new places in the code and also as shortcuts to navigate to known places; and (3) low-momentum recommendations were significantly more useful than high-momentum recommendations, suggesting rapid and numerous goal changes in this type of setting. Overall, our contributions include two new recommendation algorithms, empirical evidence about when and why participants found IFT-based recommendations useful, and implications for the design of tools based on Reactive IFT.
ACM
In session: Needle in the Haystack - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Easing the Generation of Predictive Human Performance Models from Legacy Systems - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a tool that leverages GUI testing technology from Software Engineering in the creation of human performance models for evaluating existing systems. Many steps are automated, easing the modeler's job.
Abstract » With the rise of tools for predictive human performance
modeling in HCI comes a need to model legacy
applications. Models of legacy systems are used to compare
products to competitors, or new proposed design ideas to
the existing version of an application. We present
CogTool-Helper, an exemplar of a tool that results from
joining this HCI need to research in automatic GUI testing
from the Software Engineering testing community.
CogTool-Helper uses automatic UI-model extraction and
test case generation to automatically create CogTool
storyboards and models and infer methods to accomplish
tasks beyond what the UI designer has specified. A design
walkthrough with experienced CogTool users reveal that
CogTool-Helper resonates with a "pain point" of real-world
modeling and provide suggestions for future work.
ACM
In session: Programming, Performance, and Sense Making - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Design of an Exergaming Station for Children with Cerebral Palsy - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design of an exergaming station for children with cerebral palsy. Results present the design challenges of the station and suggest several lessons for game designers.
Abstract » We report on the design of a novel station supporting the play of exercise video games (exergames) by children with cerebral palsy (CP). The station combines a physical platform allowing children with CP to provide pedaling input into a game, a standard Xbox 360 controller, and algorithms for interpreting the cycling input to improve smoothness and accuracy of gameplay. The station was designed through an iterative and incremental participatory design process involving medical professionals, game designers, computer scientists, kinesiologists, physical therapists, and eight children with CP. It has been tested through observation of its use, through gathering opinions from the children, and through small experimental studies. With our initial design, only three of eight children were capable of playing a cycling-based game; with the final design, seven of eight could cycle effectively, and six reached energy expenditure levels recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine while pedaling unassisted.
ACM
In session: Health and Children - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Interactivity as Self-Expression: A Field Experiment with Customization and Blogging - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an experiment with a portal site varying in functional customization, cosmetic customization and active vs. filter blogging. Provides user-centered guidelines for designing interactive tools that afford self-expression.
Abstract » A paradigmatic quality of interactive interfaces is that they allow users to express themselves, thereby converting message receivers into communication sources. We define this quality as Source Interactivity [26, 29], and test its effects on user experience with a field experiment (N=141) of a portal site featuring cosmetic customization, functional customization and blogging (active versus filter). In demonstrating the psychological influence of source-based interactivity on such outcomes as user engagement, sense of agency, sense of community, intrinsic motivation and attitudes toward the interface, we discuss how designers can use them for creating interactive tools for self-expression.
ACM
In session: Privacy + Self Disclosure - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
The Effects of Positive and Negative Self-Interruptions in Discretionary Multitasking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Human multitasking is often the result of self-initiated interruptions in the performance of an ongoing task. Compared to externally induced interruptions, self-interruptions have not received enough research attention. To address this gap, this paper develops a detailed classification of self-interruptions rooted in positive and negative feelings of task progress based on responses subjects provided after completing a multitasking laboratory experiment. The results suggest that multitasking due to negative feelings is associated with more self-interruptions than those triggered by positive feelings and that more self-interruptions may produce lower accuracy in all tasks. Therefore, negative internal triggers of self-interruptions seem to unleash a downward spiral that ultimately affects performance.
 
MEASURING MULTITASKING BEHAVIOR WITH ACTIVITY-BASED METRICS - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Proposed multitasking metrics to establish a conceptual foundation for future multitasking studies. Understanding the extent to which multitasking occurs can assist designers in improving applications that are used simultaneously.
Abstract » Multitasking is the result of time allocation decisions made by individuals faced with multiple tasks. Multitasking research is important in order to improve the design of systems and applications. Since people typically use computers to perform multiple tasks at the same time, insights into this type of behavior can help develop better systems and ideal types of computer environments for modern multitasking users. In this paper, we define multitasking based on the principles of task independence and performance concurrency and develop a set of metrics for computer-based multitasking. The theoretical foundation of this metric development effort stems from an application of key principles of Activity Theory and a systematic analysis of computer usage from the perspective of the user, the task and the technology. The proposed metrics, which range from a lean dichotomous variable to a richer measure based on switches, were validated with data from a sample of users who self-reported their activities during a computer usage session. This set of metrics can be used to establish a conceptual and methodological foundation for future multitasking studies.
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Embroidered Confessions: An interactive quilt of the secrets of strangers - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Embroidered Confessions is an installation that curates, archives, and physically embodies digital secrets. Secrets from the Internet are accessed through embroidered QR codes that have been integrated into a quilt.
Abstract » The condition of anonymity creates a private space within a public space as a person feels the freedom to act without attribution. This phenomenon holds true in both physical and digital spaces. People feel free to post their most intimate secrets on the Internet with the belief that their confessions are ephemeral and intangible. In reality, this data is perpetually archived and cached on distant servers. A disconnect exists between the perception of the transitory quality of digital data and the truth of its enduring existence. Through the weaving of the stories and secrets of strangers from the Internet into a material artifact, Embroidered Confessions represents the physical manifestation of the duality of digital information.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Digging in the Crates: An Ethnographic Study of DJs' Work - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an analysis of how DJs collect, prepare, perform and promote music. Raises implications for technologies to support DJs and for studies of music consumption and sharing in other settings.
Abstract » An ethnographic study uncovers the work of nightclub DJs, which extends far beyond the act of mixing tracks to also encompass collecting music, preparing for performances, and promotion and networking. We reveal how DJs value vinyl and digital formats in different ways, acquire music through 'crate digging', prepare physical and digital crates of music before gigs, and how these underpin improvised selections during their performances. We document how DJs interact with promoters, venues, dancers and other DJs, revealing an etiquette that governs how they select and share music, and manage an ongoing tension between revealing and hiding metadata so as to maintain a competitive edge. We raise implications for technologies to support DJs, while also shedding light on previous studies of music consumption and sharing in other settings.
ACM
In session: Music - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
The Machine in the Ghost: Augmenting Broadcasting with Biodata - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Explores the explicit use of biodata as part of a narrative for television and film. Raises some key research challenges about “acting” biodata and the nature of accessible biodata visualisations.
Abstract » This paper examines how ‘biodata’ – physiological information captured from the human body – might enhance television shows by giving viewers access to actors’ physiological data. We broach this challenge through a prototype-show called The Experiment Live, in which four ‘paranormal investigators’ were outfitted with sensors as they explored a ‘haunted’ basement. This experience has enabled us to probe the challenges of using biodata as part of broadcasting and formulate an agenda for future research that includes: exploring whether/how biodata can be acted and/or simulated; and developing techniques that treat biodata visualisations in similar ways to existing camera-based production processes.
In session: alt.chi: Physical Love - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
“Act Natural”: Instructions, Compliance and Accountability in Ambulatory Experiences - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents an ethnographic study of instruction compliance in an ambulatory experience. Four levels of compliance are uncovered of broad relevance to instruction design.
Abstract » This paper uses a detailed ethnographic study of an ambulatory experience, where participants were invited to explore the perspective of two notorious terrorists, in order to discuss the nature of instruction-giving and, most particularly, the methodical ways in which such instructions are complied with. Four distinct layers of compliance are identified, as are three different kinds of accountability, all of which stand potentially at odds with one another. The paper examines the tensions created by this, tensions that are further aggravated by instructions usually being delivered down a thin channel, with considerable surrounding contextual complexity and little opportunity for repair, and uncovers some core challenges for future design in relation to providing instructions for, and orchestrating a range of possible activities.
ACM
In session: Performative Emergency Simulation - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Creating the Spectacle: Designing Interactional Trajectories Through Spectator Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Ethnographic study reveals how artists designed and participants experienced a tabletop interface, shedding light on the design of tabletop and tangible interfaces, spectator interfaces, and trajectories through display ecologies
Abstract » An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists created a spectator interface for the interactive game Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height and materials of two tabletop interfaces before carefully arranging them in a local setting. We also show how participants experienced this interface. We consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale notion of interactional trajectory that combined trajectories through individual displays, trajectories through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories through an entire experience. Our findings shed light on discussions within HCI concerning interaction with tangible and tabletop displays, spectator interfaces, ecologies of displays, and trajectories through cultural experiences.
In session: Spectators - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Uncomfortable Interactions - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Discomfort can enhance the entertainment, enlightenment and sociality of cultural experiences. We explore how four kinds of discomfort - visceral, cultural, control and intimacy - can be ethically embedded into experiences.
Abstract » We argue for deliberately and systematically creating uncomfortable interactions as part of powerful cultural experiences. We identify the potential benefits of uncomfortable interactions under the general headings of entertainment, enlightenment and sociality. We then review artworks and performances that have employed discomfort, including two complementary examples from the worlds of entertainment and performance. From this, we articulate a suite of tactics for designing four primary forms of discomfort referred to as visceral, cultural, control and intimate. We discuss how moments of discomfort need to be embedded into an overall experience which requires a further consideration of the dramatic acts of exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and d�nouement. Finally, we discuss an ethical framework for uncomfortable interactions which leads us to revisit key issues of consent, withdrawal, privacy and risk.
ACM
In session: Culture, Playfulness, and Creativity - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
MirageTable: Freehand Interaction on a Projected Augmented Reality Tabletop - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: MirageTable is a novel augmented reality system which enables instant digitization of physical objects, correct 3D perspective views, and interaction using bare hands without gloves or trackers.
Abstract » Instrumented with a single depth camera, a stereoscopic projector, and a curved screen, MirageTable is an interactive system designed to merge real and virtual worlds into a single spatially registered experience on top of a table. Our depth camera tracks the user�s eyes and performs a real-time capture of both the shape and the appearance of any object placed in front of the camera (including user�s body and hands). This real-time capture enables perspective stereoscopic 3D visualizations to a single user that account for deformations caused by physical objects on the table. In addition, the user can interact with virtual objects through physically-realistic freehand actions without any gloves, trackers, or instruments. We illustrate these unique capabilities through three application examples: virtual 3D model creation, interactive gaming with real and virtual objects, and a 3D teleconferencing experience that not only presents a 3D view of a remote person, but also a seamless 3D shared task space. We also evaluated the user�s perception of projected 3D objects in our system, which confirmed that the users can correctly perceive such objects even when they are projected over different background colors and geometries (e.g., gaps, drops).
ACM
 
The 3rd Dimension of CHI (3DCHI): Touching and Designing 3D User Interfaces - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatial 3D space in which we live.
Abstract » In recent years 3D has gained increasing amount of attention - interactive visualization of 3D data has become increasingly important and widespread due to the requirements of several application areas, and entertainment industry has brought 3D experience to the reach of wide audiences through games, 3D movies and stereoscopic displays. However, current user interfaces (UIs) often lack adequate support for 3D interactions: 2D metaphors still dominate in GUI design, 2D desktop systems are often limited in cases where natural interaction with 3D content is required, and sophisticated 3D user interfaces consisting of stereoscopic projections and tracked input devices are rarely adopted by ordinary users. In the future, novel interaction design solutions are needed to better support the natural interaction and utilize the special features of 3D technologies.
In this workshop we address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatially complex, 3D space in which we live. The workshop will provide a common forum for researchers to share their visions of the future and recent results in the area of improving 3D interaction and UI design.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
LightGuide: Projected Visualizations for Hand Movement Guidance - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new approach to movement guidance, where visual hints are digitally projected on a user's hand. Can help users perform complex movements such as in exercise or playing an instrument.
Abstract » LightGuide is a system that explores a new approach to gesture guidance where we project guidance hints directly on a user�s body. These projected hints guide the user in completing the desired motion with their body part which is particularly useful for performing movements that require accuracy and proper technique, such as during exercise or physical therapy. Our proof-of-concept implementation consists of a single low-cost depth camera and projector and we present four novel interaction techniques that are focused on guiding a user�s hand in mid-air. Our visualizations are designed to incorporate both feedback and feedforward cues to help guide users through a range of movements. We quantify the performance of LightGuide in a user study comparing each of our on-body visualizations to hand animation videos on a computer display in both time and accuracy. Exceeding our expectations, participants performed movements with an average error of 21.6mm, nearly 85% more accurately than when guided by video.
ACM
 
StoryPlace.me: The Path From Studying Elder Communication to a Public Location-Based Video Service - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present the design path from studying communication across generations and distance to an open location-based media platform. Can help anyone involved in designing from field data.
Abstract » We describe our research path that took us from studying communication needs across distance and generations, to a small-scale study of a person-to-person location-based video service, and finally to a public beta of StoryPlace.me which extends this service to support public video sharing and historical content. The process was not a clear, linear design path, but one of an unexpected change in focus that resulted in the current service which goes beyond the original vision of tools for inter-generational communication. We will describe our research methods as well as key findings from each step of our journey and conclude with implications for similar product concept generation activities.
In session: Comfortable Aging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Drawing the City: Differing Perceptions of the Urban Environment - Note
Contribution & Benefit: We provide an updated study of the Milgram Mental Maps experiment, also considering demographic and tech-use attributes. Useful to those working on mobile LBS and Urban Computing services.
Abstract » In building location-based services, it is important to present information in ways that fit with how individuals view and navigate the city. We conducted an adaptation of the 1970s Mental Maps study by Stanley Milgram in order to better understand differences in people's views of the city based on their backgrounds and technology use. We correlated data from a demographic questionnaire with the map data from our participants to perform a first-of-its-kind statistical analysis on differences in hand-drawn city maps. We describe our study, findings, and design implications for location-based services.
ACM
In session: Mobile Computing and Interaction - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Developing IDEAS: Supporting Children with Autism within a Participatory Design Team - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes IDEAS, a design method for involving children with autism in the technology design process. Provides structured support for difficulties contributing to the design process within a collaborative design team.
Abstract » IDEAS (Interface Design Experience for the Autistic Spectrum) is a method for involving children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the technology design process. This paper extends the IDEAS method to enable use with a design team, providing specific added support for communication and collaboration difficulties that may arise. A study to trial this extended method was conducted with two design teams, each involving three children with ASD, in a series of six, weekly design sessions focused on designing a math game. The findings from this study reveal that the children were able to successfully participate in the sessions and collaborate with other children. The findings also highlight the positive experience that involvement in such a process can offer this population.
ACM
In session: Health and Children - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Supporting children with autism to participate throughout a design process - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This short film portrays a representative participatory design session involving children with autism collaborating to generate ideas for user interface characters or personas, as active participants within a design team.
Abstract » A deficit in social communication is one of a number of core features of autism that can result in the exclusion of individuals with autism from the design process. Individuals with autism can be highly motivated by new technology, and the design of technologies for individuals with autism could potentially benefit from their direct input. We structured participatory design sessions using Cooperative Inquiry specifically to support the needs of individuals with autism. This video highlights how, when appropriately supported, the challenges of the social communication deficits associated with autism can be overcome and individuals with autism can take a full and active role within the design process.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
"It's in Love with You" - Communicating Status and Preference with Simple Product Movements - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: A study where users perceive a product with adaptive movements as expressing agency and it becomes part of their social context. Can assist design and understanding of automated product interaction.
Abstract » In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, interact with a TV designed to move in way that communicates the agency related attributes social status or likeability. Results show that the TV movements are perceived differently when one versus two users are present. While most single users evaluate the TV positively, most users in pairs find the differential treatment problematic.
In session: alt.chi: Physical Love - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Corporate Career Presences on Social Network Sites: An Analysis of Hedonic and Utilitarian Value - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a structural equation model which describes what benefits job seekers derive from corporate career presences on social network sites.
Abstract » Due to the shortage of skilled workforce and the increasing usage of social network sites, companies increasingly apply social network sites to attract potential applicants. This paper explores how corporate career presences on network sites should be realized in order to attract potential applicants. Therefore, we tested the impact of seven individual characteristics (namely Appointments, Daily Working Routine, Jobs, Corporate News, Entertainment, Media Format, and Features) of these corporate career presences that we extracted by a comprehensive pre-study on users' perceived hedonic and utilitarian value of these presences on social network sites. Based on an online survey with 470 participants, the results reveal a highly significant impact of five characteristics that corporate career presences provide both a hedonic as well as a utilitarian value to the user.
ACM
In session: Social Computing: Business & Beyond - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
How Do We Find Personal Files?: The Effect of OS, Presentation & Depth on File Navigation - Note
Contribution & Benefit: A large scale study testing the effects of OS, interface presentation and folder depth on personal file navigation. Informs improved folder system design by increasing efficiency in finding files.
Abstract » Folder navigation is the main way that computer users retrieve their personal files. However we know surprisingly little about navigation, particularly about how it is affected by the operating system used, the interface presentation and the folder structure. To investigate this, we asked 289 participants to retrieve 1,109 of their own active files. We analyzed the 4,948 resulting retrieval steps, i.e. moves through the hierarchical folder tree. Results show: (a) significant differences in overall retrieval time between PC and Mac that arise from different organizational strategies rather than interface design; (b) the default Windows presentation is suboptimal � if changed, retrieval time could be reduced substantially and (c) contrary to our expectations, folder depth did not affect step duration. We discuss possible reasons for these results and suggest directions for future research.
ACM
In session: Usability and User Research - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Mobile Applications to Support Dietary Change: Highlighting the Importance of Evaluation Context - Works In Progress
Abstract » Along with the smart phone came smart phone applications, which range in functionality, complexity and price. Hugely popular are lifestyle applications which include tools for diet and exercise. Despite the popularity of these applications however, we have yet to see any form of rigorous investigation into their value, i.e. their impact on user behaviour and long term health goals. We embarked on a live clinical trial of a behavior based mobile application designed to assist users on meal replacement diet programs to judge its impact and value. Our analysis showed that users were more engaged with a fully interactive application than an information based application, and that varying analysis conditions seemed to result in varying impact.
 
Factors Associated with Persistent Participation in an Online Diet Intervention - Works In Progress
Abstract » In recent years, much work has been carried out in interface design and service quality in order to maximise user experience and sustain engagement. We are often unsure, however, what factors really influence user interactions with the technologies. Here we report on an ongoing examination of the relationships between user demographics, self reported attitudes, efficacy, and system feature, and participation on an online diet support site. Our findings indicate that not only the characteristics of the users themselves are associated with sustained engagement with a weight loss site, but also that usage of particular features on the site results in higher return rates. These findings support a push for designers to understand their users and features of their site, in order to maximise engagement with their target audiences.
 
ActivMON: Encouraging Physical Activity Through Ambient Social Awareness - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we discuss the use of low-complexity interfaces to encourage users to increase their level of physical activity. We present ActivMON – a wearable device capable of representing a user's individual activity level, and that of a group, using an ambient display. We discuss the results of a preliminary usability evaluation of ActivMON.
 
teleWEAR: Engaging Users and Suppliers of Telecare in Product Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » Telecare is the remote or enhanced delivery of care services to people in their own home or community setting using ICT. Telecare is expected to play an important role in addressing some of the challenges of an ageing population. However, products are often unsatisfactory and a major contributing factor is that suppliers do not typically involve users in design processes. This paper describes a participatory design project involving 25 designers, 6 service users, 11 potential future service users and 2 telecare suppliers: six concept designs were created for a wearable alarm button in two half-day workshops. Our main contribution is to present the design features considered most important to users, which can be incorporated into future product designs and inform other wearable alarm systems for older people. As a result of the project, a leading supplier has invited users to participate in their research and development activities for the first time.
 
Course 15: User Experience Evaluation in Entertainment and Games - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods methods, opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games.
Abstract » Benefits: This course comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods methods, opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games. It provides an overview on what user experience is about (in contrast to usability), it provides an understanding on enablers for successful future games and entertainment experiences and which user experience evaluation methods are currently available and used for the development of games.

Objectives of this course are:
• to provide an overview on user experience evaluation in the games and entertainment area.
• to provide definitions of user experience, and discuss the factors that contribute to the overall user experience in a game (e.g. flow, immersion, playability)
• to explain how game development is different from software engineering development, especially the evaluation phase.
Based on these foundations the objective is:
• to give an overview on existing methods
• to allow participants in the course a first hands-on experience on how to apply one of the methods to a real game.


Audience:
* Developers and designers: the course will help to establish an understanding how to evaluate user experience in the area of games and entertainment and how outcomes of the evaluation can be integrated in the next iteration of the game and entertainment application development;
* Industrial and academic researchers: the course will provide an overview on current methods in the area, and can help to understand the concept of user experience.
* Students: the course provides a first introduction to user experience in games, but lessons can also be taken for the application in other domains.
 
CHI2012 Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Shaping the Future - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The Games and Entertainment SIG will explore where to take this community in future at CHI, including identifying researchers and commercial practitioners interested in leadership of the group.
Abstract » The community of games and entertainment includes researchers and practitioners focusing on player-centered development and evaluation of all forms of games and applications that focus on entertainment. Games and entertainment have been represented in all CHI venues including workshops, tutorials, papers, and notes. In 2011 Games and Entertainment was selected as a Special Community at CHI, a designation that continues this year and can be taken into future CHI conferences. This year’s Games and Entertainment SIG meeting will be a venue for exploring where to take this community in future at CHI, including identifying strong research and commercial talent in our community interested in playing leadership roles.
 
Game User Research - Workshop
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, specifically discussing methodologies in Game User Research - an emerging field focused on studying player' gaming experience.
Abstract » Game User Research is an emerging field that ties together Human Computer Interaction, Game Development, and Experimental Psychology, specifically investigating the interaction between players and games. The community of Game User Research has been rapidly evolving for the past few years, extending and modifying existing methodologies used by the HCI community to the environment of digital games. In this workshop, we plan to investigate the different methodologies currently in practice within the field as well as their utilities and drawbacks in measuring game design issues or gaining insight about the players' experience. The outcome of the workshop will be a collection of lessons from the trenches and commonly used techniques published in a public online forum. This will extend the discussion of topics beyond the workshop, and serve as a platform for future work. The workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, tying together HCI research and Game User Research.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Improving Performance, Perceived Usability, and Aesthetics with Culturally Adaptive User Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Beautiful? Usable? Not in my culture! We demonstrate how culturally adaptive interfaces can result in a significant improvement of performance and user experience for multicultural users.
Abstract » When we investigate the usability and aesthetics of user interfaces, we rarely take into account that what users perceive as beautiful and usable strongly depends on their cultural background. In this paper, we argue that it is not feasible to design one interface that appeals to all users of an increasingly global audience. Instead, we propose to design culturally adaptive systems, which automatically generate personalized interfaces that correspond to cultural preferences. In an evaluation of one such system, we demonstrate that a majority of international participants preferred their personalized versions over a non-adapted interface of the same web site. Results show that users were 22% faster using the culturally adapted interface, needed less clicks, and made fewer errors, in line with subjective results demonstrating that they found the adapted version significantly easier to use. Our findings show that interfaces that adapt to cultural preferences can immensely increase the user experience.
In session: Culture, Playfulness, and Creativity - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
CrowdCamp: Rapidly Iterating Ideas Related to Collective Intelligence & Crowdsourcing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Hands-on workshop for the development of ideas, designs, and prototypes related to collective intelligence and crowdsourcing. Will enable diverse disciplines to rapidly test new ideas.
Abstract » The field of collective intelligence -- encompassing aspects of crowdsourcing, human computation, and social computing -- is having tremendous impact on our lives, and the fields are rapidly growing. We propose a hands-on event that takes the main benefits of a workshop -- provocative discussion and community building -- and allows time to focus on developing ideas into actual outputs: experiment designs, in-depth thoughts on wicked problems, paper or coded prototypes. We will bring together researchers to discuss future visions and make tangible headway on those visions, as well as seeding collaboration. The outputs from brainstorming, discussion, and building will persist after the workshop for attendees and the community to view, and will be written up.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Hunting for Fail Whales: Lessons from Deviance and Failure in Social Computing - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel discusses how social behaviors like theft, anonymity, deviance, and polarization contribute to both the failure and success in diverse online communities.
Abstract » Social computing technologies are pervasive in our work, relationships, and culture. Despite their promise for transforming the structure of communication and human interaction, the complex social dimensions of these technological systems often reproduce offline social ills or create entirely novel forms of conflict and deviance. This panel brings together scholars who study deviance and failure in diverse social computing systems to examine four design-related themes that contribute to and support these problematic uses: theft, anonymity, deviance, and polarization.
 
Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: Discussion about review process at CHI focusing on 1) ways to improve reviewing, 2) alternative peer review models, and 3) educational materials for new reviewers.
Abstract » The HCI research community grows bigger each year, refining and expanding its boundaries in new ways. The ability to effectively review submissions is critical to the growth of CHI and related conferences. The review process is designed to produce a consistent supply of fair, high-quality reviews without overloading individual reviewers; yet, after each cycle, concerns are raised about limitations of the process. Every year, participants are left wondering why their papers were not accepted (or why they were). This SIG will explore reviewing through a critical and constructive lens, discussing current successes and future opportunities in the CHI review process. Goals will include actionable conclusions about ways to improve the system, potential alternative peer models, and the creation of materials to educate newcomer reviewers.
In session: Reject Me: Peer Review and SIGCHI - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
RepliCHI SIG – from a panel to a new submission venue for replication - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: For CHI2013, we're proposing a new venue that focuses on replicating, confirming, and challenging published HCI findings. This SIG will discuss the aims and format of repliCHI-2013.
Abstract » At CHI2011 we ran a panel on how the CHI community handles the replicability of research and the reproducibility of findings. Careful scientific scholarship should build on firm foundations, which includes re-examining old evidences in the face of new findings. Yet, as a community that strives for novelty, we have very little motivation to look back and reconsider the validity of previous work. Thus, for CHI2013 we are planning a new venue, where replicated studies can be submitted, presented, and discussed. For CHI2012, we propose a SIG to discuss the preparations for how RepliCHI will work in its first year. We invite participation from those interested in setting an agenda for facilitating replication in HCI, including those who have begun using replication as a teaching method since RepliCHI at CHI2011.
 
Direct Answers for Search Queries in the Long Tail - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce Tail Answers: a large collection of crowdsourced search results that are unpopular individually but together address a large proportion of search traffic.
Abstract » Web search engines now offer more than ranked results. Queries on topics like weather, definitions, and movies may return inline results called answers that can resolve a searcher's information need without any additional interaction. Despite the usefulness of answers, they are limited to popular needs because each answer type is manually authored. To extend the reach of answers to thousands of new information needs, we introduce Tail Answers: a large collection of direct answers that are unpopular individually, but together address a large proportion of search traffic. These answers cover long-tail needs such as the average body temperature for a dog, substitutes for molasses, and the keyboard shortcut for a right-click. We introduce a combination of search log mining and paid crowdsourcing techniques to create Tail Answers. A user study with 361 participants suggests that Tail Answers significantly improved users' subjective ratings of search quality and their ability to solve needs without clicking through to a result. Our findings suggest that search engines can be extended to directly respond to a large new class of queries.
ACM
In session: Leveraging the Crowd - May 7, 2012, 11:30
 
Crowdsourcing an Emotional Wardrobe - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Investigating the possibility of designing a multi-modal language to enable the crowdsourcing of tactile perceptions of garments and the values that such a process would bring to our society.
Abstract » Selecting clothing online requires decision-making about sensorial experiences, but online environments provide only limited sensorial information. Inferences are therefore made on the basis of product pictures and their textual description. This is often unreliable as it is either based on the designer’s understanding of the product or deprived of perceptual content due to the difficulty of expressing such experiences. Using a purpose built website that combines and cross references multi-modal descriptive media, this study aims at investigating the possibility of using crowdsourcing mechanisms and multi-modal language to engage consumers in providing enriched descriptions of their tactile experiences of garments.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
 
Playful Arm Hand Training after Stroke - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents the design of an interactive system designed to support arm-hand rehabilitation of stroke survivors through gaming. It consists in an interactive tabletop game and wearable sensing technology that provides feedback to patients to assist with the correct execution of movements. We present the motivation for this design, the main choices made during the design process, an initial evaluation, and an outline of ongoing work for developing this system further.
 
Course 38: Selecting UCD Methods that Maximize Benefits and Minimize Project Risks - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Participants will learn how, with the support of an online tool, they can select user-centered methods that are most effective in reducing risk and maximizing cost benefits in a particular project.
Abstract » The problem with previous approaches to the selection of UCD methods is that they start with the method, rather than the purpose for which the method is used. The tool uses the detailed set of human centered activities in ISO TS 18152 as a basis for prioritizing human centered design activities and identifying the types of methods to use. It then uses criteria based on ISO TR 16982 to identify which method is most appropriate. Creating a tool has made it practical to apply the comprehensive but complex principles in these standards.

The course will explain the process, supported by the Usability Planner tool:

1. Identify the human centered design activities that are relevant for a particular project.

2. Select from a checklist the objectives and constraints associated with the project, including the importance of usability, the budget, timescales, skills available and the user and task characteristics.

3. Optionally prioritize the human centered design activities, based on an assessment of either the estimated cost benefits, or the importance of reducing project risk.

4. The tool will then recommend the most appropriate methods for each activity, in a prioritized list of activities. Further information is provided about each method, including links to the Usability Body of Knowledge.

Audience

• Usability specialists and project managers who need to justify UCD activities, or who want to broaden the range of methods that they use, or who want advice on which methods to use in a new situation.

• Educators and trainers who help students decide which methods to use.

• Anyone who is interested in a more systematic approach to user-centered design.

Some familiarity with usability and user centered design is assumed, but no specific prior knowledge is needed.

Usability Planner is available at http://www.usabilityplanner.org/
 
Course 7: Assessing Usability Capability Using ISO Standards - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Learn how to assess usability maturity and identify areas where an organization needs to improve, either by using a workshop for process improvement, or a formal assessment of usability capability.
Abstract » The most commonly reported approach to usability process improvement is for an organization to start with usability testing as this has recognized value, even though the benefits are limited by the difficulty of making significant improvements late in the lifecycle. The perceived benefits of testing are then used to gradually justify activities earlier in the lifecycle.

The difficulty with this approach is that it usually only involves relatively junior management. When personnel change, or economies are being made in the organization the usability work can be vulnerable.

The course will suggest a more structured approach to usability process improvement, by auditing the extent to which the good practice embodied in ISO TR 18529 is implemented in typical projects, and identifying areas for organizational improvement.

The course recommends use of material from ISO standards not just because they are standards, but because they contain the most comprehensive and systematic information available, which represents the consensus of international experts in the field.

Each ISO 18529 activity can be assessed as not done, partially done, largely done or fully done, as part of systems development. This can be carried out relatively informally in a process improvement workshop, or as part of a more formal process assessment of usability maturity (analogous to the software process assessment that can be carried out using the SEI CMM - Capability Maturity Model).

This information enables an organization to decide how much improvement is desirable in particular areas, or on an activity-by-activity basis.

Case studies will be presented of assessments of different degrees of formality that have been carried out in three organizations.

The course is suitable for anyone interested in assessing usability maturity and improving usability capability. Basic familiarity with the area of user-centered design is assumed, but no prior knowledge of ISO standards is needed.
 
The Urban Musical Game: Using Sport Balls as Musical Interfaces - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Dribble, throw and spin the ball to play music. These are real life digital games
Abstract » We present Urban Musical Game, an installation using augmented sports balls to manipulate and transform an interactive music environment. The interaction is based on playing techniques, a concept borrowed from traditional music instruments and applied here to non musical objects.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Course 4: The Role of the UX Professional on an Agile Team - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course arms UX designers with techniques enabling them to participate in Agile projects, including how principles driving Agile can be used to support UX involvement.
Abstract » Agile methods, Scrum in particular, are now widely used in the development community. UX professionals who work with Agile teams find that Agile approaches create roadblocks to their participation. Minimal up-front planning means there’s no time for user research or UX design; short sprints leave little time for considered interface design; and sprint reviews leave no place for usability testing or other validation of the sprint’s work. UX designers find that their old role relationships and procedures no longer work, their skills and techniques devalued, and there’s no clear guidance on how to contribute.

But, looking at their base principles, Agile methods should be friendly to UX participation. Continuous user feedback is core to Agile—and who better to supply it than UX designers? But many Agile values and attitudes work against the needs of UX design. Agile methods were created by developers, for developers, without much consideration for user interaction.

In this course, we arm UX designers with concepts and techniques enabling them to participate effectively in Agile projects. We show why Agile methods make sense from the developers’ point of view—and how principles driving Agile methods can be used to support UX involvement. We also show where Agile methods work against the UX goal of a coherent, consistent interface and provide strategies to accomplish a coherent design anyway. We describe proven Agile/UX best practices for integrating the two perspectives.

Finally, we step back and look at project scope. Agile methods address small-scale projects—how to scale them up is debated in the Agile community. We show how to plan a user-centered Agile project of any scale, from iterative fixes to whole systems
 
Annotating BI Visualization Dashboards: Needs & Challenges - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the user-centered design of a visualization dashboard, which supports context aware and multi-chart annotations applied across visualizations and data dimension levels. Discusses challenges in annotating dynamic and hierarchical data.
Abstract » Annotations have been identified as an important aid in
analysis record-keeping and recently data discovery. In this
paper we discuss the use of annotations on visualization
dashboards, with a special focus on business intelligence
(BI) analysis. In-depth interviews with experts lead to new
annotation needs for multi-chart visualization systems, on
which we based the design of a dashboard prototype that
supports data and context aware annotations. We focus
particularly on novel annotation aspects, such as multi-target annotations, annotation transparency across charts
and data dimension levels, as well as annotation properties
such as lifetime and validity. Moreover, our prototype is
built on a data layer shared among different data-sources
and BI applications, allowing cross application annotations.
We discuss challenges in supporting context aware
annotations in dashboards and other visualizations, such as
dealing with changing annotated data, and provide design
solutions. Finally we report reactions and recommendations from a different set of expert users.
ACM
In session: Future Design - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Sensor-Based Physical Interactions as Interventions for Change in Residential Energy Consumption - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interventions for behavior change in domestic energy consumption rely critically on energy usage data. To obtain this data, collection systems must be established. Pervasive sensing systems enable such monitoring, but populating homes with sensors is challenging. We offer an alternative to feedback approaches that depend on the assumption that users are motivated by energy data in its raw state. Physical Experiential Technology Systems (PETS) is a behavior-and sensor-based platform supporting rich experiences and the diffusion of sensors in homes. In this paper, we present our novel approach to building sensor feedback systems and our initial product concepts.
 
Do You See That I See? Effects of Perceived Visibility on Awareness Checking Behavior - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Experimental study exploring effects of available time and notifying observed parties on gathering awareness information. Provides a framework for understanding these behaviors, and results suggesting urgency and notification reduce gathering.
Abstract » Informal interactions are a key element of group work, and many theoretical frameworks and systems have been developed to understand and support these conversations in distributed workgroups. In particular, systems used in several recent experiments provided information about others' current activities so that their availability for conversation could be assessed, and interruptions could be timed strategically. One issue with these experimental systems, though, is that many do not notify the observed party that these observations are taking place. There is reason to believe that such notification could be valuable to users, and that it could alter observers' behavior. Moreover, factors such as the perceived urgency of the interruption could affect willingness to violate social norms in gathering information. We report on an experiment assessing the impact of perceived visibility and task urgency on awareness checking behavior. Results suggest that people check more often when they believe their partners do not know they are checking, and more often when the task is time-constrained than when it is not.
ACM
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Natural Use Profiles for the Pen: An Empirical Exploration of Pressure, Tilt, and Azimuth - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: This is the first study to investigate the natural profiles of pen pressure, tilt, and azimuth (PTA) and their inter-relationships, providing fundamental data for efficient natural UI design.
Abstract » Inherent pen input modalities such as tip pressure, tilt and azimuth (PTA) have been extensively used as additional input channels in pen-based interactions. We conducted a study to investigate the natural use profiles of PTA, which describes the features of PTA in the course of normal pen use such as writing and drawing. First, the study reveals the ranges of PTA in normal pen use, which can distinguish pen events accidently occurring in normal drawing and writing from those used for mode switch. The natural use profiles also show that azimuth is least likely to cause false pen mode switching while tip pressure is most likely to cause false pen mode switching. Second, the study reveals correlations among various modalities, indicating that pressure plus azimuth is superior to other pairs for dual-modality control.
ACM
In session: Pen + Touch - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Informal Information Gathering Techniques for Active Reading - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes informal information gathering techniques-- that embrace both content consumption and content creation within the same workflow-- for active reading with a prototype e-reader employing both multi-touch and pen input.
Abstract » GatherReader is a prototype e-reader with both pen and multi-touch input that illustrates several interesting design trade-offs to fluidly interleave content consumption behaviors (reading and flipping through pages) with information gathering and informal organization activities geared to active reading tasks. These choices include (1) relaxed precision for casual specification of scope; (2) multiple object collection via a visual clipboard; (3) flexible workflow via deferred action; and (4) complementary use of pen+touch. Our design affords active reading by limiting the transaction costs for secondary subtasks, while keeping users in the flow of the primary task of reading itself.
ACM
In session: Beyond Paper - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
MicPen: Pressure-Sensitive Pen Interaction Using Microphone with Standard Touchscreen - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper introduces MicPen, a low-cost pressure-sensitive stylus pen interface for standard touchscreen displays that uses a microphone to estimate the amount of pressure applied to the pen. This is achieved by filtering and analyzing the acoustic signal generated when the tip of the pen is rubbed on the touchscreen. The advantage of this approach is that it is inexpensive, reliable and suitable for mobile interaction because it does not require mechanical parts to sense the input pressure. Results from a user study shows that the participants recognized five out of ten different pressure levels with perfect accuracy, and nine out of ten with minimal error.
 
User Needs for Technology Supporting Physical Activity in Chronic Pain - Works In Progress
Abstract » An emerging field of HCI is the use of interactive technology to promote fitness. However, current persuasive fitness technologies for the general population do not address the psychological needs of users with chronic conditions. This is particularly the case in chronic pain. Research indicates that people with chronic pain have negative beliefs and experiences associated with pain such as anxiety about provoking pain through exercise. We interviewed physiotherapists and people with chronic pain to get an understanding of the physical and psychological needs that must be addressed by a technology for supporting physical activity in this population. Five themes emerged: pain management approach, personalisation/tailoring, exercise adherence, supportive functions, and visual representations.
 
Being in the Thick of In-the-wild Studies: The Challenges and Insights of Researcher Participation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Applies a participant-observation methodology to two in-the-wild user studies. Shows how researcher participation can help build rapport, enhance contextual understanding, encourage empathy and stimulate reflexivity.
Abstract » We describe the insights and challenges offered by researcher participation in in-the-wild studies through the comparison of two prototype evaluations with varying levels of researcher participation. By reflecting on these studies we expose different facets of the researcher's role when interacting with participants in in-the-wild studies. We also demonstrate the value of researcher participation in contributing to the way a researcher understands participant responses: aiding rapport, promoting empathy and stimulating the researcher to reflect on their own assumptions.
ACM
In session: Values in Research Practice - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Namibian and American Cultural Orientations Toward Facebook - Works In Progress
Abstract » Nadkarni and Hofman’s [8] meta-review of literature on Facebook usage recommends examining differences in Facebook use between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. We discuss early findings of an exploratory study to compare use between participants in America, Namibia, and expatriate Namibians. From this, we identified five key areas of difference: 1) Motivations for joining Facebook; 2) Attitude toward Facebook connections; 3) Self presentation and photo sharing; 4) Communication about death, religion, and politics; 5) General privacy definitions. However, our findings showed no statistical difference in the Collectivism Scale [10] administered among the three groups, despite Namibia being considered a highly collectivistic county [12] and the US being a highly individualistic country [6].
 
Learning How to Feel Again: Towards Affective Workplace Presence and Communication Technologies - Paper
Community: engineeringCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique for estimating affective state and communication preferences. The technique uses non-invasive data from a presence state stream and provides more accurate predictions than humans who work together.
Abstract » Affect influences workplace collaboration and thereby impacts a workplace's productivity. Participants in face-to-face interactions have many cues to each other's affect, but work is increasingly carried out via computer-mediated channels that lack many of these cues. Current presence systems enable users to estimate the availability of other users, but not their affective states or communication preferences. This work demonstrates the feasibility of estimating affective state and communication preferences from a stream of presence states that are already being shared in a deployed presence system.
ACM
In session: Affective Presence - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Self-Correcting Crowds - Works In Progress
Abstract » Much of the current work in crowdsourcing is focused on increasing the quality of responses. Quality issues are most often due to a small subset of low quality workers. The ability to distinguish between high and low quality workers would allow a wide range of error correction to be performed for such tasks. However, differentiating between these types is difficult when no measure of individual success is available. We propose it is possible to use higher quality workers to compensate for lower quality ones, without explicitly identifying them, by allowing them to observe and react to the input of the collective. In this paper, we present initial work on eliciting this behavior and discuss how it may be possible to leverage self-correction in the crowd for better performance on continuous real-time tasks.
 
Using Real-time Feedback to Improve Visual Question Answering - Works In Progress
Abstract » Technology holds great promise for improving the everyday lives of people with disabilities; however, automated systems are prone to errors and cannot handle many real-world tasks. VizWiz, a system for answering visual questions for blind users, has shown that crowdsourcing can be used for assistive technology in such domains. Our work extends the VizWiz model by enabling users to interact with the crowd via a real-time feedback loop. We introduce Legion:View, a system that enables such a real-time feedback loop for visual questions between users and crowd workers. Legion:View sends audio questions and streaming video to the crowd, and forwards feedback about the position and orientation of the camera and answers to questions back to users.
 
From Death to Final Disposition: Roles of Technology in the Post-Mortem Interval - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes technology roles in collaborative processes, in the time from user death to final disposition. Provides insights into design for end of life and repurposing of data.
Abstract » In this paper, we describe collaborative processes and stakeholders involved in the period from when a person dies until they are laid to rest: the funeral, final disposition of the body, and (in some circumstances) victim identification. The rich mixture of technologies currently deployed during this brief period are categorized and critically analyzed. We then reflect on the implications of our findings, both for the design of technology that takes the end of life into account, and for the wider HCI community.
ACM
In session: Empathy and Technology: Focus on the End User - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
What is the Object of Design? - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes design as accessing, aligning, and navigating “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents, combining creativity, participation and experience in drawing-things-together.
Abstract » In this paper we reflect upon design at a conceptual level, discussing how creativity can be coupled with participation and experience, dialoguing with philosophers and social theorists, and looking for the experiential grounds of our understanding of the very nature of design. Three words: ‘drawing’, ‘thing’ and ‘together’, are at the center of our discourse. We propose a view of design as accessing, aligning, and navigating among the “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents. The object of design is to draw things together.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Fast and Frugal Shopping Challenge - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: A fast and frugal shopping challenge looks at the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions in a grocery store.
Abstract » There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. A fast and frugal shopping challenge is presented, in the style of a humorous reality TV show, where the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions are demonstrated by shoppers in a grocery store.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Designing Visualizations to Facilitate Multisyllabic Speech with Children with Autism and Speech Delays - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: VocSyl is a real-time voice visualization system to help teach multisyllabic speech to children with autism and speech delays.
Abstract » The ability of children to combine syllables represents an important developmental milestone. This ability is often delayed or impaired in a variety of clinical groups including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and speech delays (SPD). This video illustrates some of the features of VocSyl, a real-time voice visualization system to shape multisyllabic speech. VocSyl was designed using the Task Centered User Interface Design methodology from the beginning to the end of the design process. Children with Autism and Speech Delays, targeted users of the software, were directly involved in the development process, thus allowing us to focus on what these children demonstrate they require.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Do You See That I See? Effects of Perceived Visibility on Awareness Checking Behavior - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Experimental study exploring effects of available time and notifying observed parties on gathering awareness information. Provides a framework for understanding these behaviors, and results suggesting urgency and notification reduce gathering.
Abstract » Informal interactions are a key element of group work, and many theoretical frameworks and systems have been developed to understand and support these conversations in distributed workgroups. In particular, systems used in several recent experiments provided information about others' current activities so that their availability for conversation could be assessed, and interruptions could be timed strategically. One issue with these experimental systems, though, is that many do not notify the observed party that these observations are taking place. There is reason to believe that such notification could be valuable to users, and that it could alter observers' behavior. Moreover, factors such as the perceived urgency of the interruption could affect willingness to violate social norms in gathering information. We report on an experiment assessing the impact of perceived visibility and task urgency on awareness checking behavior. Results suggest that people check more often when they believe their partners do not know they are checking, and more often when the task is time-constrained than when it is not.
ACM
In session: Time + Task: Managing Work Life - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Tabletops in Motion: The Kinetics and Kinematics of Interactive Surface Physical Therapy - Works In Progress
Abstract » Technology-based rehabilitation methods have shown promise for improving physical therapy programs, but much of the research is lacking quantitative analysis. We present a study conducted with healthy participants where we compared traditional “table-based” therapy methods with new technology-based methods. Using motion analysis and electromyography recordings, we assessed the kinetic and kinematic dimensions of participant motion during four activities. While technology-based methods are more enjoyable, our results indicate that it is the design of an activity that has a significant impact on the movements performed.
 
Habit as an Explanation of Participation in an Online Peer-production Community - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We examine the construct of habit as a type of non-conscious behavior in online peer-production communities; and how motivations and habits explain people's use of specific features.
Abstract » User activities in peer-production communities have mainly been examined under the assumption that individuals are rational individuals who are always cognizant of what they are doing and why. We argue that not all use is the same; while some behaviors are governed by conscious motivations, others may be a habitual response that is developed out of routine. We take a more granular approach to explaining what people are doing in online communities and how motivations and habits explain their use of specific features. In the context of the peer-production community Everything2 we employ both server log data and self-report, finding that habit is a non-conscious-driven behavior that is more associated with less cognitively-demanding tasks than content production.
ACM
In session: Crowdsourcing and Peer Production II - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
CogTool-Explorer: A Model of Goal-Directed User Exploration that Considers Information Layout - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a tool for predicting novice exploration behavior, including errors, that accounts for 63-82% of the variance in three usability metrics. Includes examples using the predictions to direct design effort.
Abstract » CogTool-Explorer 1.2 (CTE1.2) predicts novice exploration behavior and how it varies with different user-interface (UI) layouts. CTE1.2 improves upon previous models of information foraging by adding a model of hierarchical visual search to guide foraging behavior. Built within CogTool so it is easy to represent UI layouts, run the model, and present results, CTE1.2's vision is to assess many design ideas at the storyboard stage before implementation and without the cost of running human participants. This paper evaluates CTE1.2 predictions against observed human behavior on 108 tasks (36 tasks on 3 distinct website layouts). CTE1.2's predictions accounted for 63-82% of the variance in the percentage of participants succeeding on each task, the number of clicks to success, and the percentage of participants succeeding without error. We demonstrate how these predictions can be used to identify areas of the UI in need of redesign.
ACM
In session: Programming, Performance, and Sense Making - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
A Contextualised Curriculum for HCI - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will center on a detailed examination of situated HCI teaching practices, providing contextualization of HCI curriculum topics.
Abstract » The ACM and IEEE are currently revising their joint Computer Curriculum. The purpose of this workshop is to discuss and formulate a context for the HCI component of the undergraduate curriculum in terms of the current teaching practices of HCI educators. The goals of the workshop are to provide rich methods for capturing pedagogical content knowledge that would support HCI educators using the revised curriculum in their teaching.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
I did that! Measuring Users' Experience of Agency in their own Actions - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We draw on theoretical perspectives in cognitive neuroscience and describes two implicit methods through which personal agency can be empirically investigated. We report two experiments applying these methods to HCI problems.
Abstract » Cognitive neuroscience defines the sense of agency as the experience of controlling one's own actions and, through this control, affecting the external world. We believe that the sense of personal agency is a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. This paper draws on theoretical perspectives in cognitive neuroscience and describes two implicit methods through which personal agency can be empirically investigated. We report two experiments applying these methods to HCI problems. One shows that a new input modality - skin-based interaction - can substantially increase users' sense of agency. The second demonstrates that variations in the parameters of assistance techniques such as predictive mouse acceleration can have a significant impact on users' sense of agency. The methods presented provide designers with new ways of evaluating and refining empowering interaction techniques and interfaces, in which users experience an instinctive sense of control and ownership over their actions.
ACM
In session: I Did That! Being in Control - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Signing on the Tactile Line: A Multimodal System for Teaching Handwriting to Blind Children - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: McSig is a multimodal system for teaching blind children to write and draw. Similar combinations of tactile, haptic, sound and stylus interaction could be useful for other non-visual interaction situations.
Abstract » We present McSig, a multimodal system for teaching blind children cursive handwriting so that they can create a personal signature. For blind people handwriting is very difficult to learn as it is a near-zero feedback activity that is needed only occasionally, yet in important situations; for example to make an attractive and repeatable signature for legal contracts. McSig aids the teaching of signatures by translating digital ink from the teacher’s stylus gestures into three non-visual forms: (1) audio pan and pitch represents the x and y movement of the stylus; (2) kinaesthetic information is provided to the student through a force-feedback haptic pen which mimics the teacher’s stylus movement; (3) a physical tactile line on the writing sheet is created by the haptic pen.
McSig has been developed over two major iterations of design, usability testing and evaluation. The final step of the first iteration was a short evaluation with eight visually impaired children. The results suggested that McSig had the highest potential benefit for congenitally and totally blind children and also indicated some areas where McSig could be enhanced. The second prototype incorporated significant modifications to the system, improving the audio, tactile and force-feedback. We then ran a detailed, longitudinal evaluation over 14 weeks with three of the congenitally blind children to assess McSig’s effectiveness in teaching the creation of signatures. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of McSig – they all made considerable progress in learning to create a recognizable signature. By the end of ten lessons two of the children could form a complete, repeatable signature unaided, the third could do so with a little verbal prompting. Furthermore, during this project we have learnt valuable lessons about providing consistent feedback between different communications channels (by manual interactions, haptic device, pen correction) that will be of interest to others developing multimodal systems.
In session: Promoting Educational Opportunity - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
From Materials to Materiality: Connecting Practice and Theory in HC - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop considers what HCI can learn from, and contribute to an engagement with material studies to enrich how HCI theorizes digital culture.
Abstract » As practical resources and analytical precepts, "materials" have become central to the design and study of information technology. By considering how HCI has moved from material to materiality and, by implication, from practice to theory, we will examine different facets of material culture in HCI, drawing from domains just beyond it, such as craft studies, information studies and organizational studies. This workshop thus aims to bring together a range of perspectives on the materials of HCI to enrich our understanding of the design and analysis of interaction.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
IllumiShare: Sharing Any Surface - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A camera-projector device called IllumiShare that shares arbitrary objects and surfaces without visual echo is presented. Study of children’s remote play shows IllumiShare provides natural and seamless interactions over distance.
Abstract » Task and reference spaces are important communication channels for remote collaboration. However, all existing systems for sharing these spaces have an inherent weakness: they cannot share arbitrary physical and digital objects on arbitrary surfaces. We present IllumiShare, a new cost-effective, light-weight device that solves this issue. It both shares physical and digital objects on arbitrary surfaces and provides rich referential awareness. To evaluate IllumiShare, we studied pairs of children playing remotely. They used IllumiShare to share the task-reference space and Skype Video to share the person space. The study results show that IllumiShare shared the play space in a natural and seamless way. We also found that children preferred having both spaces compared to having only one. Moreover, we found that removing the task-reference space caused stronger negative disruptions to the play task and engagement level than removing the person space. Similarly, we found that adding the task-reference space resulted in stronger positive disruptions.
ACM
In session: Sensory Interaction Modalities - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
CHI 2012 Sustainability Community Invited SIG: Inventory of Issues and Opportunities - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This year’s CHI Sustainability Community’s SIG is designed to broaden participation and collect an inventory of issues and opportunities to broaden HCI’s role in securing a sustainable future.
Abstract » This year’s CHI Sustainability Community’s SIG is designed to broaden participation and also designed to collect an inventory of issues and opportunities to broaden the reach and scope of HCI’s role in securing a sustainable future.
 
Collapse Informatics: Augmenting the Sustainability & ICT4D Discourse in HCI - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Augments the discourse on sustainable HCI and ICT4D to include notions of preparation for and adaptation to potential societal collapse, suggesting exemplars for interactivity design in response to such scenarios.
Abstract » Research in many fields argues that contemporary global industrial civilization will not persist indefinitely in its current form, and may, like many past human societies, eventually collapse. Arguments in environmental studies, anthropology, and other fields indicate that this transformation could begin within the next half-century. While imminent collapse is far from certain, it is prudent to consider now how to develop sociotechnical systems for use in these scenarios. We introduce the notion of collapse informatics - the study, design, and development of sociotechnical systems in the abundant present for use in a future of scarcity - as a complement to ICT4D and mitigation-oriented sustainable HCI. We draw on a variety of literatures to offer a set of relevant concepts and articulate the relationships among them to orient and evaluate collapse informatics work. Observing that collapse informatics poses a unique class of cross-cultural design problems, we sketch the design space of collapse informatics and provide a variety of example projects. We explore points of connection and distinction between collapse informatics and sustainable HCI, ICT4D, and crisis informatics. Finally, we discuss next steps and comment on the potential value of collapse informatics work even in the event that collapse never occurs.
ACM
In session: Sustainability and Behavior Change - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI, foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking.
Abstract » This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery—which subsumes digital imagery—goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broader framework for visual thinking and imagery in HCI can play a role in raising the visual standards of HCI research and practice. Workshop participants will investigate possibilities for developing a culture of curatorial gaze in HCI, in order to (i) promote collection of digital images as a method appropriate for a design-oriented discipline, (ii) invite others to contribute to a genre of working and corpus of imagery unique to HCI, and (iii) to expand the approaches that design-oriented HCI may productively and creatively draw upon.
In session: Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - May 5, 2012, 09:00
 
Simple, Sustainable Living - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: Are complex lifestyles unsustainable? Do they contribute to environmental unsustainability? Should HCI design technologies that support simple living for human and environmental sustainability? This workshop discusses these questions.
Abstract » The goal of this workshop is to better understand how to design for simpler lifestyles as part of a more holistic understanding of what it means to be sustainable. This goal takes us beyond what has been previously emphasized in sustainable HCI or at the confines of environmental sustainability. Instead, we discuss the possibilities of an alternative framing of technologies, economies, cultural norms, social mechanisms, and everyday practices that may be needed for simple, sustainable living. We posit that achieving simple, sustainable living may be a matter of thoughtfully embracing positive complexity and avoiding negative complexity. These require careful decisions about design, choice, and use of technology, as well as taking a broader perspective on sustainability.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Course 22: Advanced Research & Design for Sustainability - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will provide an advanced treatment of the domain of Sustainable HCI. Prior knowledge of the field is required, or attendance of the related CHI course ‘Introduction to … Sustainability’.
Abstract » Research and Design for Sustainability is increasingly recognized as an essential focus for the CHI community, but the topic presents unique challenges in its definition, its concrete impact on User Experience as a discipline and field of research, and its tactical implementation in day-to-day practitioners’ work.

In this advanced course, we will briefly recap the key learnings of the related CHI course ‘Introduction to Research and Design for Sustainability’, and will then focus on helping participants internalize and solidify those learnings in studio-style exercises, in which we introduce well- scoped case study problems to the participants to apply specific sustainability research and design frameworks, methods, and approaches.

This course targets researchers as well as practitioners alike, who are currently working in, or are interested in the field of Research and Design for Sustainability. Even though the course will touch on industrial/product design for sustainability, its main focus will be on software products and holistic experiences.

Experienced researchers or professionals are welcome to participate in this course, as are those having attended the related ‘Introduction to Research and Design for Sustainability’.

Both instructors have been involved in Sustainable Research and Design for a number of years, one in a research and educational setting (at Indiana University - Bloomington), the other in a corporate R&D environment (most recently at Samsung Research). Eli Blevis leads the Sustainable Interaction Design research group at Indiana. Daniela Busse has been working on various Sustainability projects since 2006 (e.g. on Energy Management, Carbon Labeling, Business Design for Sustainability). Both have co-authored several CHI panels, workshops and a SIG on sustainable HCI, were invited speakers at the National Science Foundation Workshop for an HCI & Sustainability research agenda in 2010, and are recognized as leading figures in Sustainable HCI.
 
Course 6: Introduction to Research and Design for Sustainability - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will give an introduction to the domain of Sustainable HCI. We will both discuss existing findings and approaches as well as open questions and future research needs.
Abstract » Research and Design for Sustainability is increasingly recognized as an essential focus for the CHI community, but the topic presents unique challenges in its definition, its concrete impact on User Experience as a discipline and field of research, and its tactical implementation in day-to-day practitioners’ work. In this Introduction, we will give an in-depth introduction to the domain of User Experience/HCI Research and Design for Sustainability. We will both discuss existing findings and approaches, as well as many of the intellectually fascinating open questions of this topic; we will also focus on practical strategies that practitioners can use to address them.

This course targets researchers as well as practitioners alike, who are currently working in, or are interested in the field of Research and Design for Sustainability. Even though the course will touch on industrial/product design for sustainability, its main focus will be on software products and holistic experiences. For this Introduction course, no prior experience in researching or designing for sustainability is necessary. Experienced researchers or professionals are welcome to participate in this course as a refresher to the current state of the art in the topic.

Both instructors have been involved in Sustainable Research and Design for a number of years, one in a research and educational setting (at Indiana University - Bloomington), the other in a corporate R&D environment (most recently at Samsung Research). Eli Blevis leads the Sustainable Interaction Design research group at Indiana. Daniela Busse has been working on various Sustainability projects since 2006 (e.g. on Energy Management, Carbon Labeling, Business Design for Sustainability). Both have co-authored several CHI panels, workshops and a SIG on sustainable HCI, were invited speakers at the National Science Foundation Workshop for an HCI & Sustainability research agenda in 2010, and are recognized as leading figures in Sustainable HCI.
 
Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
Abstract » The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
In session: Social Sustainability: An HCI Agenda - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Of BATs and APEs: An Interactive Tabletop Game for Natural History Museums - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes user experiences with a tabletop game on evolution at a natural history museum. Can help designers approach evaluation of interactive surfaces in museums. Presents qualitative results on visitor engagement.
Abstract » In this paper we describe visitor interaction with an interactive tabletop exhibit on evolution that we designed for use in natural history museums. We video recorded 30 families using the exhibit at the Harvard Museum of Natural History. We also observed an additional 50 social groups interacting with the exhibit without video recording. The goal of this research is to explore ways to develop "successful" interactive tabletop exhibits for museums. To determine criteria for success in this context, we borrow the concept of Active Prolonged Engagement (APE) from the science museum literature. Research on APE sets a high standard for visitor engagement and learning, and it offers a number of useful concepts and measures for research on interactive surfaces in the wild. In this paper we adapt and expand on these measures and apply them to our tabletop exhibit. Our results show that visitor groups collaborated effectively and engaged in focused, on-topic discussion for prolonged periods of time. To understand these results, we analyze visitor conversation at the exhibit. Our analysis suggests that social practices of game play contributed substantially to visitor collaboration and engagement with the exhibit.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
The Urban Musical Game: Using Sport Balls as Musical Interfaces - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Dribble, throw and spin the ball to play music. These are real life digital games
Abstract » We present Urban Musical Game, an installation using augmented sports balls to manipulate and transform an interactive music environment. The interaction is based on playing techniques, a concept borrowed from traditional music instruments and applied here to non musical objects.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Problems of Data Mobility and Reuse in the Provision of Computer-based Training for Screening Mammography - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the problems encountered reusing clinical data to deliver training in breast cancer screening. Details how data curation processes and tools can be better designed to improve data reuse.
Abstract » This paper explores some of the problems encountered in using a data archive to build tools for training radiologists to interpret breast screening images. We detail our experiences of taking images and case notes created as part of the work of breast cancer screening and using them as resources for training. Four instances of the use of the archive in training are described in detail and the problems they reveal are discussed. We formulate some general lessons for the mobility and re-use of rich ensembles of data and artefacts drawn from complex professional settings. We argue for a richer representation of the context from which the data was taken than can be achieved through making selected relations explicit in metadata. We also conclude that facilities for correcting and elaborating data should be available at the point of use, and not separated out as distinct activities.
ACM
In session: Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients First - May 8, 2012, 09:30
 
Viewpoint: Empowering Communities with Situated Voting Devices - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a public voting device designed to help empower communities and inform decision making. Experiences from deploying this device are presented as guidelines for community voting technologies.
Abstract » Viewpoint is a public voting device developed to allow residents in a disadvantaged community to make their voices heard through a simple, lightweight interaction. This was intended to open a new channel of communication within the community and increase community members' perception of their own efficacy. Local elected officials and community groups were able to post questions on devices located in public spaces, where residents could vote for one of two responses. Question authors were subsequently required to post a response indicating any actions to be taken. Following a two-month trial, we present our experiences and contribute guidelines for the design of public democracy tools and dimensions impacting their effectiveness, including credibility, efficacy and format.
ACM
In session: Publics and Civic Virtues - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Postboard: free-form tangible messaging for people with aphasia (and other people) - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we report the design of a communication system for people with aphasia. It consists of pairs of physical whiteboards that are connected over the internet. This allows users to combine any personal language skills with visuals and already existing materials at hand. The design has been based on feedback and evaluation sessions with aphasics and their therapists. The user test results show that the design provides a low entry barrier and enables relaxed conversations.
 
Qualitative Research in HCI - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: For academics in HCI who practice qualitative evaluation and want to understand the use of participatory practices in ethnography; share experiences doing fieldwork.
Abstract » This workshop is targeted towards academics in HCI who practice qualitative evaluation methods. In particular we hope to understand the use of participatory practices in ethnography, as well as, share experiences doing fieldwork. This is especially important as community members from different social science backgrounds and countries often receive dissimilar training and have few opportunities to discuss fieldwork practice. Beyond this we wish to examine issues raised by workshop participants as key challenges to their qualitative research.
In session: Simple, Sustainable Living - May 6, 2012, 09:00
 
Questionable Concepts: Critique as Resource for Designing with Eighty Somethings - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an exploration of critique as a participatory design method with groups of people aged over 80. Explains how critique is useful for identifying problems and iterating new ideas.
Abstract » This paper reports findings from a series of participatory design workshops with ten people over eighty years old. The focus of the workshops was new banking technologies for the older old. Participants were asked to discuss their current experiences of banking and given packs of concept cards which contained design sketches and brief outlines of concepts for new financial services. The designs on the cards were deliberately provocative and aimed to encourage criticism and debate. Participants wrote and drew on the cards and the workshops were recorded and transcribed. The participants were extremely critical of current banking practices and most of the new concepts we presented to them. Their questions and comments led to a number of insights and further iterations. The paper argues that critique is an essential resource for design, both in terms of identifying problems and iterating ideas.
ACM
In session: Participatory Design with Older People - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
'Watts in it for me?': Design Implications for Implementing Effective Energy Interventions in Organisations - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a Grounded Theory analysis of a series of organisational energy workshops focused on employee perceptions and use of energy in the workplace. Presents design insights for technology-enabled energy interventions.
Abstract » The design of technological interventions to motivate behaviour-based reductions in end-user energy consumption has recently been identified as a priority for the HCI community. Previous interventions have produced promising results, but have typically focused on domestic energy consumption. By contrast, this paper focuses on the workplace context, which presents very different opportunities and challenges. For instance, financial consequences, which have proved successful as motivations in the domestic environment, are not present in the workplace in the context of employees. We describe the outcome of a sequence of workshops that focussed on understanding employee perceptions of energy use in the workplace, with the locus of activity on energy intervention design. Using a grounded theory analysis, we produced a framework of key themes detailing user perceptions and energy intervention design considerations. Our findings provide a framework of considerations for the design of successful workplace energy interventions.
ACM
In session: Defying Environmental Behavior Changes - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Cheque Mates: Participatory Design of Digital Payments with Eighty Somethings - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the participatory design of two paper-based digital payment systems with groups of people aged over 80. Provides guidance for researchers and practitioners collaborating with extraordinary user groups.
Abstract » This paper describes a project exploring the design of digital payment services in collaboration with 16 people aged over 80. Many older people find cheques valuable as a means of payment but the UK Payments Council recently proposed their abolition. We describe two designs that simultaneously aimed to preserve and augment the paper cheque as a means of making electronic payments. These were devised during participatory design workshops through critical dialogues with our eighty something participants. Workshop discussions resulted in the creation of a real world cheque system where we issued pre-paid cheques without the involvement of banks. This work informed the development of a digital cheque book based on Anoto digital pen technology. The work illustrates the value of participatory design with �extraordinary� users, such as the eighty somethings, in HCI.
ACM
In session: Participatory Design with Older People - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Augmenting Spatial Skills with Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Shows efficiency of mental rotation over touch or tilt techniques on smartphones and tablet PCs. Describes implications for designing mobile applications to enhance spatial skills.
Abstract » Mobile devices are increasingly providing novel ways for users to engage with the spaces around them. However, there are few systematic studies of enhancing spatial ability with mobile devices, and applications such as turn-by-turn navigation systems have even been associated with a decline in spatial skills. In this paper we present a study based on the 1971 Shepard-Metzler mental rotation test but performed on a mobile-phone handset and a tablet PC. Our study extends the original experiment with the incorporation of touch and tilt interaction techniques, in order to determine if these affect the use and acquisition of spatial skills. Results suggest that the task is performed faster, and with no significant difference in accuracy, when participants rely on mental abilities rather than interaction techniques to perform 3D rotations. We also find significant differences between tablet and phone handset platforms under interactive conditions. We conclude that applications on mobile devices could be designed to enhance rather than erode spatial skills, by supporting the use of imagination to align real and virtual content.
ACM
In session: Mobile Computing and Interaction - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Supporting the Social Context of Technology Appropriation: On a Synthesis of Sharing Tools and Tool Knowledge - Paper
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce a holistic appropriation support approach, using Eclipse as an example. We address especially the entanglement of social aspects (learning, trust) and technical aspects (tailoring, configuring, installing) of appropriation.
Abstract » There is an increasing spread of flexible software applica-tions that can be modified by adding components (some-times called plug-ins or add-ons). A popular example in the software development domain is Eclipse, a flexible devel-opment environment that can be extended with literally thousands of different plug-ins. However, searching, in-stalling and configuring new plug-ins requires complex overhead work that is only weakly addressed by existing support mechanisms. Recent research has highlighted the related practices of learning about new plug-ins and tailor-ing software tools as being highly cooperative, situated, socially embedded, and often connected to particular work situations. Based on an empirical study in small software enterprises, we develop an understanding of appropriation as a social and collaborative activity. We then suggest de-sign principles for appropriation support that are grounded in the practices we have found in the field, and present a prototypical implementation of the concept that extends existing mechanisms of sharing tools and tool-knowledge.
ACM
In session: Better Together - May 10, 2012, 11:30
 
Reactive Information Foraging: An Empirical Investigation of Theory-Based Recommender Systems for Programmers - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically investigates how programmers behave with different recommender systems based on Reactive Information Foraging Theory. Can assist tool builders in how to design recommender systems for programmers.
Abstract » Information Foraging Theory (IFT) has established itself as an important theory to explain how people seek information, but most work has focused more on the theory itself than on how best to apply it. In this paper, we investigate how to apply a reactive variant of IFT (Reactive IFT) to design IFT-based tools, with a special focus on such tools for ill-structured problems. Toward this end, we designed and implemented a variety of recommender algorithms to empirically investigate how to help people with the ill-structured problem of finding where to look for information while debugging source code. We varied the algorithms based on scent type supported (words alone vs. words + code structure), and based on use of foraging momentum to estimate rapidity of foragers' goal changes. Our empirical results showed that (1) using both words and code structure significantly improved the ability of the algorithms to recommend where software developers should look for information; (2) participants used recommendations to discover new places in the code and also as shortcuts to navigate to known places; and (3) low-momentum recommendations were significantly more useful than high-momentum recommendations, suggesting rapid and numerous goal changes in this type of setting. Overall, our contributions include two new recommendation algorithms, empirical evidence about when and why participants found IFT-based recommendations useful, and implications for the design of tools based on Reactive IFT.
ACM
In session: Needle in the Haystack - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Designing a Debugging Interaction Language for Cognitive Modelers: An Initial Case Study in Natural Programming Plus - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates how a debugging environment should support cognitive modelers. Suggests design implications as well as validation opportunities for interactive programming tools and languages.
Abstract » In this paper, we investigate how a debugging environment should support a population doing work at the core of HCI research: cognitive modelers. In conducting this investigation, we extended the Natural Programming methodology (a user-centered design method for HCI researchers of programming environments), to add an explicit method for mapping the outcomes of NP's empirical investigations to a language design. This provided us with a concrete way to make the design leap from empirical assessment of users' needs to a language. The contributions of our work are therefore: (1) empirical evidence about the content and sequence of cognitive modelers' information needs when debugging, (2) a new, empirically derived, design specification for a debugging interaction language for cognitive modelers, and (3) an initial case study of our "Natural Programming Plus" methodology.
ACM
In session: Programming, Performance, and Sense Making - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
EVERT - Energy Representations for Probing Electric Vehicle Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » Energy and design of energy-feedback are becoming increasingly important in the HCI community. Our application area concerns electric vehicles, we thus depart from home and workplace appliances and address range and energy anxiety caused by short driving distance capabilities and long charging times in mobile settings. We explore this topic by letting conventional fuel car drivers reflect on their current driving habits through an exploration tool that we use as a technology probe. Our preliminary results demonstrate the educational values of the energy representations in the tool, and we also identify a design tension for map-related energy representations.
 
Aural Browsing On-The-Go: Listening-based Back Navigation in Large Web Architectures - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Listening to a mobile site while on-the-go can be challenging. This paper introduces and evaluates topic- and list-based back, two strategies to enhance mobile navigation while aurally browsing the web.
Abstract » Mobile web navigation requires highly-focused visual attention, which poses problems when it is inconvenient or distracting to continuously look at the screen (e.g., while walking). Aural interfaces support more eyes-free experiences, as users can primarily listen to the content and occasionally look at the device. Yet, designing aural information architectures remains a challenge. Specifically, back navigation is inefficient in the aural setting, as it forces users to listen to each previous page to retrieve the desired content. This paper introduces topic- and list-based back: two navigation strategies to enhance aural browsing. Both are manifest in Green-Savers Mobile (GSM), an aural mobile site. A study (N=29) compared both solutions to traditional back mechanisms. Our findings indicate that topic- and list-based back enable faster access to previous pages, improve the navigation experience and reduce perceived cognitive load. The proposed designs apply to a wide range of content-intensive, ubiquitous web systems.
ACM
 
DigitShadow: Facilitating Awareness of Home Surroundings - Works In Progress
Abstract » DigitShadow is a novel information affordance aimed at enhancing the awareness of home surroundings. It aggregates local online information and events happening in the neighborhood, and communicates them to the inhabitants by supporting both peripheral and focused attention. DigitShadow casts the digital “shadow” of online information to the ambient level, and then facilitates the transition to attentive and interactive level to provide detail information. We illustrate the design process of DigitShadow, including the contextual interviews, the data analysis and findings from a cognitive perspective, the conceptual design framework, and the preliminary prototyping.
 
PocketNavigator: Studying Tactile Navigation Systems In-Situ - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Provides evidence from a study of a pedestrian navigation system published on the Android Market which shows that vibro-tactile navigation instructions can reduce the traveler's level of distraction.
Abstract » In this paper, we report about a large-scale in-situ study of tactile feedback for pedestrian navigation systems. Recent advances in smartphone technology have enabled a number of interaction techniques for smartphone that use tactile feedback to deliver navigation information. The aim is to enable eyes-free usage and avoid distracting the user from the environment. Field studies where participants had to fulfill given navigation tasks, have found these techniques to be efficient and beneficial in terms of distraction. But it is not yet clear whether these findings will replicate in in-situ usage. We, therefore, developed a Google Maps-like navigation application that incorporates interaction techniques proposed in previous work. The application was published for free on the Android Market and so people were able to use it as a navigation system in their everyday life. The data collected through anonymous monitoring suggests that tactile feedback is successfully adopted in one third of all trips and has positive effects on the user's level of distraction.
ACM
In session: Use the Force - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
Observational and Experimental Investigation of Typing Behaviour using Virtual Keyboards for Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Observed the typing behaviour of a large number of smartphone users using a mobile game and conducted a large-scale experiment that shows how to improve users' typing performance without costs.
Abstract » With the rise of current smartphones, virtual keyboards for touchscreens became the dominant mobile text entry technique. We developed a typing game that records how users touch on the standard Android keyboard to investigate users' typing behaviour. 47,770,625 keystrokes from 72,945 installations have been collected by publishing the game. By visualizing the touch distribution we identified a systematic skew and derived a function that compensates this skew by shifting touch events. By updating the game we conduct an experiment that investigates the effect of shifting touch events, changing the keys' labels, and visualizing the touched position. Results based on 6,603,659 keystrokes and 13,013 installations show that visualizing the touched positions using a simple dot decreases the error rate of the Android keyboard by 18.3% but also decreases the speed by 5.2% with no positive effect on learnability. The Android keyboard outperforms the control condition but the constructed shift function further improves the performance by 2.2% and decreases the error rate by 9.1%. We argue that the shift function can improve existing keyboards at no costs.
ACM
In session: Touch Text Entry - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Drawing Shapes and Lines: Spawning Objects on Interactive Tabletops - Works In Progress
Abstract » In tabletop computing it is crucial to instantiate objects, such as documents or virtual containers, in an ergonomically convenient way for users. Particularly, objects need to be positioned within reach of users, need to be orientated properly, and need to be scaled appropriately for convenient interaction by touch. As the user’s location at the device is usually unknown to the system, objects are typically spawned at a default position and with a default orientation and size in tabletop user interfaces. Thus, users typically need to manipulate objects after instantiation until they are properly aligned and scaled, which can be a cumbersome and time-consuming process. We designed two gesture-based interaction techniques to instantiate objects with a convenient orientation, size, and position, making further adjustments to these properties unnecessary. We describe the functionality of both techniques and discuss insights gathered during initial evaluations.
 
Spatial Awareness and Intelligibility for the Blind: Audio-Touch Interfaces. - Works In Progress
Abstract » Many people with visual disabilities mainly use audio feedback as a primary modality for interaction. Representing the visual environment with appropriate sounds contributes to make it intelligible to the blind. This audio-encoded environment still needs to be accessed in the same way as sighted people scan visual contents with their gaze. A finger-based scanning could be seen as a gaze-like strategy for those with visual impairments to be able of sensing an audio-represented context. We present in this work a computational interface that meets both, the visual-audio codification and the multi-touch interaction, so as to enlarge legibility of the environment for the blind and to facilitate navigating to desired locations, exploration, and serendipitous discovery. The core of this interface is the color and depth codification into musical instruments sounds, which effectively provides spatial awareness, audio revealing of boundaries and obstacles detection. The main contribution of our work is the assistance provided by this interface toward an active interaction of the user with his fingers that makes it possible to selectively explore, to discover points of interest, develop personalized strategies for navigating, and, in general, enjoy a greater sense of independence.
 
BodiPod: Interacting with 3D Human Anatomy via a 360° Cylindrical Display - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: BodiPod is a cylindrical display that features stereoscopic browsing of a 3D human anatomy model preserving full 360 degree motion parallax, allowing users to walk around the model.
Abstract » We present BodiPod, a 3D 360 degree stereoscopic human anatomy browser. Our cylindrical display allows users to view a human anatomy volume at full scale from any perspective. Shutter glasses are only required if users want to examine the data stereoscopically. Users can change views simply by walking around the display volume, and interact with the human anatomy model inside the display through gesture and speech interactions, which include scaling, rotation, peeling, slicing and labeling. Our demonstration shows that using a cylindrical display has the benefits of providing stereoscopic rendering of human anatomy models at life-size scale that can be examined from any angle, while allowing interactions from an appropriate viewing distance.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
TeleHuman: Effects of 3D Perspective on Gaze and Pose Estimation with a Life-size Cylindrical Telepresence Pod - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Demonstrates a system for conveying 3D video conferencing using a cylindrical display. Provides user studies investigating effects of motion parallax and stereoscopy.
Abstract » In this paper, we present TeleHuman, a cylindrical 3D display portal for life-size human telepresence. The TeleHuman 3D videoconferencing system supports 360 degree motion parallax as the viewer moves around the cylinder and optionally, stereoscopic 3D display of the remote person. We evaluated the effect of perspective cues on the conveyance of nonverbal cues in two experiments using a one-way telecommunication version of the system. The first experiment focused on how well the system preserves gaze and hand pointing cues. The second experiment evaluated how well the system conveys 3D body postural information. We compared 3 perspective conditions: a conventional 2D view, a 2D view with 360 degree motion parallax, and a stereoscopic view with 360 degree motion parallax. Results suggest the combined presence of motion parallax and stereoscopic cues significantly improved the accuracy with which participants were able to assess gaze and hand pointing cues, and to instruct others on 3D body poses. The inclusion of motion parallax and stereoscopic cues also led to significant increases in the sense of social presence and telepresence reported by participants.
ACM
In session: Interactions Beyond the Desktop - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
TeleHuman: Effects of 3D Perspective on Gaze and Pose Estimation with a Life-size Cylindrical Telepresence Pod - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Embedded interaction in a Water Fountain for Motivating Behavior Change in Public Space - Note
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an augmented water fountain with audiovisual feedback aimed at improving and motivating the water-drinking experience. Shows an inspiring way of conducting long-term in-the-wild studies that affect users and public space.
Abstract » This paper presents an interactive installation for a public space aimed at motivating new behaviors by augmenting the space with subtle and playful audiovisual interaction aesthetically integrated in a shared environment. Designed to complement an existing water fountain with projected light and sound, the embedded installation encouraged people to take a drink, increasing the proportion of people who used the water fountain by 42% to 57% approximately for nine months. Sensors evaluated the impact of multiple interaction modalities on actual water usage. We found that subtle interaction can improve the experience of a space, in particular for those that use it frequently, and lead to sustained behavior change, especially when its modalities are responsive to the level of activity in the space.
ACM
In session: Sustainability and Behavior Change - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Hanging off a Bar - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: Hanging off a Bar is a game where the player hangs over a digital river and jumps on rafts. This game enables investigations into how game elements promote increased exertion.
Abstract » Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with audiences ranging from the general public to expert game designers suggest that Hanging off a Bar can be engaging for players and facilitate intense exertion within seconds. Furthermore, we collected suggestions for what game elements players believe could entice them to increase their physical effort investment. These suggestions, combined with Hanging off a Bar as research vehicle due to the easy measurement of exertion through hanging time, enable future explorations into the relationship between digital game elements and physical exertion, guiding designers on how to support exertion in digital games.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Activity-Based Interaction: Designing with Child Life Specialists in a Children's Hospital - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a framework for analyzing mediating activities, especially between children and adults. Can assist understanding of relationship between technical system characteristics, actors and observed collaborative versus co-present interactions.
Abstract » Child Life Specialists (CLS's) are medical professionals who use activities to educate, comfort, entertain and distract children in hospitals. Adapting to a shifting cast of children, context and mediating activities requires CLS's to be experts at a kind of articulation work. This expertise means CLS's are well equipped to help technologists introduce child-facing interventions to the hospital. We conducted participatory design activities with 9 CLS's to develop two mobile systems to explore how CLS-child interactions are shaped by activities. We observed 18 child-CLS pairs using these systems in a hospital setting. By analyzing these encounters, we describe a continuum for classifying activities as either Co-Present or Collaborative. We then introduce a framework, Activity-Based Interaction, to describe structural components of activities that impact their position on this continuum. These concepts suggest new approaches to designing mediating technologies for adults and children.
ACM
In session: Health + Design - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Designing Alternate Reality Games - Doctoral Consortium
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes case study to investigate Alternate Reality Games as participatory design spaces and vehicles for scaffolding learning. Of potential interest to educators and designers of similar immersive learning environments.
Abstract » An Alternate Reality Game (ARG) is a form of transmedia storytelling, with narrative elements that are distributed across multiple communications platforms, ranging from print materials to mobile devices. ARGs also represent a new genre of transmedia practice where players collaboratively hunt for clues, make sense of disparate information, and solve puzzles to advance an ever-evolving storyline. While players participate in an ARG using everyday communications tools, such as phones and web sites, the interaction design challenges are not an "everyday" process. Designers must create and connect story bits across multiple media (video, audio, text) and multiple platforms (phones, computers, physical spaces). Further, they must engage and connect with players of varying skill levels. Few studies have explored the design process of education-based ARGs, or their relationship to participatory design. This research systematically investigates the design and play of ARGs as participatory design spaces and vehicles for scaffolding information literacy practices.
 
Game Design for Promoting Counterfactual Thinking - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a formative typology of counterfactual design patterns that can help designers, educators, and players locate interesting fault lines in reality that facilitate the expansion of ARG mythologies.
Abstract » We describe the first iteration of an Alternate Reality Game (ARG) designed to lead players into a newly enfranchised relationship with history and engage them in scientific thinking and information literacy practices. We found that the points at which the game's mythology blurred the lines between fact and fiction prompted middle school students to move beyond rote memorization of content. Instead, they began to question, analyze, and make hypotheses about the data presented. However, striking a meaningful balance between "true" history and imagined events poses new design challenges. We present a formative typology of counterfactual design patterns that can help designers, educators, and players locate interesting fault lines in reality that facilitate the expansion of ARG mythologies.
ACM
In session: Teaching with Games - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
The Impact of Three Interfaces for 360-Degree Video on Spatial Cognition - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Experiment compares three 2D displays of 360-degree video in terms of egocentric and exocentric spatial cognition. Results may assist designers of surveillance, teleoperation, or 3D gaming systems.
Abstract » In this paper, we describe an experiment designed to evaluate the effectiveness of three interfaces for surveillance or remote control using live 360-degree video feeds from a person or vehicle in the field. Video feeds are simulated using a game engine. While locating targets within a 3D terrain using a 2D 360-degree interface, participants indicated perceived egocentric directions to targets and later placed targets on an overhead view of the terrain. Interfaces were compared based on target finding and map placement performance. Results suggest 1) non-seamless interfaces with visual boundaries facilitate spatial understanding, 2) correct perception of self-to-object relationships is not correlated with understanding object-to-object relationships within the environment, and 3) increased video game experience corresponds with better spatial understanding of an environment observed in 360-degrees. This work can assist researchers of panoramic video systems in evaluating the optimal interface for observation and teleoperation of remote systems.
ACM
In session: Right Where I Am: UX in Complex Environments - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
DiskPlay: In-Track Navigation on Turntables - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Design and initial evaluation of an augmented reality system for DJs. It shows how AR can be used to recreate individual features of a medium on a generic controller.
Abstract » Although digital media playback and storage have several advantages, many DJs still prefer using vinyl records on turntables due to their direct manipulation and haptic qualities.
The physical structure of a traditional vinyl record provides important cues for in-track navigation, such as track length or location of loud and soft passages.
Digital vinyl systems use a timecode record to combine the advantages of digital playback with the handling DJs are used to.
These records contain a special audio signal that is processed by a computer and mapped to information such as playback speed, direction, and absolute position in a track.
However, due to their generic nature, timecode records cannot provide visual information to navigate inside individual tracks.
Using top-projection, DiskPlay augments a white timecode record with individual visual cues of the medium, such as cue points or track start and end.
In our observational study with four professional DJs, participants valued the co-location of visual feedback with the control vinyl on the turntable.
ACM
In session: Music - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
Understanding Flicking on Curved Surfaces - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates flicking gestures on curved interactive surfaces. It provides a mathematical model to estimate the error users will make when flicking across a curve.
Abstract » Flicking is a common interaction technique to move objects across large interactive surfaces, but little is known about its suitability for use on non-planar, curved surfaces.Flicking consists of two stages: First, visually determining the direction in which to flick the object, then planning and executing the corresponding gesture. Errors in both stages could influence flicking accuracy. We investigated flicking interactions on curved interactive surface to evaluate which type of error influences accuracy. Therefore, we carried out three user studies to analyze how each stage of flicking on a curved surface is influenced. Our main findings are: 1) Flicking gestures are more accurate if horizontal and vertical surface are joined by a continuous curve than if they are separated by an edge or gap. 2) Flicking gestures on curved surfaces are mostly influenced by the motor execution stage of the gesture rather than the visual perception stage. 3) Flicking accuracy decreases as the starting point of the gesture is moved closer to the curve. 4) We conclude with a first mathematical model to estimate the error users will make when flicking across a curve.
ACM
 
DiskPlay: In-Track Navigation on Turntables - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Fly: Studying Recall, Macrostructure Understanding, and User Experience of Canvas Presentations - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a user study to investigate the effect of the canvas presentation format on recall, macrostructure understanding, and user experience.
Abstract » Most presentation software uses the slide deck metaphor to create visual presentation support. Recently, canvas presentation tools such as Fly or Prezi have begun to use a zoomable free-form canvas to arrange information instead. While their effect on authoring presentations has been evaluated previously, we studied how they impact the audience. In a quantitative study, we compared audience retention and macrostructure understanding of slide deck vs. canvas presentations. We found both approaches to be equally capable of communicating information to the audience. Canvas presentations, however, were rated by participants to better aid them in staying oriented during a talk. This makes canvas presentation tools a promising slideware alternative.
ACM
In session: Space: The Interaction Frontier - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
DragLocks: Handling Temporal Ambiguities in Direct Manipulation Video Navigation - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses possible interaction breakdowns in direct manipulation video navigation systems in the presence of objects pausing in the video. Presents and evaluates two solutions that modify the trajectory geometry.
Abstract » Direct manipulation video navigation (DMVN) systems allow to navigate inside video scenes by spatially manipulating objects in the video. Problems arise when dealing with temporal ambiguities where a time span is projected onto a single point in image space, e.g., when objects stop moving. Existing DMVN systems deal with these cases by either disabling navigation on the paused object or by allowing jumps in the timeline. Both of these workarounds are undesirable as they introduce inconsistency or provoke loss of context. We analyze current practices regarding temporal ambiguities and introduce two new methods to visualize and navigate object pauses. User tests show that the new approaches are better suited for navigation in scenes containing temporal ambiguities and are rated higher in terms of user satisfaction.
ACM
In session: Tools for Video + Images - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Blaze: Supporting Two-phased Call Graph Navigation in Source Code - Works In Progress
Abstract » Understanding source code is crucial for successful software maintenance. A particularly important activity to understand source code is navigating the call graph. Programmers have developed distinct strategies for effective call graph exploration. We introduce Blaze, a source code exploration tool tailored closely to these strategies. In a study, we compare Blaze to Stacksplorer, a tool that visualizes the immediate neighborhood of the current method in the call graph, to a tool resembling the standard Call Hierarchy view in the Eclipse IDE, and to an unmodified Xcode installation. The call graph exploration tools significantly increased success rates in typical software maintenance tasks, and using Stacksplorer or Blaze significantly reduced task completion times compared to using the Call Hierarchy or Xcode.
 
Canvas Presentations in the Wild - Short Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Examines evolving layout strategies in publicly available canvas presentations. Finds that the benefits of this format previously demonstrated in the lab setting can also be observed in real-life presentations.
Abstract » Most presentation software uses the slide deck metaphor to create visual presentation support. Recently, canvas presentation tools such as Fly or Prezi have instead begun to use a zoomable free-form canvas to arrange information. The effect of this change in format on the authoring process of presentations has been investigated previously in a formal lab study. We have now examined the evolving patterns of usage in publicly available canvas presentations and found that the benefits of this format that have been demonstrated in the lab setting also can be observed in real life presentations. This confirms the potential of canvas based tools to help authors improve the quality of their presentation visuals.
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
#EpicPlay: Selecting Video Highlights for Sporting Events using Twitter - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Explores differences between crowd-sourced (through Twitter) video highlights of broadcast sports compared to nightly sportscast highlight reels. Illustrates utility of separating home and away tweets.
Abstract » During a live sports event, many sports fans use social me-dia as a part of their viewing experience, reporting on their thoughts on the event as it unfolds. In this work, we use this information stream to semantically annotate live broadcast sports games, using these annotations to select video high-lights from the game. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to select highlights specific for fans of each team, and that these clips reflect the emotions of a fan dur-ing a game. Further, we describe how these clips differ from those seen on nightly sportscasts.
In session: Crowdsourcing and Peer Production I - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Virtual Projection: Exploring Optical Projection as a Metaphor for Multi-Device Interaction - Interactivity
ACM
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
Virtual Projection: Exploring Optical Projection as a Metaphor for Multi-Device Interaction - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the concept of virtualizing optical projections as a metaphor for interacting between handhelds and stationary displays. We present characteristics, implementation and evaluation of such virtual projections.
Abstract » Handheld optical projectors provide a simple way to over-come the limited screen real-estate on mobile devices. We present virtual projection (VP), an interaction metaphor inspired by how we intuitively control the position, size, and orientation of a handheld optical projector�s image. VP is based on tracking a handheld device without an optical projector and allows selecting a target display on which to position, scale, and orient an item in a single gesture. By relaxing the optical projection metaphor, we can deviate from modeling perspective projection, for example, to con-strain scale or orientation, create multiple copies, or offset the image. VP also supports dynamic filtering based on the projection frustum, creating overview and detail applications, and selecting portions of a larger display for zooming and panning. We show exemplary use cases implemented using our optical feature-tracking framework and present the results of a user study demonstrating the effectiveness of VP in complex interactions with large displays.
ACM
In session: Outside the Box - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Introducing the Ambivalent Socialiser - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes four approaches to introduce sociality to people who are simultaneously keen but also reluctant to participate in social media. Can assist designers of persuasive technology to utilise social influence.
Abstract » Social interaction can be a powerful strategy for persuasive technology interventions, yet many users are reluctant to engage with others online because they fear pressure, failure and shame. We introduce the �ambivalent socialiser�, a person who is simultaneously keen but also reluctant to engage with others via social media. Our contribution is to identify four approaches to introducing sociality to ambivalent socialisers: structured socialising, incidental socialising, eavesdropping and trace sensing. We discuss the rationale for these approaches and show how they address recent critiques of persuasive technology. Furthermore, we provide actionable insights for designers of persuasive technology by showing how these approaches can be implemented in a social media application.
ACM
In session: Understanding Online Communication - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Next Steps for Value Sensitive Design - Paper
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: An essay presenting four suggestions for next steps for the evolution of Value Sensitive Design. Addresses issues that we argue have inhibited the more widespread adoption and appropriation of VSD.
Abstract » Questions of human values often arise in HCI research and practice. Such questions can be difficult to address well, and a principled approach can clarify issues of both theory and practice. One such approach is Value Sensitive Design (VSD), an established theory and method for addressing issues of values in a systematic and principled fashion in the design of information technology. In this essay, we suggest however that the theory and at times the presentation of VSD overclaims in a number of key respects, with the result of inhibiting its more widespread adoption and appropriation. We address these issues by suggesting four topics for next steps in the evolution of VSD: (1) tempering VSD�s position on universal values; (2) contextualizing existing and future lists of values that are presented as heuristics for consideration; (3) strengthening the voice of the participants in publications describing VSD investigations; and (4) making clearer the voice of the researchers. We propose new or altered approaches for VSD that address these issues of theory, voice, and reportage.
ACM
In session: Values in Research Practice - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Is This What You Meant? Promoting Listening on the Web with Reflect - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Observes that listening is under-supported in web interfaces, explores the consequences, and contributes a novel design illustrating listening support. Field deployment on Slashdot establishes potential of this design direction.
Abstract » A lack of support for active listening undermines discussion and deliberation on the web. We contribute a design frame identifying potential improvements to web discussion were listening more explicitly encouraged in interfaces. We explore these concepts through a novel interface, Reflect, that creates a space next to every comment where others can summarize the points they hear the commenter making. Deployments on Slashdot, Wikimedia's Strategic Planning Initiative, and a local civic effort suggest that interfaces for listening may have traction for general use on the web.
ACM
In session: Crowdsourcing and Peer Production I - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
Cross-Cutting Faultlines of Location and Shared Identity in the Intergroup Cooperation of Partially Distributed Groups - Paper
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: Presents results of a study examining the influence of location and shared identity in distributed work.
Abstract » This paper reports the results of a study comparing the relative influence of location and shared identity in partially distributed work. Using an experimental task called Shape Factory, groups of eight participants were configured such that in the baseline �strangers� condition only the location-based faultline was present while in the experimental �intergroup� condition, participants from two different shared identity groups engaged in distributed collaboration, creating an additional, cross-cutting faultline. The results showed that participants in the intergroup condition, with both location-based and shared identity faultlines, performed at a higher level than participants in the strangers condition, with only the location-based faultline. In the intergroup condition, the performance effects of location and shared identity were roughly equal and did not affect each other differentially in combination.
ACM
In session: Groups @ Work - May 10, 2012, 14:30
 
SOCIO-COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF INTEROPERABILITY: UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATIONS AMONG DIFFERENT AGENCIES - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: This research provides greater understanding of socio-cognitive aspects of interoperability in the context of public safety communications. The results directly benefit to elicit design requirements of new communication systems.
Abstract » Emergency Communication Systems (ECS) are a key element in collaborations among different public safety organizations. The need for interoperability in emergency communication systems has hastened the development of interoperable communication technology that is an enabling technology to automatically identify environmental variables including appropriate radio frequencies and to connect different networks used by different organizations. Even though the technology has been researched from many perspectives and has shown the possibility to connect different organizations, there still remain many issues in terms of socio-cognitive aspects. Thus, this study examines the socio-cognitive dimensions of interoperability, which equal the technical dimensions of the problem in importance. The existential-phenomenological study reported here used semi-structured interviews to reconceptualize interoperability in the public safety communication domain. Based on 11 interviews with public safety workers, five important factors were identified that have a major impact on the effectiveness of interoperable groups: information sharedness, operational awareness, communication readiness, adaptiveness, and coupledness. Based on these main concepts, high-level suggestions are provided to guide the design of a new public safety communication system. The results can be directly applied to identify the requirements of communication systems and can be extended to design collaboration systems under stressful environments.
In session: Organizing the Recovery - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
You've got video: Increasing clickthrough when sharing enterprise video with email - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We summarize our research on increasing the information scent of video recordings that are shared via email in a corporate setting. We report on the results of two user studies.
Abstract » In this Note we summarize our research on increasing the information scent of video recordings that are shared via email in a corporate setting. We compare two types of email messages for sharing recordings: the first containing basic information (e.g. title, speaker, abstract) with a link to the video; the second with the same information plus a set of video thumbnails (hyperlinked to the segments they represent), which are automatically created by video summarization technology. We report on the results of two user studies. The first one compares the quality of the set of thumbnails selected by the technology to sets selected by 31 humans. The second study examines the clickthrough rates for both email formats (with and without hyperlinked thumbnails) as well as gathering subjective feedback via survey. Results indicate that the email messages with the thumbnails drove significantly higher clickthrough rates than the messages without, even though people clicked on the main video link more frequently than the thumbnails. Survey responses show that users found the email with the thumbnail set significantly more appealing and novel.
ACM
In session: Workplace - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Home2Home: A “Lightweight” Gift-Giving Portal Between Homes - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: Home2Home is a lightweight, smartboard device that supports family communication between family members in different locations. We focus on the familiarity of notepads, “care packages,” and the emotive qualities of handwriting.
Abstract » As families become more dispersed within countries and around the world, the ability to maintain frequent and personalized communication becomes more challenging. Home2Home is a lightweight, smartboard device with ambient display that supports family communication practices with particular attention to the novice technology user. By leveraging the ease of a whiteboard and instant sharing, the familiarity of notepads and “care packages,” and the emotive qualities of handwriting and voice, Home2Home is an easy-to-learn technology that affords the major communication capacities of other software and devices, together in one place. In this paper, we describe the system and the user-centered design process employed to create it.
In session: Student Design Competition - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Socially Computed Scripts to Support Social Problem Solving Skills - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We describe an approach to using crowdsourcing to create models of complex social scenarios, and confirm that they may help an author create instructional modules for an individual with autism.
Abstract » The social world that most of us navigate effortlessly can prove to be a perplexing and disconcerting place for individuals with autism. Interactive tools to teach social skills that are personalized to the individual's needs show promise, but it is challenging to author them. We describe the design, development, and preliminary evaluation of an approach to using human computation that enables the creation of models of complex and interesting social scenarios, possible obstacles that may arise in those scenarios, and potential solutions to those obstacles. Our preliminary evaluation of the models confirms that these models have the potential to help an author create a social skills instructional module.
ACM
In session: Social Support and Collaboration - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
We Like to Move it Move it! Motivation and Parasocial Interaction - Works In Progress
Abstract » Researchers studying virtual coaching have identified a variety of characteristics associated with heightened motivation, but have not, to date, identified a mechanism underlying the success of particular coaches. This project tests two possible explanations for how coaches heighten motivation: the first is the straightforward explanation that coaching heightens self-efficacy, which in turn raises motivation; the second is the more novel idea that the quality of the pseudo-relationship between the virtual coach and the trainee is key to motivation. In an experiment comparing three systematically differing coaches, virtual coaches heightened both self-efficacy and parasocial interaction in some coaching conditions, but only parasocial interaction explained the patterns of results for intrinsic motivation. The findings have important theoretical implications for understanding the effects of parasocial interaction on health behaviors, with practical applications for the design of virtual coaches to improve health.
 
See Me, See You: A Lightweight Method for Discriminating User Touches on Tabletop Displays - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: See Me, See You is a lightweight method that uses finger orientation for distinguishing touches from multiple users on digital tabletops. Our detection method is accurate under complex conditions.
Abstract » Tabletop systems provide a versatile space for collaboration, yet, in many cases, are limited by the inability to differentiate the interactions of simultaneous users. We present See Me, See You, a lightweight approach for discriminating user touches on a vision-based tabletop. We contribute a valuable characterization of finger orientation distributions of tabletop users. We exploit this biometric trait with a machine learning approach to allow the system to predict the correct position of users as they touch the surface. We achieve accuracies as high as 98% in simple situations and above 92% in more challenging conditions, such as two-handed tasks. We show high acceptance from users, who can self-correct prediction errors without significant costs. See Me, See You is a viable solution for providing simple yet effective support for multi-user application features on tabletops.
ACM
In session: Triple T: Touch, Tables, Tablets - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Towards a Wearable Music System for Nomadic Musicians - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This concept video shows the design of a wearable system for musicians to record their ideas while being away from their instruments, using an interactive shirt and belt.
Abstract » This concept video shows the design of a wearable system for musicians to record their ideas while being away from their instruments, using an interactive shirt and belt.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Turtledove: A Tangible Grain Interface for Image Organization - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interfaces supporting bi-manual interaction offer great benefits. In recent years, a variety of multi-touch systems have even shown new possibilities for multi-finger input. However, multi-finger interactions do not always show better performance. We propose an interface consisting of a large amount of minimal tangible objects called tangible grains combined with a visual projection. The system is intended to add passive physical feedback to increase performance and improve the quality of the interface. In this paper we present the concept, the implementation and first small-scale user studies of a tangible grain interface for the organization and, especially, the sorting and tagging of images.
 
The Routines and Social Behaviours of Frequent mCommerce Shoppers - Works In Progress
Abstract » Recently, there has been widespread growth of mobile shopping and buying, termed mCommerce. With this comes a need to understand user’s routines and social behaviours in mCommerce activities so we can understand how to design for the mobile space. To address this, we conducted a diary and interview study with regular mobile device users to explore their mobile shopping activities. Our results describe a variety of usage patterns including spontaneous purchasing and routine shopping where people gravitate to their mobile device even if a computer is nearby.
 
Case Study: Longitudinal Comparative Analysis for Analyzing User Behavior - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a four-step process for eliciting and analyzing user behavior with products over an extended period of time
Abstract » In this case study we describe a four-step process for eliciting and analyzing user behavior with products over an extended period of time. We used this methodology for conducting a comparative study of two mobile applications over a period of seven months with 17 participants. To focus the discussion, we are concentrating on the methodology rather than the results of the study.
In session: Right Where I Am: UX in Complex Environments - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
MOSOCO: A Mobile Assistive Tool to Support Children with Autism Practicing Social Skills in Real-Life Situations - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Usability and usefulness study of socially assistive technologies outside classrooms. A mobile assistive tool that could be useful in designing and evaluating mobile assistive technologies for use in real-life situations.
Abstract » MOSOCO is a mobile assistive application that uses augmented reality and the visual supports of a validated curriculum, the Social Compass, to help children with autism practice social skills in real-life situations. In this paper, we present the results of a seven-week deployment study of MOSOCO in a public school in Southern California with both students with autism and neurotypical students. The results of our study demonstrate that MOSOCO facilitates practicing and learning social skills, increases both quantity and quality of social interactions, reduces social and behavioral missteps, and enables the integration of children with autism in social groups of neurotypical children. The findings from this study reveal emergent practices of the uses of mobile assistive technologies in real-life situations.
ACM
In session: Health and Children - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Vehicular Lifelogging: New Contexts and Methodologies for Human-Car Interaction - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Presents novel design for automotive lifelogging that engages drivers in ongoing discoveries about their vehicle. Offers innovative storytelling and theatrical strategies focusing on “character” and larger social context surrounding driving.
Abstract » This paper presents an automotive lifelogging system that uses in-car sensors to engage drivers in ongoing discoveries about their vehicle, driving environment, and social context throughout the lifecycle of their car. A goal of the design is to extend the typical contexts of automotive user-interface design by (1) looking inward to the imagined “character” of the car and (2) looking outward to the larger social context that surrounds driving. We deploy storytelling and theatrical strategies as a way of moving our thinking outside the familiar constraints of automotive design. These methods help us to extend the concept of a lifelog to consider the “lives” of objects and the relationship between humans and non-humans as fruitful areas of design research.
In session: alt.chi: Home and Neighborhood - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
SharryBot: A Mobile Agent for Facilitating Communication in a Neighborhood - Student Design Competition
Contribution & Benefit: A concept of a mobile agent ``SharryBot'' which can distribute gifts among the neighborhood and thereby connecting people in an effective way.
Abstract » In this work we present a possible solution to problems related to interaction between neighbors.
To explore the problem space we conducted interviews in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. Although our interviews showed that the participants are generally happy with their neighborhoods, there are still some barriers to overcome in personal communication between neighbors. These are mostly time related or because of overacted cautiousness. The interviews further showed that gift-giving often improves relationships and enables communication. These findings led to a couple of design ideas of which we chose the most promising to investigate further. Our final solution was a concept of a mobile agent ``SharryBot'' which can distribute gifts among the neighborhood and thereby connecting people in an effective way. The robot should not only make the neighbors known to each other but it should also improve face-to-face communication when neighbors communicate later.
In session: Student Design Competition - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Thin Slices of Interaction: Predicting Usersʼ Task Difficulty within 60 sec. - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This study shows that the users’ experienced task difficulty while interacting with a photocopier can be predicted from the automatic video coding of Activity and Emphasis of movement.
Abstract » We report on an exploratory study where the first 60 seconds of the video recording of a user interaction are used to predict the user’s experienced task difficulty. This approach builds on previous work on “thin slices” of human-human behavior, and applies it to human-computer interaction. In the scenario of interacting with a photocopy machine, automated video coding showed that the Activity and Emphasis predicted 46.6% of the variance of task difficulty. This result closely follows reported results on predicting negotiation outcomes from conversational dynamics using similar variables on the speech signal.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Thin Slices of Interaction: Predicting Usersʼ Task Difficulty within 60 sec. - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This study shows that the users’ experienced task difficulty while interacting with a photocopier can be predicted from the automatic video coding of Activity and Emphasis of movement.
Abstract » We report on an exploratory study where the first 60 seconds of the video recording of a user interaction are used to predict the user’s experienced task difficulty. This approach builds on previous work on “thin slices” of human-human behavior, and applies it to human-computer interaction. In the scenario of interacting with a photocopy machine, automated video coding showed that the Activity and Emphasis predicted 46.6% of the variance of task difficulty. This result closely follows reported results on predicting negotiation outcomes from conversational dynamics using similar variables on the speech signal.
In session: alt.chi: Making Sense - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Codelets: Linking Interactive Documentation and Example Code in the Editor - Paper
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Presents Codelets, which link interactive documentation with example code in code editors. Codelets allow third parties to write rich in-editor documentation.
Abstract » Programmers frequently use instructive code examples found on the Web to overcome cognitive barriers while programming. These examples couple the concrete functionality of code with rich contextual information about how the code works. However, using these examples necessitates understanding, configuring, and integrating the code, all of which typically take place after the example enters the user's code and has been removed from its original instructive context. In short, a user's interaction with an example continues well after the code is pasted. This paper investigates whether treating examples as "first-class" objects in the code editor - rather than simply as strings of text - will allow programmers to use examples more effectively. We explore this through the creation and evaluation of Codelets. A Codelet is presented inline with the user's code, and consists of a block of example code and an interactive helper widget that assists the user in understanding and integrating the example. The Codelet persists throughout the example's lifecycle, remaining accessible even after configuration and integration is done. A comparative laboratory study with 20 participants found that programmers were able to complete tasks involving examples an average of 43% faster when using Codelets than when using a standard Web browser.
ACM
In session: Programming and Debugging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
A Print Magazine on Any Screen: The Wired App Story - Short Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Reports on the design process behind the the digital reading experience developed by Adobe Systems for Wired Magazine.
Abstract » Magazines are a cultural artifact. In the USA alone, there are 189 million individuals who read magazines, and 88% of adults between 18-34 are active magazine readers. Through the portrail of their editors' views, magazines provide a lens into what society is thinking. These views are expressed not only through the words of articles but also through the careful design and layout of each issue. So what would it mean to take this important physical media into the digital world? This case study reports on the design process behind the the digital reading experience developed by Adobe Systems for Wired Magazine.
In session: Beyond Paper - May 9, 2012, 11:30
 
SIG: End-User Programming - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
Abstract » As users continue to grow in number and diversity, end-user programming is playing an increasingly central role in shaping software to meet the broad, varied, rapidly changing needs of the world. Numerous companies have therefore begun to sell tools enabling end users to create programs. In parallel, ongoing academic research is aimed at helping end-user programmers create and adapt new kinds of programs in new ways. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
In session: SIG: End-User Programming - May 9, 2012, 14:30
 
Haptic Lotus - A Theatre Experience for Blind and Sighted Audiences - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Can technologies facilitate comparable cultural experiences for both blind and sighted audiences? The Haptic Lotus is a device that changes its form as people walk through a dark immersive installation.
Abstract » How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of ‘blindness’, through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience’s journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.

During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
In session: Video - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Textual Tinkerability: Encouraging Storytelling Behaviors to Foster Emergent Literacy - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of a storytelling prompt for fostering positive emergent literacy behaviors using: Detailed report of performative reading behaviors in emergent literacy. Video coding rubric for analyzing shared reading interactions.
Abstract » This paper presents textual tinkerability, a new concept for fostering early literacy skills during parent-child reading. Textual tinkerability maps storytelling gestures to changes in animation and text to assist reading exploration and demonstration of the link between text, spoken word, and concept. TinkRBooks are flexible tablet-based storybooks that allow readers to actively explore concepts in text using textual tinkerability. When reading TinkRBooks, both parents and children can alter text (character attributes and parts of speech) by manipulating story elements (props and characters) as they read. We demonstrate how textual tinkerability encourages more dialog, print referencing and dialogic questioning between parent-child dyads in shared reading as compared to paper books. In addition, our study reports observations of storytelling performance behaviors that foster playful and socially intimate shared reading behaviors that are closely mapped to the teaching and learning of emergent literacy skills.
In session: Literacy on the Margin - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Corporate Career Presences on Social Network Sites: An Analysis of Hedonic and Utilitarian Value - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a structural equation model which describes what benefits job seekers derive from corporate career presences on social network sites.
Abstract » Due to the shortage of skilled workforce and the increasing usage of social network sites, companies increasingly apply social network sites to attract potential applicants. This paper explores how corporate career presences on network sites should be realized in order to attract potential applicants. Therefore, we tested the impact of seven individual characteristics (namely Appointments, Daily Working Routine, Jobs, Corporate News, Entertainment, Media Format, and Features) of these corporate career presences that we extracted by a comprehensive pre-study on users' perceived hedonic and utilitarian value of these presences on social network sites. Based on an online survey with 470 participants, the results reveal a highly significant impact of five characteristics that corporate career presences provide both a hedonic as well as a utilitarian value to the user.
ACM
In session: Social Computing: Business & Beyond - May 9, 2012, 16:30
 
Investigating Interruptions in the Context of Computerised Cognitive Testing for Older Adults - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Interruptions in the home pose a threat to the validity of self-administered computerised cognitive testing. Describes an experiment investigating the effects of interruption demand on older adults' test performance.
Abstract » Interruptions in the home pose a threat to the validity of self-administered computerised cognitive testing. We report the findings of a laboratory experiment investigating the effects of increased interruption workload demand on older adults' computerised cognitive test performance. Related work has reported interruptions having a range of inhibitory and facilitatory effects on primary task performance. Cognitive ageing literature suggests that increased interruption workload demand should have greater detrimental effects on older adults' performance, when compared to younger adults. With 36 participants from 3 age groups (20-54, 55-69, 70+), we found divergent effects of increased interruption demand on two primary tasks. Results suggest that older and younger adults experience interruptions differently, but at no age is test performance compromised by demanding interruptions. This finding is reassuring with respect to the success of a self-administered computerised cognitive assessment test, and is likely to be useful for other applications used by older adults.
ACM
In session: Comfortable Aging - May 10, 2012, 09:30
 
Indy R&D: Doing HCI Research off the Beaten Path - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Indy R&D is an accelerating practice combining real-world concerns with academic curiosity. We provide practical tips to help decide if it's right for you, and help you get started.
Abstract » This panel discusses independent research and development in HCI. We focus on possible models for Indy R&D operations, supporting infrastructures, practical methods, and taking advantage of academic skills in the transition. Panel participants have experience in several different models of funding, conducting, and disseminating results from independent research. We will provide the audience with practical tips to help them decide if Indy R&D is right for them, and if so, help them do it.
In session: Indy R&D: Doing HCI Research off the Beaten Path - May 9, 2012, 09:30
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
In session: alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressions - May 7, 2012, 14:30
 
Towards New Widgets to Reduce PC Power Consumption - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present a study which describes the power con-sumption characteristics of a number of different inter-action techniques on a desktop and laptop computer. In total, 8 interactions that can be used to carry out a sin-gle task (navigating a PDF document) were compared for power consumption across both a desktop and a laptop computer and across two different power saver settings. The results suggest that the power consump-tion of different interaction techniques for a single task vary significantly. Furthermore, the results suggest that a key factor in the power consumption of the interaction technique is the number of screen updates involved.
 
What Colour is ‘Exercise?’ Designing Multimodal Reminders for the Home - Works In Progress
Abstract » When designing home care systems to keep individuals independent in their homes longer, multimodal interaction provides a compelling approach to creating an enjoyable and usable experience. Previous work in multimodal home care systems has looked at how reminders might be disruptive [1] or socially appropriate [5]. However, previous work has not looked specifically at how reminder content is paired with a multimodal presentation, especially when that presentation is not speech or text based, for example an abstract visual or olfactory presentation. In order to explore these issues, we completed a survey that focused on how the content of a reminder might affect a variety of factors such as appropriateness, importance and annoyance. Building on this survey, we are currently completing a series of focus groups that looks at how users pair reminders with multimodal presentations.
 
Investigating One-Handed Multi-digit Pressure Input for Mobile Devices - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents initial results from the design and evaluation of one-handed squeezing of a mobile phone: the application of force by each individual digit, and combinations of digits, of one hand as a means of interacting with a mobile device. As part of the evaluation we also consider how to alter the size of the interaction space to best suit the number of digits being used. By identifying which digits can accurately apply force both individually and in combination with others, we can then design one-handed, multi-channel input for mobile interaction. The results suggest that not all digits are equally accurate, and that some are more accurate when used in combination with others. Further, increasing the size of the underlying interaction space to suit the number of digits used improves user performance.
 
DigiGraff: Considering Graffiti as a Location Based Social Network - Works In Progress
Abstract » We introduce DigiGraff: a technique to allow lightweight and unconstrained digital annotation of the physical environment via mobile digital projection. Using graffiti as a design meme, DigiGraff provides a way to study the role of location in the creation and browsing of social media, and introduces concepts of temporality, ageing and wear into message presentation. As the volume of geo-tagged social media increases, we outline why such consideration is relevant and important, and how DigiGraff will support deeper understanding of location data in social media.
 
PULSE: The Design and Evaluation of an Auditory Display to Provide a Social Vibe - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates the use of ambient audio to present collocated geo-social media as a user moves through the environment. Provides guidance on re-integrating geo-social media into physical environment.
Abstract » We present PULSE, a mobile application designed to allow users to gain a `vibe', an intrinsic understanding of the people, places and activities around their current location, derived from messages on the Twitter social networking site. We compared two auditory presentations of the vibe. One presented message metadata implicitly through modification of spoken message attributes. The other presented the same metadata, but through additional auditory cues. We compared both techniques in a lab and real world study. Additional auditory cues were found to allow for smaller changes in metadata to be more accurately detected, but were least preferred when PULSE was used in context. Results also showed that PULSE enhanced and shaped user understanding, with audio presentation allowing a closer coupling of digital data to the physical world.
ACM
In session: Music Across CHI - May 8, 2012, 11:30
 
Changing requirements to HCI funding: A global perspective - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. We review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents how requirements change and what that means.
Abstract » The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. In this SIG meeting, we will review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents and countries how the requirements are changing and discuss how this affects HCI research and its impact.
 
"Baby It's Cold Outside": The Influence of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on Thermal Feedback - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the impact of ambient temperature and humidity on the use of thermal interfaces. The outcome of our evaluations are a set of design recommendations.
Abstract » Thermal feedback is a new area of research in HCI and, as such, there has been very little investigation of the impact of environmental factors on its use for interaction. To address this shortcoming we conducted an experiment to investigate how ambient temperature and humidity could affect the usability of thermal feedback. If environmental conditions affect perception significantly, then it may not be suitable for mobile interactions. Evaluations were conducted outdoors in varying environmental conditions over a period of 5 months. Results showed that the ambient temperature has a significant impact on people's ability to detect stimuli and also their perception of these stimuli. Humidity has a negligible effect for most humidity values. Despite this, previous thermal feedback design recommendations still hold in varying temperatures and humidities showing that thermal feedback is a useful tool for mobile interaction.
ACM
In session: Hot Moves: Shape-changing and Thermal Interfaces - May 7, 2012, 16:30
 
Signing on the Tactile Line: A Multimodal System for Teaching Handwriting to Blind Children - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: McSig is a multimodal system for teaching blind children to write and draw. Similar combinations of tactile, haptic, sound and stylus interaction could be useful for other non-visual interaction situations.
Abstract » We present McSig, a multimodal system for teaching blind children cursive handwriting so that they can create a personal signature. For blind people handwriting is very difficult to learn as it is a near-zero feedback activity that is needed only occasionally, yet in important situations; for example to make an attractive and repeatable signature for legal contracts. McSig aids the teaching of signatures by translating digital ink from the teacher’s stylus gestures into three non-visual forms: (1) audio pan and pitch represents the x and y movement of the stylus; (2) kinaesthetic information is provided to the student through a force-feedback haptic pen which mimics the teacher’s stylus movement; (3) a physical tactile line on the writing sheet is created by the haptic pen.
McSig has been developed over two major iterations of design, usability testing and evaluation. The final step of the first iteration was a short evaluation with eight visually impaired children. The results suggested that McSig had the highest potential benefit for congenitally and totally blind children and also indicated some areas where McSig could be enhanced. The second prototype incorporated significant modifications to the system, improving the audio, tactile and force-feedback. We then ran a detailed, longitudinal evaluation over 14 weeks with three of the congenitally blind children to assess McSig’s effectiveness in teaching the creation of signatures. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of McSig – they all made considerable progress in learning to create a recognizable signature. By the end of ten lessons two of the children could form a complete, repeatable signature unaided, the third could do so with a little verbal prompting. Furthermore, during this project we have learnt valuable lessons about providing consistent feedback between different communications channels (by manual interactions, haptic device, pen correction) that will be of interest to others developing multimodal systems.
In session: Promoting Educational Opportunity - May 8, 2012, 14:30
 
A Security Assessment of Tiles: A New Portfolio-Based Graphical Authentication System - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we propose Tiles, a graphical authentication system in which users are assigned a target image and subsequently asked to select segments of that image. We assess the extent to which this system provides protection against two security threats: observation attacks and sharing of authentication credentials in two laboratory-based studies. We note some of the vulnerabilities of the new system but provide evidence that automated manipulation of the similarity of the decoy images can help mitigate the threat from verbal sharing and observation attacks.
 
Mobile Applications to Support Dietary Change: Highlighting the Importance of Evaluation Context - Works In Progress
Abstract » Along with the smart phone came smart phone applications, which range in functionality, complexity and price. Hugely popular are lifestyle applications which include tools for diet and exercise. Despite the popularity of these applications however, we have yet to see any form of rigorous investigation into their value, i.e. their impact on user behaviour and long term health goals. We embarked on a live clinical trial of a behavior based mobile application designed to assist users on meal replacement diet programs to judge its impact and value. Our analysis showed that users were more engaged with a fully interactive application than an information based application, and that varying analysis conditions seemed to result in varying impact.
 
Factors Associated with Persistent Participation in an Online Diet Intervention - Works In Progress
Abstract » In recent years, much work has been carried out in interface design and service quality in order to maximise user experience and sustain engagement. We are often unsure, however, what factors really influence user interactions with the technologies. Here we report on an ongoing examination of the relationships between user demographics, self reported attitudes, efficacy, and system feature, and participation on an online diet support site. Our findings indicate that not only the characteristics of the users themselves are associated with sustained engagement with a weight loss site, but also that usage of particular features on the site results in higher return rates. These findings support a push for designers to understand their users and features of their site, in order to maximise engagement with their target audiences.
 
A Virtual Reality Dialogue System For The Treatment Of Social Phobia - Interactivity
Contribution & Benefit: A virtual reality exposure therapy system designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while being monitored.
Abstract » People with social phobia have a severe fear of everyday social situations. In this paper we describe a virtual reality exposure therapy system specifically designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while being monitored by a therapist. To control phobic stressors, therapists can control the avatar’s gaze, the avatar’s dialogue style and the narrative stories that are embedded throughout the exposure. The system uses the Delft remote virtual reality exposure therapy platform which allows remote treatment.
In session: Interactivity - May 8, 2012, 15:50
 
TravelThrough: A Participatory-based Guidance System for Traveling through Disaster Areas - alt.chi