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Saturday, May 05, 09:00
Visual Thinking & Digital ImageryWorkshopRoom: 19AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Visual Thinking & Digital Imagery - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI, foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking.
Abstract » This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery—which subsumes digital imagery—goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broader framework for visual thinking and imagery in HCI can play a role in raising the visual standards of HCI research and practice. Workshop participants will investigate possibilities for developing a culture of curatorial gaze in HCI, in order to (i) promote collection of digital images as a method appropriate for a design-oriented discipline, (ii) invite others to contribute to a genre of working and corpus of imagery unique to HCI, and (iii) to expand the approaches that design-oriented HCI may productively and creatively draw upon.
 
The 3rd Dimension of CHI (3DCHI): Touching and Designing 3D User Interfaces - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatial 3D space in which we live.
Abstract » In recent years 3D has gained increasing amount of attention - interactive visualization of 3D data has become increasingly important and widespread due to the requirements of several application areas, and entertainment industry has brought 3D experience to the reach of wide audiences through games, 3D movies and stereoscopic displays. However, current user interfaces (UIs) often lack adequate support for 3D interactions: 2D metaphors still dominate in GUI design, 2D desktop systems are often limited in cases where natural interaction with 3D content is required, and sophisticated 3D user interfaces consisting of stereoscopic projections and tracked input devices are rarely adopted by ordinary users. In the future, novel interaction design solutions are needed to better support the natural interaction and utilize the special features of 3D technologies.
In this workshop we address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatially complex, 3D space in which we live. The workshop will provide a common forum for researchers to share their visions of the future and recent results in the area of improving 3D interaction and UI design.
 
Bridging Clinical and Non-clinical Health Practices: opportunities and challenges - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: Building on the illness trajectory concept, this workshop aims to explore the interplay between, and the challenges and opportunities in designing healthcare technologies for bridging clinical and non-clinical settings.
Abstract » There has been a growing interest in the HCI community to study Health, with particular focus in understanding healthcare practices and designing technologies to support and to enhance these practices. A majority of current health studies in HCI have focused on either clinical settings, such as hospitals and clinics, or non-clinical spaces, like patients� homes and senior centers. Yet, there has been little work investigating how patient care in clinical and non-clinical settings connect with each other. Building on the illness trajectory concept, this workshop aims to explore the interplay between, and the challenges and opportunities in designing healthcare technologies for bridging the clinical and the non-clinical settings, as well as their impact on the continuum of patient care.
 
Ar-CHI-tecture: Architecture and Interaction - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The rise of ubiquitous computing leads to a convergence between architectural design and HCI. This workshop brings digital interaction and the build environment together to map future research and collaboration.
Abstract » The rise of ubiquitous computing leads to a natural convergence between the areas of architectural design (the design of buildings, spaces and experience of being in and moving through them) and HCI. We suggest that Architecture and CHI have much to learn from each other in terms of research and practice. This workshop will bring together these communities to explore the benefits of architecture envisioned as integral to an expanded CHI community. The workshop organizers aim to create a framework for future collaboration and identify new directions for research in this multidisciplinary field. This promises significant impacts on both interaction research and its real-world applications.
 
Game User Research - Workshop
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, specifically discussing methodologies in Game User Research - an emerging field focused on studying player' gaming experience.
Abstract » Game User Research is an emerging field that ties together Human Computer Interaction, Game Development, and Experimental Psychology, specifically investigating the interaction between players and games. The community of Game User Research has been rapidly evolving for the past few years, extending and modifying existing methodologies used by the HCI community to the environment of digital games. In this workshop, we plan to investigate the different methodologies currently in practice within the field as well as their utilities and drawbacks in measuring game design issues or gaining insight about the players' experience. The outcome of the workshop will be a collection of lessons from the trenches and commonly used techniques published in a public online forum. This will extend the discussion of topics beyond the workshop, and serve as a platform for future work. The workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, tying together HCI research and Game User Research.
 
Educational Interfaces, Software, and Technology - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: We present a venue for the discussion of Educational Interfaces, Software, and Technologies.
Abstract » One of the primary goals of teaching is to prepare learners for life in the real world. In this ever changing world of technologies such as mobile interaction, cloud computing, natural user interfaces, and gestural interfaces like the Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect people have a greater selection of tools for the task at hand. Teachers and students can leverage these tools to improve learning outcomes. Educational interfaces and software are needed to ensure that new technologies serve a clear purpose in the classrooms and homes of the future.

Since teachers are always looking for creative ways to engage 21st century learners there needs to be an academic venue for researchers to discuss novel educational tools and their role in improving learning outcomes. This workshop aims at filling this void: combining the pedagogical expertise of the cooperative learning, and learning sciences communities with the technical creativity of the CHI, UIST and interactive surface communities. The objective of this workshop is to become a conference within two years.
 
CrowdCamp: Rapidly Iterating Ideas Related to Collective Intelligence & Crowdsourcing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Hands-on workshop for the development of ideas, designs, and prototypes related to collective intelligence and crowdsourcing. Will enable diverse disciplines to rapidly test new ideas.
Abstract » The field of collective intelligence -- encompassing aspects of crowdsourcing, human computation, and social computing -- is having tremendous impact on our lives, and the fields are rapidly growing. We propose a hands-on event that takes the main benefits of a workshop -- provocative discussion and community building -- and allows time to focus on developing ideas into actual outputs: experiment designs, in-depth thoughts on wicked problems, paper or coded prototypes. We will bring together researchers to discuss future visions and make tangible headway on those visions, as well as seeding collaboration. The outputs from brainstorming, discussion, and building will persist after the workshop for attendees and the community to view, and will be written up.
 
HCI for Peace: Preventing, De-Escalating and Recovering from Conflict - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: An opportunity for a focused and extended set of presentations and discussions on the use of interactive technologies for preventing, de-escalating and recovering from conflict.
Abstract » The increasing ubiquity of computing devices coupled with recent empirical research on the factors that affect the likelihood of conflict provide HCI researchers with new opportunities to conduct research on interactive systems designed to prevent, de-escalate and recover from conflict. Approaches used by HCI researchers in this field have included the use of a multi-lifespan research initiative to support peace and reconciliation after genocide, CSCW to facilitate communication, visualization to help detect landmines, and calming technology to support individuals desiring interactive systems that scaffold non-violent interactions. In this workshop we plan to further explore these ideas and discuss existing and future challenges.
 
Designing and Evaluating Text Entry Methods - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop serves to unify the text entry community and center it at CHI.
Abstract » Our workshop has three primary goals. The first goal is community building: we want to get text entry researchers that are active in different communities into one place. Our second goal is to promote CHI as a natural and compelling focal point for all kinds of text entry research. The third goal is to discuss some difficult issues that are hard or near impossible to handle within the traditional format of research papers.
 
Emerging Technologies for Healthcare and Aging - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will address interaction issues relevant to emerging health technologies for older adults. Attendees will develop use cases that can inform healthcare technology developers during the formative evaluation stage.
Abstract » The aging population is growing rapidly and technology has great potential to meet older adults' healthcare needs. However, the technologies being developed must take into account older adults' needs and related interaction issues. This workshop explores interaction issues such as accepting, integrating, efficacy, sharing, and privacy for emerging health technologies, including tablets, ambient systems, robotics, electronic medical records, mobile systems, and tracking and monitoring devices. We also consider the user characteristics of care recipients, informal caregivers, and formal caregivers. An outcome of this workshop will be the development of use cases to provide guidance for designing technologies for older adults and their caregivers.
 
I Just Love this Product! Looking into Wow Products, from Analysis to Heuristics - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We all recognize cool products on the shelf; making these from scratch is quite another thing. Through analyzing successful products, we aim to derive heuristics for design of "cool" products.
Abstract » Increasingly products need to be cool, wow, fun, rather than merely being 'functional' in order to appeal to consumers. Product innovation then turns into not only working out how to apply technologies to realize some useful product function, but also in how to create an appealing and alluring experience. The core question one would like to see answered already early on in the development process is, of course, how we can make sure that the final product is going to be fun, pleasurable, appealing (in addition to being functional and usable). However, when looking at the literature, no real, concrete, hands-on answers are popping up yet. On the other hand, in industry and academia much tacit knowledge and experience must exist, about what worked before and what not. Analyzing systematically successful product introductions, tapping into that tacit knowledge, may help to derive heuristics that can support new product and service development, and aid in a better understanding of this elusive concept.
 
Methods to Account for Values in Human-Centered Computing - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a workshop on developing methodological frameworks for values in human-centered computing, and putting these methods into practice. Can help designers, users and other stakeholders account for values in design.
Abstract » This workshop brings together scholars and practitioners of human-centered computing, requirements engineering, ethics and related fields. We will share knowledge and insights on methods to account for human values in information technology design. Through short presentations, group discussions and practical design group work, participants will collaborate on developing methodological frameworks for values in human-centered computing, and putting these methods into practice.
 
Defamiliarization in Innovation and Usability - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: With innovation, designers need to ask how they can offer a non-disruptive and enjoyable user experience whilst at the same time not meeting users' expectations. Can defamiliarization assist here?
Abstract » This workshop will explore how defamiliarization - a process of slowing down perception - can be exploited as a bridge between usability and innovation.

Victor Shklovsky, a Russian literary critic, coined the term ‘defamiliarization’, which he defined as the literary technique of slowing down a reader’s recognition of what the author is describing in order to increase the vividness of the reader’s perception. [Margolin 2005]

In interface design, defamiliarization can be used to bring users’ attention to the interface itself because of a temporary lack of fulfilment of expectations [Peterson, M.G., Iversen, O.S., Krogh, G.P 2004; Sengers, Gaver 2006]. This concept is particularly promising for the user interface in the context of ‘radical’ innovation: it can be used as a tool to facilitate the uptake of such innovation, by serving as a source of delight for the user in the user experience.
Radical innovation presents substantial obstacles both to usability and to usability testing [Rogers, Y. Rutherford, A. Bibby, P. 1992]: such innovation stops users in their tracks by intentionally frustrating expectations. Defamiliarization, as some recent research has argued, can respond to this problem by causing users to step back from the process they are engaged in (i.e., trying to engage with an interface) to experience features of the interface itself, and to gain pleasure and fun from that interaction [Bell, Blythe, Sengers, 2005]. In the course of that step back, the innovative feature is discovered, and the user re-enters the primary process of ‘working with’ the interface.

A handful of designers are incorporating defamiliarization into their design strategies [Bell, Blythe, Sengers, 2005; Sengers, Gaver, 2006]. For instance, at Canonical, a major part of our design work on the Ubuntu operating system is concerned with ‘radical’ innovation. We have substantial experience with such innovation threatening usability as it challenges conventions and habits. We have begun to employ defamiliarized user journeys as a facilitator of usability. There are two major aspects of this work:

1.Creating defamiliarized experiences that bring attention to the technology itself without introducing usability challenges, thereby supporting discovery;
2.Evaluating defamiliarization. A central question for us is: how can we assess this technique as part of usability testing and qualitative feedback?

As the literature evidences, there are many ways to use defamiliarization in design:
• juxtaposing incongruities
• creating unexpected contexts
• exaggerating information
• providing minimal representations
• creating ambiguity
• using extreme characters

There are other methods that practitioners have not recognised but that they may use implicitly.

Workshop Goals

Clarify ways defamiliarization can be successfully applied to interface design to create compelling experiences;
Determine the reach and usefulness of defamiliarization for innovation;
Explore techniques that enhance the role defamiliarization can play in ease of use -- bridging, cues, etc;
Define user testing approaches to assess the success of defamiliarization efforts.
 
2nd Workshop on Distributed User Interfaces: Collaboration and Usability - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: engineeringCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Attendees to the workshop will have a deeper insight to the topic of Distributed User Interfaces and the main benefits of using this kind of interactive environments.
Abstract » This document describes the most relevant issues regarding collaboration and usability when using distributed user interfaces (DUIs). The goal of this workshop is to promote the discussion about the emerging topic of DUIs, answering a set of key questions: how can collaboration be improved using DUIs? When are DUIs suitable to perform collaborative work? How can usability standards be employed to evaluate the usability of DUIs? How do μ7 concepts influence on DUIs regarding collaboration, usability and cognition?
 
A Contextualised Curriculum for HCI - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will center on a detailed examination of situated HCI teaching practices, providing contextualization of HCI curriculum topics.
Abstract » The ACM and IEEE are currently revising their joint Computer Curriculum. The purpose of this workshop is to discuss and formulate a context for the HCI component of the undergraduate curriculum in terms of the current teaching practices of HCI educators. The goals of the workshop are to provide rich methods for capturing pedagogical content knowledge that would support HCI educators using the revised curriculum in their teaching.
 
Theories, Methods and Case Studies of Longitudinal HCI Research - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Abstract » The interest in longitudinal studies of users' experiences and behaviors with interactive products is mounting, while recent methodological advances have enabled new ways to elicit as well as process longitudinal data. With this workshop we want to establish a forum for the exchange of knowledge and discussion on novel theories, methods and experiences gained through case studies of longitudinal HCI research. This is an effort towards the collection of best practices for an edited book publication.
 
Technology for Today's Family - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop will host researchers and practitioners for a one-day workshop to promote a community focused on addressing the needs of families by designing and developing family-centric interactive technologies.
Abstract » This workshop will bring together researchers from academia and industry for a one-day workshop to promote a community focused on addressing the needs of families by designing and developing family-centric interactive technologies. Together we will weigh the gains made in the area of technologies for families and brainstorm new technology directions and methods for designing technologies for families.
 
Managing User Experience Teams: Lessons from Case Studies, and Establishing Best Practices - Workshop
Community: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop consists of a group of leaders who will create a set of management best practices to share with the CHI community.
Abstract » This workshop is based on the initial findings from the CHI 2011 workshop, and focuses on managing cross-disciplinary teams for product and corporate success. The workshop brings together a diverse group of leaders in order to create a set of best practices and guidelines specific to a variety of topics that are important to the success of managers and their teams. Emphasis is placed on cross disciplinary teams, corporate culture and environment, and international factors.
Sunday, May 06, 09:00
Simple, Sustainable LivingWorkshopRoom: 19AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Simple, Sustainable Living - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: Are complex lifestyles unsustainable? Do they contribute to environmental unsustainability? Should HCI design technologies that support simple living for human and environmental sustainability? This workshop discusses these questions.
Abstract » The goal of this workshop is to better understand how to design for simpler lifestyles as part of a more holistic understanding of what it means to be sustainable. This goal takes us beyond what has been previously emphasized in sustainable HCI or at the confines of environmental sustainability. Instead, we discuss the possibilities of an alternative framing of technologies, economies, cultural norms, social mechanisms, and everyday practices that may be needed for simple, sustainable living. We posit that achieving simple, sustainable living may be a matter of thoughtfully embracing positive complexity and avoiding negative complexity. These require careful decisions about design, choice, and use of technology, as well as taking a broader perspective on sustainability.
 
Identity, Performativity, and HCI - Workshop
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop is aimed to provide a platform to explore and engage with issues of identity within the realm of experience design in HCI through the lens of performativity.
Abstract » Identity is a theme spanning multiple discourses, such as feminist HCI, ICT4D and data control, becoming notable as a culturally understood phenomenon within third-wave HCI. This workshop extends current thinking about identity toward performative aspects: how self and identity is constituted, how this relates to digital technology, and what this means for design and use of such technology. As technology�s growth in domestic, social and intimate contexts suggests a new consideration of how identity is invoked, we propose to examine philosophical commitments, methodological implications, and pragmatic aspects of putting performativity to work, identifying blind spots and obstacles that hamper research and practice in this area. And we use hands-on critique, panel discussion and brief presentations, to explore how HCI can respond to the challenge of who we are and what we might become in our pursuit of digitally mediated futures.
 
Food and Interaction Design: Designing for Food in Everyday Life - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Brings together researchers and practitioners in the emerging field of human-food-interaction. Develops a design space at the interstices of food, health, sustainability and alternative food cultures.
Abstract » Food and interaction design presents an interesting challenge to the HCI community in attending to the pervasive nature of food, the socio-cultural differences in food practices and a changing global foodscape. To design for meaningful and positive interactions it is essential to identify daily food practices and the opportunities for the design of technology to support such practices. This workshop brings together a community of researchers and practitioners in human-food interaction to attend to the practical and theoretical difficulties in designing for human-food interactions in everyday life. Through a practical field study and workshop we explore themes of food experiences, health and wellbeing, sustainability and alternative food cultures.
 
Memento Mori: Technology Design for the End of Life - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Addresses end of life issues and technology use, with a focus on the design and development of systems that engage with death, dying, mortality, and bereavement.
Abstract » The role of interactive technologies at End of Life (EoL) is a recently established and quickly growing topic in the CHI community. In this workshop, we focus on the design space, methodologies and processes associated with EoL, moving forward the research agenda initiated in the successful CHI 2010 workshop �HCI at the End of Life� [8]. In particular, we focus on moving from fieldwork to thanatosensitive design � a process which engages with EoL issues as part of the design concept. We invite participation from a wide range of people interested in technology and EoL, from the HCI community, academic and professional communities with a variety of perspectives/disciplines, and entrepreneurs developing applications in this space.
 
Personal Informatics in Practice: Improving Quality of Life Through Data - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses themes relevant to personal informatics in practice, such as practical lessons from prior work in designing systems, requirements for building effective tools, and development of infrastructures.
Abstract » Personal informatics refers to a class of software and hardware systems that help individuals collect personal information to improve self-understanding. Improving self-understanding can foster self-insight and promote positive behaviors: healthy living, energy conservation, etc. The development of personal informatics applications poses new challenges for human-computer interaction and creates opportunities for applications in various domains related to quality of life, such as fitness, nutrition, wellness, mental health, and sustainability. This workshop will continue the conversations from the CHI 2010 and CHI 2011 workshops on personal informatics [6][7]. The focal themes for this workshop are: (1) practical lessons from previous research and development experiences that can guide interface design for systems that allow users to collect and reflect on personal data; (2) requirements for building robust personal informatics applications; and (3) design and development of infrastructures that make personal informatics applications easier to create and evaluate.
 
Theories behind UX Research and How They Are Used in Practice - Workshop
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A major contribution of the workshop will be to clarify the applicability and transferability of different theories, theoretical concepts in informing UX design and evaluation in both research and practice.
Abstract » At CHI2011 we organized a SIG session asking the question "What theoretical roots do we build on, if any, in UX research?" Overall, 122 single items from about 70 participants were collected, which corroborates the relevance of and interest in this topic. Whilst the theoretical foundations for UX research are not yet established, those responses can serve as candidate resources for setting the theoretical directions. A primary conclusion from the SIG discussion is that the CHI community needs theories in UX research and practice. A major contribution of the workshop will be to clarify the applicability and transferability of different theories, theoretical foundations, concepts in informing UX design and evaluation in both research and practice. In particular we will look into theories that have already been applied in practice.
 
Cool aX Continents, Cultures and Communities - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop aims to explore and discuss the notion of cool and how it crosses the boundaries of continents, cultures and communities.
Abstract » The ability to be or to create �cool� is universally desirable, for individuals wishing to impress their peers and multinational corporations attempting to gain market share alike. To achieve cool, however, is as challenging as it is desirable; often fleeting, unexpected, uncontrolled and seemingly mysterious. This work builds upon previous work by the authors in understanding and designing for cool. Current literature and work on cool predominantly focuses on specific demographics of society without exploring its broader application. This workshop aims to explore and discuss the notion of cool and how it crosses the boundaries of continents, cultures and communities. This workshop aims to gather a deeper understanding of the different facets and contexts of cool, and whether cool as a concept can be globally defined.
 
Heritage Matters: Designing for Current and Future Values Through Digital and Social Technologies - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Provides an expanded vocabulary to understand how people come to value and interact with digital traces and memories and participate over time in the social production of memory and identity.
Abstract » This one-day workshop brings together human computer interaction (HCI) scholars and practitioners interested in how emerging technologies are changing the way we understand and experience heritage. Digital media play an increasing role in how we see ourselves, and how future generations will see themselves in relation to us. The workshop will address how personal digital archives, heirlooms, and inscriptions come to have social value in the long term. Understanding how people come to value and interact with digital traces and memories through a heritage perspective will provide the HCI community with a vocabulary to expand the boundaries of HCI theory and practice beyond individuals acting 'in the moment,' and support individuals, communities, and organizations participating 'over time' in the social production of
memory and identity.
 
Exploring HCI's Relationship with Liveness - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop aims to explore how HCI might contribute to the understanding of, and design response to, shifting values of liveness brought about by advances in digitally mediated performance.
Abstract » Liveness has long been a valued quality of mass media presentation in areas such as music, sports and debate. The rapid development of new digital media, and the interpenetration of these media and staged performance, places liveness center stage in attempts to understand emerging human-computer configurations. This workshop will bring together insights from a variety of disciplines and perspectives to explore how HCI can benefit from critical engagement with theoretical and practical treatment of liveness. To seed discussion and action, participants will engage reflectively with the liveness of an authentic performance, experienced firsthand and at one-remove through a mediating technology, using an innovative video-based methodology.
 
End-user interactions with intelligent and autonomous systems - Workshop
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Facilitate the exchange of approaches, solutions, and ideas about how to better support end users' interactions with intelligent and autonomous systems between academic and industrial researchers.
Abstract » Systems that learn from or personalize themselves to users are quickly becoming mainstream yet interaction with these systems is limited and often uninformative for the end user. This workshop focuses on approaches and challenges to explore making these systems transparent, controllable and ultimately trustworthy to end users. The aims of the workshop are to help establish connections among researchers and industrial practitioners using real-world problems as catalysts to facilitate the exchange of approaches, solutions, and ideas about how to better support end users.
 
Interaction Design and Emotional Wellbeing - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The workshop will consider the design of technology to support emotional wellbeing. It will provide a forum for discussion and set an agenda for future research in this area.
Abstract » The World Health Organisation has concluded that emotional wellbeing is fundamental to our quality of life. It enables us to experience life as meaningful and is an essential component of social cohesion, peace and stability in the living environment [21]. This workshop will bring together a diverse community to consolidate existing knowledge and identify new opportunities for research on technologies designed to support emotional wellbeing. The workshop will examine uses of technology in mental health settings, but will also consider the importance of emotional needs in physical healthcare and wellbeing more generally. The design of technology to provide social support and to extend traditional care networks will be key workshop themes.
 
Qualitative Research in HCI - Workshop
Contribution & Benefit: For academics in HCI who practice qualitative evaluation and want to understand the use of participatory practices in ethnography; share experiences doing fieldwork.
Abstract » This workshop is targeted towards academics in HCI who practice qualitative evaluation methods. In particular we hope to understand the use of participatory practices in ethnography, as well as, share experiences doing fieldwork. This is especially important as community members from different social science backgrounds and countries often receive dissimilar training and have few opportunities to discuss fieldwork practice. Beyond this we wish to examine issues raised by workshop participants as key challenges to their qualitative research.
 
NUIs for New Worlds: New Interaction Forms and Interfaces for Mobile Applications in Developing Countries - Workshop
Abstract » Mobile phones constitute the most ubiquitous computing platform in the developing world, and for the past decade it has been focus of many research efforts within Human Computer Interaction for Development (HCI4D). HCI4D has matured through a series of previous HCI related conferences and workshops and a growing body of work have established it as subfield of its own[1][2][4][5][6].

We believe it is now time to focus on more specific topics within this subfield and this workshop is dedicated to one such topic; namely how the next wave of more sophisticated mobile handsets will enable new interaction forms and interfaces, and how this can be use to create more natural ways of interacting with mobile ICTs.

The aim of this workshop is to discuss the current (and near-future) technologies and create a research agenda for how we can design, implement and evaluate new and more natural interaction forms and interfaces for mobile devices. The ultimate goal is to lower the technical and literacy barriers and get relevant information, applications and services out to the next billion users.
 
From Materials to Materiality: Connecting Practice and Theory in HC - Workshop
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This workshop considers what HCI can learn from, and contribute to an engagement with material studies to enrich how HCI theorizes digital culture.
Abstract » As practical resources and analytical precepts, "materials" have become central to the design and study of information technology. By considering how HCI has moved from material to materiality and, by implication, from practice to theory, we will examine different facets of material culture in HCI, drawing from domains just beyond it, such as craft studies, information studies and organizational studies. This workshop thus aims to bring together a range of perspectives on the materials of HCI to enrich our understanding of the design and analysis of interaction.
Sunday, May 06, 14:00
Course 1A: Human-Computer Interaction: Introduction and OverviewCourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 1A: Human-Computer Interaction: Introduction and Overview - Course
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Gives newcomers background in the field of HCI to make their conference experience more meaningful. Provides a framework to understand how the various topics are related to research and practice.
Abstract » The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The overview will also make their conference attendance more meaningful. In addition to introducing basic concepts, the course will provide enough structure to help understand how the advanced material in the CHI 2012 technical program fits into the overall field.

The material begins with a brief history and explanation of need. The main discussion considers the field from three perspectives: what it takes to build usable systems; the psychology of the needed technology; and the computer science of the needed technology. Specific topics include psychologically based data, design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture. In each, we will cover research, technology under development, and current application. Sources for follow-on information will be given.

The intended audience is made up of professionals in computer-related fields who have not yet had a systematic exposure to the discipline of computer-human interaction, typically first-time attendees of the CHI conference. CHI professionals who wish to examine how their work relates to the field as a whole should also attend.

Instructors' Background: Keith Butler is Principal Research Scientist and Affiliate Professor of Human Centered Design and Engineering at the University of Washington, where he leads research in health care informatics. Robert Jacob is Professor of Computer Science at Tufts University, where his research interests are new interaction media and techniques and user interface software. David Kieras is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan, where he holds a joint appointment in Psychology.
Sunday, May 06, 17:30
Course 1B: Supporting Community with Social MediaCourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 1B: Supporting Community with Social Media - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses how to support communities through information and communication technologies. Shows the various technical and social considerations in designing social computing systems to support community-scale interactions.
Abstract » An aspect of social computing is to use information and communication technologies to support the formation and collective work of communities, whether they be enacted mostly offline or online. Supporting communities through computing technologies can help to facilitate a wide range of collective outcomes, ranging from engaged citizenship, knowledge management, health support and more. However, creating social computing platforms that support communities is also difficult, with points of potential collapse at any point in the lifestyle of a project.

In this course, we will mix discussion of the research in this area with exercises designed to help attendees become aware of the opportunities in designing social computing platforms to support communities, as well as the complexities involved when those technologies intersect with multiple levels of human social systems. In the discussions, we’ll discuss conceptions of community from sociology, psychology and other social sciences. We’ll describe how using technology changes the traditional processes by how communities are formed and supported. We’ll describe the lifecycle of the social computing for community process, from goals to outcomes. Finally, we’ll discuss different generations of thought regarding technology-supported communities, and how the next generation of socio-technical design is likely to unfold. Exercises will include reading and discussion questions of several “real-life” examples of community design projects. In addition, attendees will work in groups with instructors to create a design proposal for an online community, using course concepts to define all stages of the creation of the project.

At the end of this course, students should be able to define the goals of using technology to support communities, have an understanding of some best practices in approaching this overall issue, and be able to articulate (and avoid) common stumbling blocks in creating technology-enabled communities.
Monday, May 07, 08:30
Opening PlenarySpecial EventsRoom: Ballroom D
 
 
Opening Plenary: Margaret Gould Stewart, Connecting the world through video - Special Events
Abstract » If every story and every storyteller is unique, how do you design a container to hold the most diverse set of faces and voices in human history? YouTube's Margaret Stewart, director of user experience, will discuss how the company approaches this inspiring challenge. Expect to learn about the YouTube experience from both filmmakers and viewers, the stories behind the videos and channels you love, and design principles you can apply to your work.


Bio: Director of User Experience - YouTube

Margaret Gould Stewart manages the User Experience Team for YouTube, leading the company's overall design and user research efforts. Prior to her current role, she spent two years leading Search and Consumer Products UX at Google. Margaret has been a practitioner and manager in the field of User Experience for over 15 years. After graduating from New York University's Interactive Telecommunications Program (ITP) in 1995, Margaret consulted extensively with New York media companies such as the New York Times, Time-Warner, and Scholastic to develop many of their first forays into the web. She's held leadership roles at a variety of high profile start ups and companies, including Tripod.com and Angelfire.com, which were both acquired by Lycos, Inc.

Over the course of her career, Margaret has led the design teams for 5 top 10 most visited websites in the world. Margaret is a member of the board of Architecture for Humanity, and she has served on the jury for the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Awards. She is a frequent speaker about design, user experience, creative management, and the changing landscape of media. She lives in Palo Alto with her husband and three children.
Monday, May 07, 11:30
AI & Machine-Learning & TranslationPaperRoom: 12AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tell Me More? The Effects of Mental Model Soundness on Personalizing an Intelligent Agent - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A user study exploring the effects of mental model soundness on end users personalizing an intelligent agent. Can help designers understand the impact of providing structural information about intelligent agents.
Abstract » What does a user need to know to productively work with an intelligent agent? Intelligent agents and recommender systems are gaining widespread use, potentially creating a need for end users to understand how these systems operate in order to fix their agent's personalized behavior. This paper explores the effects of mental model soundness on such personalization by providing structural knowledge of a music recommender system in an empirical study. Our findings show that participants were able to quickly build sound mental models of the recommender system's reasoning, and that participants who most improved their mental models during the study were significantly more likely to make the recommender operate to their satisfaction. These results suggest that by helping end users understand a system's reasoning, intelligent agents may elicit more and better feedback, thus more closely aligning their output with each user's intentions.
ACM
 
Pay Attention! Designing Adaptive Agents that Monitor and Improve User Engagement - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a novel technique to monitor and improve user attention in real-time using passive brain-computer interfaces and embodied agents. Will inform designers of adaptive interfaces, particularly for educational applications.
Abstract » Embodied agents hold great promise as educational assistants, exercise coaches, and team members in collaborative work. These roles require agents to closely monitor the behavioral, emotional, and mental states of their users and provide appropriate, effective responses. Educational agents, for example, will have to monitor student attention and seek to improve it when student engagement decreases. In this paper, we draw on techniques from brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and knowledge from educational psychology to design adaptive agents that monitor student attention in real time using measurements from electroencephalography (EEG) and recapture diminishing attention levels using verbal and nonverbal cues. An experimental evaluation of our approach showed that an adaptive robotic agent employing behavioral techniques to regain attention during drops in engagement improved student recall abilities 43% over the baseline regardless of student gender and significantly improved female motivation and rapport. Our findings offer guidelines for developing effective adaptive agents, particularly for educational settings.
ACM
 
ReGroup: Interactive Machine Learning for On-Demand Group Creation in Social Networks - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents ReGroup, a novel end-user interactive machine learning system for helping people create custom, on-demand groups in online social networks. Can facilitate in-context sharing, potentially encouraging better online privacy practices.
Abstract » We present ReGroup, a novel end-user interactive machine learning system for helping people create custom, on demand groups in online social networks. As a person adds members to a group, ReGroup iteratively learns a probabilistic model of group membership specific to that group. ReGroup then uses its currently learned model to suggest additional members and group characteristics for filtering. Our evaluation shows that ReGroup is effective for helping people create large and varied groups, whereas traditional methods (searching by name or selecting from an alphabetical list) are better suited for small groups whose members can be easily recalled by name. By facilitating on demand group creation, ReGroup can enable in-context sharing and potentially encourage better online privacy practices. In addition, applying interactive machine learning to social network group creation introduces several challenges for designing effective end-user interaction with machine learning. We identify these challenges and discuss how we address them in ReGroup.
ACM
 
An Automatically Generated Interlanguage Tailored to Speakers of Minority but Culturally Influenced Languages - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique to compensate for resource-scarce languages in machine translation. Can assist in developing UIs tailored to speakers of minority languages.
Abstract » Automatic localization of cultural resources and UIs is crucial for the survival of minority languages, for which there are insufficient parallel corpora (or no corpus at all) to build machine translation systems. This paper proposes a new way to compensate for such resource-scarce languages, based on the fact that most languages share a common vocabulary. Concretely, our approach leverages a family of languages closely related to the speaker's native language to construct translations in a coherent mix of these languages. Experimental results indicate that these translations can be easily understood, being also a useful aid for users who are not proficient in foreign languages. Therefore this work significantly contributes to HCI in two ways: it establishes a language that can improve how applications communicate to their users, and it reports insights on the user acceptance towards the method.
ACM
 
"Then Click 'OK!'" Extracting References to Interface Elements in Online Documentation - Note
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents a recognizer for identifying references to user interface components in online documentation. We enumerate various challenges, and discuss how informal conventions in tutorial writing can be leveraged.
Abstract » This paper presents a recognizer for identifying references to user interface components in online documentation. The recognizer first extracts phrases matching a list of known components, then employs a classifier to reject coincidental matches. We describe why this seemingly straightforward problem is challenging, then show how informal conventions in documentation writing can be leveraged to perform classification. Using the features identified in this paper, our approach achieves an average F1 score of 0.81, and can correctly distinguish between actual command references and coincidental matches in 93.7% of test cases.
ACM
Teaching with New InterfacesCase Study & PaperRoom: 17AB
 
 
 
 
 
Oh Dear Stacy! Social Interaction, Elaboration, and Learning with Teachable Agents - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Results from a think-aloud study provide insight into interaction between student rapport and learning gains with a teachable agent. Contributions include theoretical perspectives and practical recommendations for implementing rapport-building agents.
Abstract » Understanding how children perceive and interact with teachable agents (systems where children learn through teaching a synthetic character embedded in an intelligent tutoring system) can provide insight into the effects of so-cial interaction on learning with intelligent tutoring systems. We describe results from a think-aloud study where children were instructed to narrate their experience teaching Stacy, an agent who can learn to solve linear equations with the student�s help. We found treating her as a partner, primarily through aligning oneself with Stacy using pronouns like you or we rather than she or it significantly correlates with student learning, as do playful face-threatening comments such as teasing, while elaborate explanations of Stacy�s behavior in the third-person and formal tutoring statements reduce learning gains. Additionally, we found that the agent�s mistakes were a significant predictor for students shifting away from alignment with the agent.
ACM
 
Observational Study on Teaching Artifacts Created using Tablet PC - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This is an observational study conducted on professors using tablet PC. We attempt to find a common structure in teaching contents by finding a general behavior pattern across three professors.
Abstract » Teaching typically involves communication of knowledge in multiple modalities. The ubiquity of pen-enabled technologies in teaching has made the accurate capture of user ink data possible, alongside technologies to recognize voice data. When annotating on a white board or other presentation surface, teachers often have a specific style of structuring contents taught in a lecture. The availability of sketch data and voice data can enable researchers to analyze trends followed by teachers in writing and annotating notes. Using ethnographic methods, we have observed the structure that teachers use while presenting lectures on mathematics. We have observed the practices followed by teachers in writing and speaking the lecture content, and have derived models that would help computer scientists identify the structure of the content. This observational study motivates the idea that we can use speech and color change events to distinguish between strokes meant for drawing versus those meant for attention marks.
 
Employing Virtual Worlds for HCI Education: A Problem-Based Learning Approach - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: This case study documents experiences from teaching an HCI course by employing 3D virtual worlds. Problem-based learning activities and interactive tools are presented along with key findings and educational implications.
Abstract » In this paper we describe our experience focused on teaching an introductory course in HCI by employing a 3D virtual world. Our main pedagogical philosophy is presented which claims that problem-based learning activities are necessary for HCI education. To this end, appropriate new interactive media such as virtual worlds that can support these activities must be embedded in the educational procedure. The learning activities and the interactive tools that were used are presented. Key findings and educational implications are discussed.
 
From Participatory to Contributory Simulations: Changing the Game in the Classroom - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the design and evaluation of a flexible multi-player simulation game for classroom use. Can guide the design of co-located large-group learning applications.
Abstract » There is much potential for supporting collaborative learning with interactive computer simulations in formal education and professional training. A number have been developed for single user and remote interaction. In contrast, our research is concerned with how such learning activities can be designed to fit into co-located large group settings, such as whole classrooms. This paper reports on the iterative design process and two in-the-wild evaluations of the 4Decades game, which was developed for a whole classroom of students to engage with a climate simulation. The system allows students to play and change the rules of the simulation, thereby enabling them to be actively engaged at different levels. The notion of Contributory Simulations is proposed as an instructional model that empowers groups to make informed, critical changes to the underlying scientific model. We discuss how large-group collaboration was supported through constraining an ecology of shared devices and public displays.
ACM
Course 2: Evaluating Children's Interactive ProductsCourseRoom: 13A
 
 
Course 2: Evaluating Children's Interactive Products - Course
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This course will introduce attendees to methods and tips for carrying out safe, effective and ethical evaluations with children. Practical tips and time saving instructions will be delivered.
Abstract » The evaluation of interactive products with children is complex and prone to errors. Many techniques that work well with adults are poorly suited to work with children as children have different skills, motivations, and ideals. The design of new techniques, and the modification of existing techniques, is an area which has drawn interest in the Child Computer Interaction Community as it is an area where there is still much to be learned but also much to be shared. This course will share the experiences and knowledge of the instructors in a lively and interactive way that will disseminate good practice on the organisation of, management of, and understanding of, evaluation sessions with children. New techniques will be described and ethical practices outlined.
Course 4: The Role of the UX Professional on an Agile TeamCourseRoom: 15
 
 
Course 4: The Role of the UX Professional on an Agile Team - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course arms UX designers with techniques enabling them to participate in Agile projects, including how principles driving Agile can be used to support UX involvement.
Abstract » Agile methods, Scrum in particular, are now widely used in the development community. UX professionals who work with Agile teams find that Agile approaches create roadblocks to their participation. Minimal up-front planning means there’s no time for user research or UX design; short sprints leave little time for considered interface design; and sprint reviews leave no place for usability testing or other validation of the sprint’s work. UX designers find that their old role relationships and procedures no longer work, their skills and techniques devalued, and there’s no clear guidance on how to contribute.

But, looking at their base principles, Agile methods should be friendly to UX participation. Continuous user feedback is core to Agile—and who better to supply it than UX designers? But many Agile values and attitudes work against the needs of UX design. Agile methods were created by developers, for developers, without much consideration for user interaction.

In this course, we arm UX designers with concepts and techniques enabling them to participate effectively in Agile projects. We show why Agile methods make sense from the developers’ point of view—and how principles driving Agile methods can be used to support UX involvement. We also show where Agile methods work against the UX goal of a coherent, consistent interface and provide strategies to accomplish a coherent design anyway. We describe proven Agile/UX best practices for integrating the two perspectives.

Finally, we step back and look at project scope. Agile methods address small-scale projects—how to scale them up is debated in the Agile community. We show how to plan a user-centered Agile project of any scale, from iterative fixes to whole systems
Course 3: Global UX StrategiesCourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 3: Global UX Strategies - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This entertaining session will provide attendees with an understanding of issues that negatively impact the usability and market viability of digital products that are intended for international or multilingual audiences.
Abstract » The web has created opportunities for products to quickly reach markets in any part of the globe. How do you ensure that a product created for one market will be usable in others? It requires knowledge of how nationality, language, and cultural biases impact the design and use of technology products. Exposure to the variations in those respective areas is critical as is using a UX process that takes these variations into account from the beginning. This challenging issue will be discussed and illustrated through the use of humorous photographs and videos as well as drawing upon good and bad examples of recent technology products such as web sites, desktop software, mobile apps, and consumer electronics.
Game ExperiencesPaperRoom: 18AB
 
 
 
 
 
The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a multivariate study of tutorials in three video games with 45,000 players. Shows that tutorials may only have value for games with mechanics that cannot be discovered through experimentation.
Abstract » One of the key challenges of video game design is teaching new players how to play. Although game developers frequently use tutorials to teach game mechanics, little is known about how tutorials affect game learnability and player engagement. Seeking to estimate this value, we implemented eight tutorial designs in three video games of varying complexity and evaluated their effects on player engagement and retention. The results of our multivariate study of over 45,000 players show that the usefulness of tutorials depends greatly on game complexity. Although tutorials increased play time by as much as 29% in the most complex game, they did not significantly improve player engagement in the two simpler games. Our results suggest that investment in tutorials may not be justified for games with mechanics that can be discovered through experimentation.
ACM
 
Tales from the Front Lines of a Large-Scale Serious Game Project - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of an ongoing, large-scale interdisciplinary serious game project. Presents perspectives explaining the dynamics of serious game projects, highlighting under examined issues present in serious game design.
Abstract » Serious games have received much positive attention; correspondingly, many researchers have taken up the challenge of establishing how to best design them. However, the current literature often focuses on best practice design strategies and frameworks. Fine-grained details, contextual descriptions, and organisational factors that are invaluable in helping us to learn from and reflect on project experiences are often overlooked. In this paper, we present five distinct and sometimes competing perspectives that are critical in understanding factors that influence serious game projects: project organisation, technology, domain knowledge, user research, and game design. We explain these perspectives by providing insights from the design and development process of an EU-funded serious game about conflict resolution developed by an interdisciplinary consortium of researchers and industry-based developers. We also point out a set of underlying forces that become evident from viewing the process from different perspectives, to underscore that problems exist in serious game projects and that we should open the conversation about them.
ACM
 
Not Doing But Thinking: The Role Of Challenge In Immersive Videogames - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Three experiments manipulate challenge of a video game. Demonstrate that the challenge experienced is an interaction between level of expertise of the gamer and cognitive challenge encompassed within the game.
Abstract » Previous research into the experience of videogames has shown the importance of the role of challenge in producing a good experience. However, defining exactly which challenges are important and which aspects of gaming experience are affected is largely under-explored. In this paper, we investigate if altering the level of challenge in a videogame influences people's experience of immersion. Our first study demonstrates that simply increasing the physical demands of the game by requiring gamers to interact more with the game does not result in increased immersion. In a further two studies, we use time pressure to make games more physically and cognitively challenging. We find that the addition of time pressure increases immersion as predicted. We argue that the level of challenge experienced is an interaction between the level of expertise of the gamer and the cognitive challenge encompassed within the game.
ACM
 
Understanding User Experience in Stereoscopic 3D Games - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Evaluates the impact of stereoscopic vision on user experience with digital games. Helps game designers to understand how different games and target groups can potentially benefit from stereoscopic vision.
Abstract » Recent advances in digital game technology are making stereoscopic games more popular. Stereoscopic 3D graphics promise a better gaming experience but this potential has not yet been proven empirically. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study that evaluates player experience of three stereoscopic games in comparison with their monoscopic counterparts. We examined 60 participants, each playing one of the three games, using three self-reporting questionnaires and one psychophysiological instrument. Our main results are (1) stereoscopy in games increased experienced immersion, spatial presence, and simulator sickness; (2) the effects strongly differed across the three games and for both genders, indicating more affect on male users and with games involving depth animations; (3) results related to attention and cognitive involvement indicate more direct and less thoughtful interactions with stereoscopic games, pointing towards a more natural experience through stereoscopy.
ACM
Special Interest Group for the CHI 2011 Management CommunitySIG MeetingRoom: 13B
 
 
Special Interest Group for the CHI 2011 Management Community - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG will serve two purposes: shaing the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Abstract » This SIG serves two purposes: sharing the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Eating + CookingPaperRoom: 18CD
 
 
 
 
 
Health Promotion as Activism: Building Community Capacity to Effect Social Change - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the design and evaluation of a tool that supports community-based health advocacy. Provides recommendations for HCI research focused on health inequalities and the ecological influences on behaviors and attitudes.
Abstract » As HCI researchers have designed tools to promote wellness, disease has often been approached as a general problem. In contrast, public health research argues for an activist approach focused on how certain groups disproportionately experience disease and eliminating these disparities. Taking this activist stance, we examine how technology can reduce health inequalities by disrupting power relationships and helping communities pursue social change. We discuss our tool, Community Mosaic (CM), which allows individuals to share their healthy eating ideas with one another as a means of advocating behavior change. Our results characterize how CM helped facilitate activism (i.e., collective efforts to counter local challenges to healthy living) and shift users� attitudes regarding their role as advocates for health. We contribute to the field of HCI by using our findings to present a set of recommendations for future research focused on designing and evaluating health promotion tools using an activist lens.
ACM
 
Augmented Perception of Satiety: Controlling Food Consumption by Changing Apparent Size of Food with Augmented Reality - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: The main contribution of this paper is to realize a method for modifying perception of satiety and controlling nutritional intake by changing the apparent size of food with augmented reality.
Abstract » The main contribution of this paper is to realize a method for modifying perception of satiety and controlling nutritional intake by changing the apparent size of food with augmented reality. As a possible method for decreasing rates of obesity, we focused on controlling food intake implicitly without any effort.
We hypothesized that ambiguous perception of satiety can be applied to control our food intake. Recent psychological studies have revealed that the amount of food consumed is influenced by both its actual volume and external factors during eating. Based on this knowledge, we sought to control perception of satiety gained from the same amount of food by changing its apparent size. We also proposed a method for food-volume augmentation using real-time shape deformation. Our results suggest that this augmentation can control the perception of satiety and food intake.
ACM
 
Laying the Table for HCI: Uncovering Ecologies of Domestic Food Consumption - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Study of family eating practices in the home and the artefacts and spaces involved. Provides a set of sensitizing concepts for interaction designers and technologists seeking to augment domestic eating.
Abstract » Food contributes fundamentally to our well-being: physically, mentally, and socially. Unsurprisingly then, the importance of food to our lives has long been recognized in the social sciences, and more recently, in Human-Computer Interaction. Yet, despite ongoing trends towards the digital augmentation of domestic environments, little consideration has been given to the impact of the material aspects of food consumption in the home. This paper takes an ecological approach to uncovering the role spaces, tabletops, and artefacts play in the social organization of domestic eating practices. Based on our findings of interviews with seven households in England, we discuss implications for those seeking to digitally augment domestic dining.
ACM
 
panavi: Recipe Medium with a Sensors-Embedded Pan for Domestic Users to Master Professional Culinary Arts - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: "panavi,'' a recipe medium utilizing a sensors-embedded frying pan, supports cooking experience for domestic users to master professional culinary arts by managing temperature and pan movement properly.
Abstract » "panavi," a recipe medium, supports cooking experience for domestic users to master professional culinary arts in their kitchens by managing temperature and pan movement properly. Utilizing a sensors-embedded fry-ing pan—providing projected images, LED indications, and vibration—wirelessly connected with a computer system that shows text messages with sounds, the panavi system analyzes sensors' data, recognizes users' conditions, and provides the users with situated instructions. Describing our vision, design process, implementation, and user study that outlines experience of challenging professional cooking, this paper introduces a design framework model of this recipe medium for domestic usage. Throughout revealing the design process—from ideation to the finished research artifact as a whole cook-ing support system—this research suggests how to design interactive systems responding to human situated actions, for use as daily commodities enriching domestic user experience.
ACM
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Information Usability (Invited SIG of the UX Community)SIG MeetingRoom: 11B
 
 
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Information Usability (Invited SIG of the UX Community) - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG will help UX practitioners and educators create and/or research more effectively a wide variety of information, including user assistance, blogs, menus, onscreen messaging, and website content.
Abstract » The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This meeting is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators’ list of topics, augmented by attendees’ suggestions.
Touch in ContextPaperRoom: 16AB
 
 
 
 
 
Keep in Touch: Channel, Expectation and Experience - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a remote touch study, showing communicative touch accompanied by speech can significantly influence people's sense of connectedness. Identifies perception of communication intention as an important factor in touch communication design.
Abstract » This paper investigates whether and how digitally mediated social touch (remote touch) may influence the sense of connectedness toward a speaker and the emotional experience of what is being communicated. We employ an `augmented' storytelling methodology where we manipulate the modality of an `emotive' channel that accompanies the speech, and the contextual expectation of the listener. Comparing a remote upper-arm touch against a similarly timed flashing light, we explore the importance of the touch modality in affect conveyance. Our second manipulation involves two cover stories where the listener is told that the touch or flashing light is triggered either by the storyteller expressively squeezing a touch input device while speaking, or by measured `high points' in the mental state of the storyteller. Our results show that the story accompanied by communicative touch resulted in a significant increase in the sense of connectedness with the storyteller over the speech-only condition, and a trend toward greater affective conveyance.
ACM
 
TAP & PLAY: An End-User Toolkit for Authoring Interactive Pen and Paper Language Activities - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents a toolkit for authoring interactive multimodal language activities using a digital pen. We describe the system's development and a field deployment with over 70 users.
Abstract » Hybrid paper-digital interfaces are a promising approach for supporting language activities. The familiarity of pen and paper makes it a particularly attractive media for many user groups, including young children. Digital pens enhance interaction with traditional paper content by playing and recording audio and recognizing handwriting and gestures. Currently, generating custom interactive paper documents involves some programming, limiting its use by many user groups (e.g., educators and families) who might especially benefit from application of hybrid paper-digital interfaces in their practices. To address this need, we developed an end-user Toolkit for Authoring Pen and Paper Language Activities (TAP & PLAY). This paper describes the iterative development of the toolkit, its accessibility for novice non-technical users, and use in three different contexts for early language learning. We demonstrate and document the system's usability, generality, and utility for people who want to create and tailor their own custom interactive paper-based language activities.
ACM
 
At Home With Surface Computing - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents findings from field study of novel tabletop system, including design guidelines.
Abstract » This paper describes a field study of an interactive surface deployed in three family homes. The tabletop technology provides a central place where digital content, such as pho-tos, can be easily archived, managed and viewed. The tab-letop affords multi-touch input, allowing digital content to be sorted, triaged and interacted with using one or two-handed interactions. A physics-based simulation adds dy-namics to digital content, providing users with rich ways of interacting that borrows from the real-world. The field study is one of the first of a surface computer within a do-mestic environment. Our goal is to uncover people�s inter-actions, appropriations, perceptions and experiences with such technologies, exploring the potential barriers to use. Given these devices provide such a revolutionary shift in interaction, will people be able to engage with them in eve-ryday life in the ways we intend? In answering this ques-tion, we hope to deepen our understanding of the design of such systems for home and consumer domains.
ACM
 
StoryCrate: Tabletop Storyboarding for Live Film Production - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity.
Abstract » Creating film content for broadcast is a high pressure and complex activity involving multiple experts and highly specialized equipment. Production teams are under continuous pressure to produce ever more creative and groundbreaking content while reducing the budgets and human resources required. While technologies are being developed for digitizing and streamlining sections of the production workflow, a gap remains between creative decisions made on location, and those made during digital editing and post-production. We describe a prototype tangible, tabletop interface to be deployed on a film shoot, which uses a storyboard as a shared data representation to drive team creativity. We define creativity in terms of team production, discuss our implementation and describe a deployment in which the prototype was used by a professional production team during a film shoot. Finally we describe a number of interesting interactions that were observed and consider the implications of our design decisions on the creative process of film making and the benefits of tangible, tabletop collaborative interactive displays in live film production.
ACM
Invited lecture: Richard ShustermanSpecial EventsRoom: Ballroom D
 
 
Invited Talk: Somaesthetics and its Implications for CHI - Special Events
Abstract » Somaesthetics is an interdisciplinary research product devoted to the critical study and meliorative cultivation of the experience and use of the living body (or soma) as site of sensory appreciation (aesthesis) and creative self-stylization. An ameliorative discipline of both theory and practice, somaesthetics seeks to enrich not only our discursive knowledge of the body but also our lived somatic experience and performance; it aims to improve the meaning, understanding, efficacy, and beauty of our movements and of the environments to which our actions contribute and from which they also derive their energies and significance. To pursue these aims, somaesthetics is concerned with a wide diversity of knowledge forms and discourses, social practices and institutions, cultural traditions, values, and bodily disciplines that structure (or could improve) such somatic understanding and cultivation. As an interdisciplinary project that is not confined to one dominant academic field, professional vocabulary, cultural ideology, or particular set of bodily disciplines, somaesthetics aims to provide an overarching theoretical structure and a set of basic and versatile conceptual tools to enable a more fruitful interaction and integration of the very diverse forms of somatic knowledge currently being practiced and pursued. My talk at CHI will present the fundamental principles of the somaesthetic, examine some of its interdisciplinary impact and then explore its possible applications to the field of interactive design.

BIO: Richard Shusterman is the Dorothy F. Schmidt Eminent Scholar in the Humanities at Florida Atlantic University, where he is also Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Body, Mind, and Culture: http://www.fau.edu/bodymindculture/. His primary research focus is the field of somaesthetics, which evolved in the late nineties from his work in pragmatist philosophy and aesthetics. Author of Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics (Cambridge University Press, 2008), Shusterman has also written Surface and Depth (2002); Performing Live (2000); Practicing Philosophy (1997); Sous l’interprétation (1994), Soma-esthétique et architecture: une alternative critique (2010), and Pragmatist Aesthetics (1992, 2000, and translated into fourteen languages). Formerly chair of the Philosophy Department of Temple University (Philadelphia), he has held academic appointments in France, Germany, Israel, Italy, and Japan, and has been awarded research grants from the NEH, Fulbright, ACLS, Humboldt Foundation, and UNESCO. In 2008 the French government awarded him the rank of Chevalier in the Order of Academic Palms for his cultural contributions. His exploratory research in somaesthetics is informed by his professional practice as a somatic educator and therapist in the Feldenkrais Method.
Curves and Mirages: Gestures and Interaction with Nonplanar SurfacesPaperRoom: Ballroom E
 
 
 
 
 
 
LightGuide: Projected Visualizations for Hand Movement Guidance - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new approach to movement guidance, where visual hints are digitally projected on a user's hand. Can help users perform complex movements such as in exercise or playing an instrument.
Abstract » LightGuide is a system that explores a new approach to gesture guidance where we project guidance hints directly on a user�s body. These projected hints guide the user in completing the desired motion with their body part which is particularly useful for performing movements that require accuracy and proper technique, such as during exercise or physical therapy. Our proof-of-concept implementation consists of a single low-cost depth camera and projector and we present four novel interaction techniques that are focused on guiding a user�s hand in mid-air. Our visualizations are designed to incorporate both feedback and feedforward cues to help guide users through a range of movements. We quantify the performance of LightGuide in a user study comparing each of our on-body visualizations to hand animation videos on a computer display in both time and accuracy. Exceeding our expectations, participants performed movements with an average error of 21.6mm, nearly 85% more accurately than when guided by video.
ACM
 
Understanding Flicking on Curved Surfaces - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates flicking gestures on curved interactive surfaces. It provides a mathematical model to estimate the error users will make when flicking across a curve.
Abstract » Flicking is a common interaction technique to move objects across large interactive surfaces, but little is known about its suitability for use on non-planar, curved surfaces.Flicking consists of two stages: First, visually determining the direction in which to flick the object, then planning and executing the corresponding gesture. Errors in both stages could influence flicking accuracy. We investigated flicking interactions on curved interactive surface to evaluate which type of error influences accuracy. Therefore, we carried out three user studies to analyze how each stage of flicking on a curved surface is influenced. Our main findings are: 1) Flicking gestures are more accurate if horizontal and vertical surface are joined by a continuous curve than if they are separated by an edge or gap. 2) Flicking gestures on curved surfaces are mostly influenced by the motor execution stage of the gesture rather than the visual perception stage. 3) Flicking accuracy decreases as the starting point of the gesture is moved closer to the curve. 4) We conclude with a first mathematical model to estimate the error users will make when flicking across a curve.
ACM
 
MirageTable: Freehand Interaction on a Projected Augmented Reality Tabletop - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: MirageTable is a novel augmented reality system which enables instant digitization of physical objects, correct 3D perspective views, and interaction using bare hands without gloves or trackers.
Abstract » Instrumented with a single depth camera, a stereoscopic projector, and a curved screen, MirageTable is an interactive system designed to merge real and virtual worlds into a single spatially registered experience on top of a table. Our depth camera tracks the user�s eyes and performs a real-time capture of both the shape and the appearance of any object placed in front of the camera (including user�s body and hands). This real-time capture enables perspective stereoscopic 3D visualizations to a single user that account for deformations caused by physical objects on the table. In addition, the user can interact with virtual objects through physically-realistic freehand actions without any gloves, trackers, or instruments. We illustrate these unique capabilities through three application examples: virtual 3D model creation, interactive gaming with real and virtual objects, and a 3D teleconferencing experience that not only presents a 3D view of a remote person, but also a seamless 3D shared task space. We also evaluated the user�s perception of projected 3D objects in our system, which confirmed that the users can correctly perceive such objects even when they are projected over different background colors and geometries (e.g., gaps, drops).
ACM
 
How Screen Transitions Influence Touch and Pointer Interaction Across Angled Display Arrangements - Note
Contribution & Benefit: User study investigating the effects of screen transitions on touch and pointer interaction across angled display arrangements. Can assist developers in understanding how to design novel interactive display arrangements.
Abstract » Digital office environments often integrate multiple displays in a variety of arrangements. We investigated the combination of a horizontal and a directly connected vertical display, which together form a digital workspace. In particular, we were interested in the effect of the physical transition (bezel, edge or curve) on dragging. In a study participants performed dragging tasks across both display planes with direct touch as well as a pointing device. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect on task completion time. Only regarding accuracy the curved transition performed better than edge and bezel. Interestingly, the subjective judgment did generally not match the objective results. These findings suggest that we need to rethink our understanding of display continuities in terms of usability as well as user satisfaction.
ACM
 
How Small Can You Go? Analyzing the Effect of Visual Angle in Pointing Tasks - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents results of a study on pointing performance for targets occupying small visual angles. Suggests a steep performance degradation for targets occupying a visual angle below 3 minutes of arc.
Abstract » People are increasingly using wireless mice from across rooms as they use computers as entertainment centers. As a consequence, they often have to point at targets occupying small visual angles. In this note we present the results of a study on pointing performance for targets occupying small visual angles. Our results suggest there is a steep degradation of pointing performance in both accuracy and speed for targets occupying a visual angle below 3 minutes of arc.
ACM
Leveraging the CrowdPaperRoom: Ballroom F
 
 
 
 
 
Human Computation Tasks with Global Constraints - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system for crowdsourcing itinerary planning called Mobi. Illustrates a novel crowdware concept for tackling complex tasks with global constraints by using a shared, collaborative workspace.
Abstract » An important class of tasks that are underexplored in current
human computation systems are complex tasks with global constraints.
One example of such a task is itinerary planning, where solutions
consist of a sequence of activities that meet requirements specified
by the requester. In this paper, we focus on the crowdsourcing of such
plans as a case study of constraint-based human computation tasks and
introduce a collaborative planning system called Mobi that illustrates
a novel crowdware paradigm. Mobi presents a single interface
that enables crowd participants to view the current solution context
and make appropriate contributions based on current needs. We conduct
experiments that explain how Mobi enables a crowd to effectively and
collaboratively resolve global constraints, and discuss how the design
principles behind Mobi can more generally facilitate a crowd to tackle
problems involving global constraints.
ACM
 
Strategies for Crowdsourcing Social Data Analysis - Paper
Community: management
Contribution & Benefit: Introduces a workflow in which data analysts enlist crowds to help explore data visualizations and generate hypotheses, and demonstrates seven strategies for eliciting high-quality explanations of data at scale.
Abstract » Web-based social data analysis tools that rely on public discussion to produce hypotheses or explanations of the patterns and trends in data, rarely yield high-quality results in practice. Crowdsourcing offers an alternative approach in which an analyst pays workers to generate such explanations. Yet, asking workers with varying skills, backgrounds and motivations to simply "Explain why a chart is interesting" can result in irrelevant, unclear or speculative explanations of variable quality. To address these problems, we contribute seven strategies for improving the quality and diversity of worker-generated explanations. Our experiments show that using (S1) feature-oriented prompts, providing (S2) good examples, and including (S3) reference gathering, (S4) chart reading, and (S5) annotation subtasks increases the quality of responses by 28% for US workers and 196% for non-US workers. Feature-oriented prompts improve explanation quality by 69% to 236% depending on the prompt. We also show that (S6) pre-annotating charts can focus workers' attention on relevant details, and demonstrate that (S7) generating explanations iteratively increases explanation diversity without increasing worker attrition. We used our techniques to generate 910 explanations for 16 datasets, and found that 63% were of high quality. These results demonstrate that paid crowd workers can reliably generate diverse, high-quality explanations that support the analysis of specific datasets.
ACM
 
Direct Answers for Search Queries in the Long Tail - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce Tail Answers: a large collection of crowdsourced search results that are unpopular individually but together address a large proportion of search traffic.
Abstract » Web search engines now offer more than ranked results. Queries on topics like weather, definitions, and movies may return inline results called answers that can resolve a searcher's information need without any additional interaction. Despite the usefulness of answers, they are limited to popular needs because each answer type is manually authored. To extend the reach of answers to thousands of new information needs, we introduce Tail Answers: a large collection of direct answers that are unpopular individually, but together address a large proportion of search traffic. These answers cover long-tail needs such as the average body temperature for a dog, substitutes for molasses, and the keyboard shortcut for a right-click. We introduce a combination of search log mining and paid crowdsourcing techniques to create Tail Answers. A user study with 361 participants suggests that Tail Answers significantly improved users' subjective ratings of search quality and their ability to solve needs without clicking through to a result. Our findings suggest that search engines can be extended to directly respond to a large new class of queries.
ACM
 
Distributed Sensemaking: Improving Sensemaking by Leveraging the Efforts of Previous Users - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We show that 'distributed sensemaking' -sensemaking while leveraging the sensemaking efforts of previous users- enables schema transfer between users, leading to improved sensemaking quality and helpfulness.
Abstract » We examine the possibility of distributed sensemaking: improving a user's sensemaking by leveraging previous users' work without those users directly collaborating or even knowing one another. We asked users to engage in sensemaking by organizing and annotating web search results into "knowledge maps," either with or without previous users' maps to work from. We also recorded gaze patterns as users examined others' knowledge maps. Our findings show the conditions under which distributed sensemaking can improve sensemaking quality; that a user's sensemaking process is readily apparent to a subsequent user via a knowledge map; and that the organization of content was more useful to subsequent users than the content itself, especially when those users had differing goals. We discuss the role distributed sensemaking can play in schema induction by helping users make a mental model of an information space and make recommendations for new tool and system development.
ACM
Getting Around: Menus, Scrolling, and Advanced NavigationPaperRoom: Ballroom G
 
 
 
 
 
Improving Command Selection with CommandMaps - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Introduces CommandMap interfaces for mouse-based command invocation. Theoretically and empirically demonstrates that their defining properties - spatially stable command locations and a flat command hierarchy - improve user performance.
Abstract » Designers of GUI applications typically arrange commands in hierarchical structures, such as menus, due to screen space limitations. However, hierarchical organisations are known to slow down expert users. This paper proposes the use of spatial memory in combination with hierarchy flattening as a means of improving GUI performance. We demonstrate these concepts through the design of a command selection interface, called CommandMaps, and analyse its theoretical performance characteristics. We then describe two studies evaluating CommandMaps against menus and Microsoft's Ribbon interface for both novice and experienced users. Results show that for novice users, there is no significant performance difference between CommandMaps and traditional interfaces -- but for experienced users, CommandMaps are significantly faster than both menus and the Ribbon.
ACM
 
Improving Scrolling Devices with Document Length Dependent Gain - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a method for applying document-length-dependent gain to events reported by scrolling input devices such as scroll wheels. Empirically demonstrates the method's benefits.
Abstract » We describe a method for applying gain to events reported by scrolling input devices such as scroll wheels. By treating document length as an input to our gain functions, the method allows rapid document traversal regardless of document length; it also allows slow and precise scroll control at shorter distances. An initial experiment characterises four diverse scrolling input devices -- a standard 'notched' scroll wheel, a high performance 'inertial' wheel, an isometric scrolling joystick, and a trackpad -- and the results are used to calibrate several gain function parameters. A second experiment validates the method, showing that it allows faster scrolling in long and short documents than current scrolling-device gain methods, and that subjective preferences favour it.
ACM
 
Aural Browsing On-The-Go: Listening-based Back Navigation in Large Web Architectures - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Listening to a mobile site while on-the-go can be challenging. This paper introduces and evaluates topic- and list-based back, two strategies to enhance mobile navigation while aurally browsing the web.
Abstract » Mobile web navigation requires highly-focused visual attention, which poses problems when it is inconvenient or distracting to continuously look at the screen (e.g., while walking). Aural interfaces support more eyes-free experiences, as users can primarily listen to the content and occasionally look at the device. Yet, designing aural information architectures remains a challenge. Specifically, back navigation is inefficient in the aural setting, as it forces users to listen to each previous page to retrieve the desired content. This paper introduces topic- and list-based back: two navigation strategies to enhance aural browsing. Both are manifest in Green-Savers Mobile (GSM), an aural mobile site. A study (N=29) compared both solutions to traditional back mechanisms. Our findings indicate that topic- and list-based back enable faster access to previous pages, improve the navigation experience and reduce perceived cognitive load. The proposed designs apply to a wide range of content-intensive, ubiquitous web systems.
ACM
 
PolyZoom: Multiscale and Multifocus Exploration in 2D Visual Spaces - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We present PolyZoom, a navigation technique for 2D-multiscale visual spaces that allows users to build a hierarchy of focus regions, thereby maintaining awareness of multiple scales at the same time.
Abstract » The most common techniques for navigating in multiscale visual spaces are pan, zoom, and bird's eye views. However, these techniques are often tedious and cumbersome to use, especially when objects of interest are located far apart. We present the PolyZoom technique where users progressively build hierarchies of focus regions, stacked on each other such that each subsequent level shows a higher magnification. Correlation graphics show the relation between parent and child viewports in the hierarchy. To validate the new technique, we compare it to standard navigation techniques in two user studies, one on multiscale visual search and the other on multifocus interaction. Results show that PolyZoom performs better than current standard techniques.
ACM
Course 6: Introduction to Research and Design for SustainabilityCourseRoom: 11A
 
 
Course 6: Introduction to Research and Design for Sustainability - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will give an introduction to the domain of Sustainable HCI. We will both discuss existing findings and approaches as well as open questions and future research needs.
Abstract » Research and Design for Sustainability is increasingly recognized as an essential focus for the CHI community, but the topic presents unique challenges in its definition, its concrete impact on User Experience as a discipline and field of research, and its tactical implementation in day-to-day practitioners’ work. In this Introduction, we will give an in-depth introduction to the domain of User Experience/HCI Research and Design for Sustainability. We will both discuss existing findings and approaches, as well as many of the intellectually fascinating open questions of this topic; we will also focus on practical strategies that practitioners can use to address them.

This course targets researchers as well as practitioners alike, who are currently working in, or are interested in the field of Research and Design for Sustainability. Even though the course will touch on industrial/product design for sustainability, its main focus will be on software products and holistic experiences. For this Introduction course, no prior experience in researching or designing for sustainability is necessary. Experienced researchers or professionals are welcome to participate in this course as a refresher to the current state of the art in the topic.

Both instructors have been involved in Sustainable Research and Design for a number of years, one in a research and educational setting (at Indiana University - Bloomington), the other in a corporate R&D environment (most recently at Samsung Research). Eli Blevis leads the Sustainable Interaction Design research group at Indiana. Daniela Busse has been working on various Sustainability projects since 2006 (e.g. on Energy Management, Carbon Labeling, Business Design for Sustainability). Both have co-authored several CHI panels, workshops and a SIG on sustainable HCI, were invited speakers at the National Science Foundation Workshop for an HCI & Sustainability research agenda in 2010, and are recognized as leading figures in Sustainable HCI.
SpectatorsPaper & ToCHIRoom: 19AB
 
 
 
 
 
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of Shop Windows - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a field study on how passers-by notice whether a public display is interactive. Can be useful to design public displays and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. The lab study reveals: (1) Mirrored user silhouettes and images are more effective than avatar-like representations. (2) It takes time to notice the interactivity (approx. 1.2s). In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice interactivity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows. Our findings can be used to design public display applications and shop windows that more effectively communicate interactivity to passers-by.
ACM
 
Urban HCI: Spatial Aspects in the Design of Shared Encounters for Media Facades - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We propose a terminology and a model for large-scale screens in urban environments. This model can help future designs for Media Facades to become more balanced and of greater social value.
Abstract » Designing interactive applications for Media Facades is a challenging task. Architectural sized largescale screens can result in unbalanced installations, and meaningful interaction is easily overshadowed by the drastic size of the display. In this paper we reflect on urban technology interventions by analyzing their spatial configuration in relation to the structuring of interaction. We outline basic categories and offer a new terminology to describe these interactive situations designed for the built environment.
ACM
 
Chained Displays: Configurations of Public Displays can be used to influence Actor-, Audience-, and Passer-By Behavior - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a design space and a field study on interactive non-flat public displays. Examines how non-flat displays impact actor-, audience- and passer-by behavior.
Abstract » Most interactive public displays currently rely on flat screens. This form factor impacts how users (1) notice the public display (2) develop motivation and (3) (socially) interact with the public display. In this paper, we present Chained Displays, a combination of several screens to create different form factors for interactive public displays. We also present a design space based on two complementary concepts, Focus and Nimbus, to describe and compare chained display configurations. Finally, we performed a field study comparing three chained displays: Flat, Concave, and Hexagonal. Results show that Flat triggers the strongest honeypot effect, Hexagonal causes low social learning, and Concave triggers the smallest amount of simultaneously interacting users among other findings.
ACM
 
Creating the Spectacle: Designing Interactional Trajectories Through Spectator Interfaces - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Ethnographic study reveals how artists designed and participants experienced a tabletop interface, shedding light on the design of tabletop and tangible interfaces, spectator interfaces, and trajectories through display ecologies
Abstract » An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists created a spectator interface for the interactive game Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height and materials of two tabletop interfaces before carefully arranging them in a local setting. We also show how participants experienced this interface. We consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale notion of interactional trajectory that combined trajectories through individual displays, trajectories through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories through an entire experience. Our findings shed light on discussions within HCI concerning interaction with tangible and tabletop displays, spectator interfaces, ecologies of displays, and trajectories through cultural experiences.
Monday, May 07, 14:30
alt.chi: Reflections and Transgressionsalt.chiRoom: 12AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
UCD: Critique via Parody and a Sequel - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This alt.chi paper abandons technical writing conventions to parody user-centred design, and having predicted its imminent demise, more seriously derives a position (BIG design) on what could follow.
Abstract » User-Centred Design (UCD) can’t and doesn’t design on its own. Parasitic on software design, and appropriating participatory design, UCD is legitimated by what other design traditions allegedly do not do, rather than what UCD actually does make happen. Much Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research doesn’t design, proudly rejecting any need for implications for design. UCD is strong on problems, but weak on solutions. Such weaknesses have become masked by orthodoxy and disciplinary ideology. Direct challenges to UCD are not welcome within HCI research. As a step towards finding something new and better to believe in, this alt.chi paper parodies UCD as a basis for a critique of HCI values that identifies one possible way forward.
 
Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: This work provides the first empirical evidence of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research and writing using online tools, and reveals opportunities and complexities of this process.
Abstract » Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
 
What is the Object of Design? - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes design as accessing, aligning, and navigating “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents, combining creativity, participation and experience in drawing-things-together.
Abstract » In this paper we reflect upon design at a conceptual level, discussing how creativity can be coupled with participation and experience, dialoguing with philosophers and social theorists, and looking for the experiential grounds of our understanding of the very nature of design. Three words: ‘drawing’, ‘thing’ and ‘together’, are at the center of our discourse. We propose a view of design as accessing, aligning, and navigating among the “constituents” of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents. The object of design is to draw things together.
 
Designing Collaborative Media: A Challenge for CHI? - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: A retrospective on 10+ years of experimentation with designing collaborative media. Implications for the CHI community are significant, in terms of design process as well as designer roles.
Abstract » Collaborative media refers to digital media where people outside the traditional media industries participate in production as well as infrastructural design. We argue that (1) people’s use of computers today increasingly comprise communicating in collaborative media, and that (2) designing collaborative media implies fundamental changes to design processes and designer roles, which in turn (3) forms a challenge to the proactive position of the CHI community in shaping future computer use.
 
Ethics and Dilemmas of Online Ethnography - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Describes methodological issues related to online ethnography, particularly recruiting strategies and member checks.
Abstract » Using the example of research conducted in the body modification community, this paper considers some of the methodological issues of researching online communities, especially when those communities are marginalized or non-dominant. Drawing on texts that address ethical ethnographies of subcultures, I focus on boundaries between insiders and outsiders issues of recruitment, and measures of validity.
Immateriality as a Design FeaturePaperRoom: 17AB
 
 
 
 
 
Investigating the Presence, Form and Behavior of Virtual Possessions in the Context of a Teen Bedroom - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents and interprets findings from user enactments with teenagers investigating 4 design concepts that advance the form and behavior of virtual possessions.
Abstract » Over the past several years, people have acquired more and more virtual possessions. While virtual possessions have become ubiquitous, little work exists to inform designers on how these growing collections should be displayed and how they should behave. We generated four design concepts that changed the form and behavior of these digital things, making them more present within a teen bedroom. We then conducted speed dating sessions to investigate how these new forms and behaviors influence perceptions of value. Sessions revealed how new technologies might better support self-exploration and reflection, as well as how they could complicate identity construction processes. Findings are interpreted to detail opportunities and tensions that can guide future research and practice in this emerging space.
ACM
 
Technology Heirlooms? Considerations for Passing Down and Inheriting Digital Materials - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes new knowledge about the design of technologies to support (and potentially complicate) inheriting, living with and passing down treasured digital content among family members and across generations.
Abstract » Material artifacts are passed down as a way of sustaining relationships and family history. However, new issues are emerging as families are increasingly left with the digital remains of their loved ones. We designed three devices to investigate how digital materials might be passed down, lived with and inherited in the future. We conducted in-home interviews with 8 families using the devices to provoke discussion about how technology might support (or complicate) their existing practices. Sessions revealed families desired to treat their archives in ways not fully supported by technology as well as potential tensions that could emerge. Findings are interpreted to detail design considerations for future work in this emerging space.
ACM
 
Digitality and Materiality of New Media: Online TV Watching in China - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presenting an analysis of the use of traditional vs. new TV media in China, highlighting the interplay between digitality and materiality in shaping experiences. Contributes a better understanding of media phenomena.
Abstract » This paper examines issues of digitality and materiality of new media, grounded in a study of online TV watching in China. Particularly, by looking at how people make choices and decisions regarding TV watching in everyday life, we highlight material and digital properties of new media TV, and how they support and condition actions and interactions around them. The study illustrates that materiality and digitality are complementary, instead of one substituting the other, and are highly intertwined in the hybrid media environment around which meaningful experiences are conditioned and produced. It also suggests that an analytic distinction between materiality and digitality is fruitful in unpacking the complex relations between media technologies and social experiences.
ACM
 
Writing the Experience of Information Retrieval: Digital Collection Design as a Form of Dialogue - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a process in which designers "write" a resource collection as a form of rhetorical expression. Demonstrates the use of humanistic criticism as an element of collection design.
Abstract » In the context of digital libraries and other online resource collections, the substance of interaction is generated to a large degree through the selection, description, organization, and arrangement of the aggregated items. Within information studies, researchers [such as 32, 6] have shown how individual events of selection and description inevitably form judgments about the collected materials. This paper describes a process in which designers purposefully use the elements of selection, description, organization, and arrangement to "write" a resource collection as a form of rhetorical expression. The design process was implemented in two classroom settings. In the more successful second implementation, the role of the audience in structuring a rhetorical interaction was emphasized, and collection design was conceptualized as designing a dialogue between author and audience. The formalized critique of existing collection designs was a key element in enabling this dialogic orientation.
ACM
Course 7: Assessing Usability Capability Using ISO StandardsCourseRoom: 13A
 
 
Course 7: Assessing Usability Capability Using ISO Standards - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Learn how to assess usability maturity and identify areas where an organization needs to improve, either by using a workshop for process improvement, or a formal assessment of usability capability.
Abstract » The most commonly reported approach to usability process improvement is for an organization to start with usability testing as this has recognized value, even though the benefits are limited by the difficulty of making significant improvements late in the lifecycle. The perceived benefits of testing are then used to gradually justify activities earlier in the lifecycle.

The difficulty with this approach is that it usually only involves relatively junior management. When personnel change, or economies are being made in the organization the usability work can be vulnerable.

The course will suggest a more structured approach to usability process improvement, by auditing the extent to which the good practice embodied in ISO TR 18529 is implemented in typical projects, and identifying areas for organizational improvement.

The course recommends use of material from ISO standards not just because they are standards, but because they contain the most comprehensive and systematic information available, which represents the consensus of international experts in the field.

Each ISO 18529 activity can be assessed as not done, partially done, largely done or fully done, as part of systems development. This can be carried out relatively informally in a process improvement workshop, or as part of a more formal process assessment of usability maturity (analogous to the software process assessment that can be carried out using the SEI CMM - Capability Maturity Model).

This information enables an organization to decide how much improvement is desirable in particular areas, or on an activity-by-activity basis.

Case studies will be presented of assessments of different degrees of formality that have been carried out in three organizations.

The course is suitable for anyone interested in assessing usability maturity and improving usability capability. Basic familiarity with the area of user-centered design is assumed, but no prior knowledge of ISO standards is needed.
Course 8: Evidenced-Based Social Design of Online CommunitiesCourseRoom: 15
 
 
Course 8: Evidenced-Based Social Design of Online Communities - Course
Contribution & Benefit: To become successful, online communities must meet challenges, including starting up and encouraging contributions. This tutorial reviews social science theory and research on these topics and translates it into design recommendations.
Abstract » Online communities are among the fastest growing sections of the Internet and provide members with information, companionship, social support and entertainment. Although as a class these online communities are very successful, the success of particular ones varies widely and many fail.

To become or remain successful, online communities must meet a number of challenges that are common to offline as well as online groups and organizations. For example, online communities must handle the start-up challenge: early in their lifecycle they have few members to generate content and little content to attract members. Throughout their lifecycle, they must recruit and socialize newcomers, encourage commitment and contribution from members, solve problems of coordination and encourage appropriate behavior among members and interlopers alike. This tutorial is organized around two of these design challenges – starting a community and getting members to contribute to it.

The social sciences can tell us a lot about how to make thriving online communities. Economics and various branches of psychology offer theories of individual motivation and of human behavior in social situations. Properly interpreted, they can inform choices about how to get a community started and motivate contributions.

After taking this tutorial, students will appreciate the value of using social science research as the basis for social design. They will have had an introduction to the social science literature relevant to problems of encouraging contributions in online communities and starting a community from scratch. Through exercises, they will appreciate how to translate theory and evidence into designs. They will have pointers to where to learn more.

The tutorial is based on the presenters’ new book, Kraut & Resnick (2012). Building successful online communities: Evidence-based social design. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Participants will receive prints of relevant book chapters.
Course 9: Practical Statistics for User Research Part ICourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 9: Practical Statistics for User Research Part I - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Learn to generate confidence intervals and compare two designs using rating scale data, binary measures and task times for large and small sample sizes.
Abstract » If you don't measure it you can't manage it. User-research is about more than rules of thumb, good design and intuition: it's about making better decisions with data. Is Product A preferred more than Product B? Will more users complete tasks on the new design? Learn how to conduct and interpret appropriate statistical tests on small and large sample data then communicate your results in easy to understand terms to stakeholders.


Features

-- Get a visual introduction or refresher to the most important statistical concepts for applied use.
-- Know which statistical test to use and when
-- Be able to compare two interfaces or versions (A/B Testing) by showing statistical significance (e.g. Product A takes 20% less time to complete a task than Product B p <.05).

-- Clearly understand both the limits and data available from small sample usability data through use of confidence intervals.

Audience

Open to anyone who's interested in quantitative user research. Participants should be familiar with the process of conducting usability tests or research as well as basic descriptive statistics such as the mean, median and standard deviation and have access to Microsoft Excel. Participants will receive an Excel calculator which will perform the statistical calculations.

The presentation will be a mix of enthusiastic instruction, with movie-clips, pictures, demonstrations and interactive exercises all aimed at helping make the abstract topic of statistics concrete, memorable and actionable.
Privacy + Self DisclosurePaperRoom: 18AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Mismeasurement of Privacy: Using Contextual Integrity to Reconsider Privacy in HCI - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: The paper criticizes the ways in which privacy issues have been studied within HCI and ubicomp. It provides an analysis of privacy on the basis of contextual integrity.
Abstract » Privacy is a widely studied concept in relation to social computing and sensor-based technologies; scores of research papers have investigated people's "privacy preferences" and apparent reluctance to share personal data. In this paper we explore how Ubicomp and HCI studies have approached the notion of privacy, often as a quantifiable concept. Leaning on several theoretical frameworks, but in particular Nissenbaum's notion of contextual integrity, we question the viability of obtaining universal answers in terms of people's "general" privacy practices and apply elements of Nissenbaum's theory to our own data in order to illustrate its relevance. We then suggest restructuring inquiries into information sharing in studies of state-of-the-art technologies and analyze contextually grounded issues using a different, more specific vocabulary. Finally, we provide the first building blocks to such vocabulary.
ACM
 
Tag, You Can See It! Using Tags for Access Control in Photo Sharing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Lab study exploring whether intuitive access-control policies can be made from photo tags created for organizational and access-control purposes. Can increase understanding of user engagement with tag-based access control systems.
Abstract » Users often have rich and complex photo-sharing preferences, but properly configuring access control can be difficult and time-consuming. In an 18-participant laboratory study, we explore whether the keywords and captions with which users tag their photos can be used to help users more intuitively create and maintain access-control policies. We find that (a) tags created for organizational purposes can be repurposed to create efficient and reasonably accurate access-control rules; (b) users tagging with access control in mind develop coherent strategies that lead to significantly more accurate rules than those associated with organizational tags alone; and (c) participants can understand and actively engage with the concept of tag-based access control.
ACM
 
Curation, Provocation, and Digital Identity: Risks and Motivations for Sharing Provocative Images Online - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates the phenomena of posting personal, revealing, and controversial images online. Provides recommendations for the development of systems that support these activities and directions for future work.
Abstract » Among the billions of photos that have been contributed to online photo-sharing sites, there are many that are provocative, controversial, and deeply personal. Previous research has examined motivations for sharing images online and has identified several key motivations for doing so: expression, curation of identity, maintaining social connections, and recording experiences. However, few studies have focused on the perceived risks of posting photos online and even fewer have examined the risks associated with provocative, controversial, or deeply personal images. In our work, we used photo-elicitation interviews to explore the motivations for posting these types of images and the perceived risks of doing so. In this paper, we describe our findings from those interviews.
ACM
 
The Implications of Offering More Disclosure Choices for Social Location Sharing - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents findings from a study that looks at how different types of disclosure options can influence users' privacy preferences for location sharing. Can help in building better privacy configuration UIs.
Abstract » We compared two privacy configuration styles for specifying rules for social sharing one's past locations. Our findings suggest that location-sharing applications (LSAs) which support varying levels of location granularities are associated with sharing rules that are less convoluted, are less likely to be negatively phrased, and can lead to more open sharing; users are also more comfortable with these rules. These findings can help inform LSA privacy designs.
ACM
 
Interactivity as Self-Expression: A Field Experiment with Customization and Blogging - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an experiment with a portal site varying in functional customization, cosmetic customization and active vs. filter blogging. Provides user-centered guidelines for designing interactive tools that afford self-expression.
Abstract » A paradigmatic quality of interactive interfaces is that they allow users to express themselves, thereby converting message receivers into communication sources. We define this quality as Source Interactivity [26, 29], and test its effects on user experience with a field experiment (N=141) of a portal site featuring cosmetic customization, functional customization and blogging (active versus filter). In demonstrating the psychological influence of source-based interactivity on such outcomes as user engagement, sense of agency, sense of community, intrinsic motivation and attitudes toward the interface, we discuss how designers can use them for creating interactive tools for self-expression.
ACM
Course 5: Art and HCI in CollaborationCourseRoom: 13B
 
 
Course 5: Art and HCI in Collaboration - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will enable participants to develop skills in planning and carrying out collaborative projects in the intersection of HCI and the digital arts.
Abstract » In this two-session course, we address how CHI
practitioners and researchers can work collaboratively
with digital artists on interaction projects. We establish
the context of the relationship between digital arts and
HCI through the forty-year history of interactive digital
art. We then address the benefits and challenges of
collaboration across disciplines through presentation,
discussion, and appeal to case studies. We guide
participants to understand potential issues that may
emerge in collaborative projects they would like to
undertake, or are undertaking, and work with them to
establish an agenda to move forward with
collaboration.

The course will proceed through a series of topics:
• An introduction featuring the promises of collaboration between HCI and digital arts
• A presentation of the history of interactive digital art
• Discussions of challenges to collaboration
• Encouragement of participants to submit ideas for collaborative projects they would like to work on, or are currently
working on, with issues they are facing or anticipate facing
• Case studies to ground the discussion of issues
• Reflective discussion of the digital art represented at CHI2012
• Encouragement of participants to write an agenda for their collaborative projects based on results of the course.
Supporting Visually Impaired UsersPaperRoom: 18CD
 
 
 
 
 
CrossingGuard: Exploring Information Content in Navigation Aids for the Visually Impaired - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: User study to investigate the information needs of visually impaired pedestrians at intersections. We also present a system to gather the necessary information using Google's Street View and Amazon's Mechanical Turk.
Abstract » Visually impaired pedestrians experience unique challenges when navigating an urban environment because many cues about orientation and traffic patterns are difficult to ascertain without the use of vision. Technological aids such as customized GPS navigation tools offer the chance to augment visually impaired pedestrians� sensory information with a richer depiction of an environment, but care must be taken to balance the need for more information with other demands on the senses. In this paper, we focus on the information needs of visually impaired pedestrians at intersections, which present a specific cause of stress when navigating in unfamiliar locations. We present a navigation application prototype called CrossingGuard that provides rich information to a user such as details about intersection geometry that are not available to visually impaired pedestrians today. A user study comparing content-rich information to a baseline condition shows that content-rich information raises the level of comfort that visually impaired pedestrians feel at unfamiliar intersections. In addition, we discuss the categories of information that are most useful. Finally, we introduce a micro-task approach to gather intersection data via Street View annotations that achieves 85.5% accuracy over the 9 categories of information used by CrossingGuard.
ACM
 
SpaceSense: Representing Geographical Information to Visually Impaired People Using Spatial Tactile Feedback - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates a mobile interface that helps people with visual impairments learn directions to a location and its spatial relationships with other locations on a map through spatial tactile feedback.
Abstract » Learning an environment can be challenging for people with visual impairments. Braille maps allow their users to understand the spatial relationship between a set of places. However, physical Braille maps are often costly, may not always cover an area of interest with sufficient detail, and might not present up-to-date information. We built a handheld system for representing geographical information called SpaceSense, which includes custom spatial tactile feedback hardware�multiple vibration motors attached to different locations on a mobile touch-screen device. It offers high-level information about the distance and direction towards a destination and bookmarked places through vibrotactile feedback to help the user maintain the spatial relationships between these points. SpaceSense also adapts a summarization technique for online user reviews of public and commercial venues. Our user study shows that participants could build and maintain the spatial relationships between places on a map more accurately with SpaceSense compared to a system without spatial tactile feedback. They pointed specifically to having spatial tactile feedback as the contributing factor in successfully building and maintaining their mental map.
ACM
 
The User as a Sensor: Navigating Users with Visual Impairments in Indoor Spaces using Tactile Landmarks - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an indoor navigation system that appropriates the user to be a sensor. The system can improve mobility for users with visual impairments and can be installed at low cost.
Abstract » Indoor navigation systems for users who are visually impaired typically rely upon expensive physical augmentation of the environment or expensive sensing equipment; consequently few systems have been implemented. We present an indoor navigation system called Navatar that allows for localization and navigation by exploiting the physical characteristics of indoor environments, taking advantage of the unique sensing abilities of users with visual impairments, and minimalistic sensing achievable with low cost accelerometers available in smartphones. Particle filters are used to estimate the user's location based on the accelerometer data as well as the user confirming the presence of anticipated tactile landmarks along the provided path. Navatar has a high possibility of large-scale deployment, as it only requires an annotated virtual representation of an indoor environment. A user study with six blind users determines the accuracy of the approach, collects qualitative experiences and identifies areas for improvement.
ACM
 
Guidelines are Only Half of the Story: Accessibility Problems Encountered by Blind Users on the Web - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: An empirical study of 1383 problems encountered on 16 websites by 32 blind users. These problems were analysed for whether they were covered by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines version 2.0
Abstract » This paper describes an empirical study of the problems encountered by 32 blind users on the Web. Task-based user evaluations were undertaken on 16 websites, yielding 1383 instances of user problems. The results showed that only 50.4% of the problems encountered by users were covered by Success Criteria in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0). For user problems that were covered by WCAG 2.0, 16.7% of websites implemented techniques recommended in WCAG 2.0 but the techniques did not solve the problems. These results show that few developers are implementing the current version of WCAG, and even when the guidelines are implemented on websites there is little indication that people with disabilities will encounter fewer problems. The paper closes by discussing the implications of this study for future research and practice. In particular, it discusses the need to move away from a problem-based approach towards a design principle approach for web accessibility.
ACM
Invited: Child Computer Interaction SIG - Postcards and ConversationsSIG MeetingRoom: 11B
 
 
Invited: Child Computer Interaction SIG - Postcards and Conversations - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The networking event for the Child Computer Interaction community, especially designed to welcome new comers in the field, and to allow lots of informal and personal interaction.
Abstract » This special interest group provides the forum for an unofficial gathering of the Child-Computer Interaction community for CHI 2012. Its aim is to provide a venue for structured discussions and networking. Particularly, it aims to support newcomers to this community and to CHI 2012, to acquire an overview of people, topics, and trends that are active in the area. Further, it aims to attract participants with an active interest in the topic of child computer interaction to engage in the various activities of this community, in and outside CHI 2012.
Text VisualizationPaperRoom: 16AB
 
 
 
 
 
Interpretation and Trust: Designing Model-Driven Visualizations for Text Analysis - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Proposed criteria (interpretation and trust) to guide the design of model-driven visualizations. Contributed strategies (align, verify, modify, progressive disclosure) to aid designers in achieving interpretability and trustworthiness in visual analysis tools.
Abstract » Statistical topic models can help analysts discover patterns in large text corpora by identifying recurring sets of words and enabling exploration by topical concepts. However, understanding and validating the output of these models can itself be a challenging analysis task. In this paper, we offer two design considerations--interpretation and trust--for designing visualizations based on data-driven models. Interpretation refers to the facility with which an analyst makes inferences about the data through the lens of a model abstraction. Trust refers to the actual and perceived accuracy of an analyst's inferences. These considerations derive from our experiences developing the Stanford Dissertation Browser, a tool for exploring over 9,000 Ph.D. theses by topical similarity, and a subsequent review of existing literature. We contribute a novel similarity measure for text collections based on a notion of "word-borrowing" that arose from an iterative design process. Based on our experiences and a literature review, we distill a set of design recommendations and describe how they promote interpretable and trustworthy visual analysis tools.
ACM
 
V-Model: A New Innovative Model to Chronologically Visualize Narrative Clinical Texts - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Proposes and verifies an innovative timeline model for narrative clinical events. Solves natural language representation problems, provides information for temporal reasoning, and is intuitive for understanding patient histories.
Abstract » Visualizing narrative medical events into a timeline can have positive effects on clinical environments. However, the characteristics of natural language and medical environments make this representation more difficult. This paper explains the obstacles and suggests a solution called the V-Model. The V-Model is a new innovative time model that was developed to represent chronological narrative events in a medical domain. Forty medical students participated in evaluating this model. The experimental results show the new model successfully solved the modeling requirements and had better usability compared to conventional timeline models. All the participants assessed the new timeline as very useful in effectively understanding a patient's history.
ACM
 
JigsawMap: Connecting the Past to the Future by Mapping Historical Textual Cadasters - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present an interactive visualization tool for visualizing and mapping historical textual cadasters. It can help historians understand the social/economic background of changes in land uses or ownership.
Abstract » In this paper, we present an interactive visualization tool, JigsawMap, for visualizing and mapping historical textual cadasters. A cadaster is an official register that records land properties (e.g., location, ownership, value and size) for land valuation and taxation. Such mapping of old and new cadasters can help historians understand the social/economic background of changes in land uses or ownership. With JigsawMap, historians can continue mapping older or newer cadasters. In this way, JigsawMap can connect the past land survey results to today and to the future. We conducted usability studies and long term case studies to evaluate JigsawMap, and received positive responses. As well as summarizing the evaluation results, we also present design guidelines for participatory design projects with historians.
ACM
 
Semantic Interaction for Visual Text Analytics - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Description of design space for user interaction for visual analytics called Semantic Interaction, coupling foraging and synthesis stages of sensemaking. The system, ForceSPIRE, supports users throughout sensemaking for text documents.
Abstract » Visual analytics emphasizes sensemaking of large, complex datasets through interactively exploring visualizations generated by statistical models. For example, dimensionality reduction methods use various similarity metrics to visualize textual document collections in a spatial metaphor, where similarities between documents are approximately represented through their relative spatial distances to each other in a 2D layout. This metaphor is designed to mimic analysts� mental models of the document collection and support their analytic processes, such as clustering similar documents together. However, in current methods, users must interact with such visualizations using controls external to the visual metaphor, such as sliders, menus, or text fields, to directly control underlying model parameters that they do not understand and that do not relate to their analytic process occurring within the visual metaphor. In this paper, we present the opportunity for a new design space for visual analytic interaction, called semantic interaction, which seeks to enable analysts to spatially interact with such models directly within the visual metaphor using interactions that derive from their analytic process, such as searching, highlighting, annotating, and repositioning documents. Further, we demonstrate how semantic interactions can be implemented using machine learning techniques in a visual analytic tool, called ForceSPIRE, for interactive analysis of textual data within a spatial visualization. Analysts can express their expert domain knowledge about the documents by simply moving them, which guides the underlying model to improve the overall layout, taking the user�s feedback into account.
ACM
Lifetime Practice Achievement: Joy MountfordSpecial EventsRoom: Ballroom D
 
 
Award Talk: Joy Mountford, Innovation: when is early too early? - Special Events
Abstract » Every company wants and needs to innovate to produce competitive products. This is particularly critical now in the US. Many of these prototype product ideas are quite good, but never see the light of day. At different times and within alternate companies they later become excellent products. There are many factors that contribute to good ideas apparently 'failing' to be released. Rarely are there papers or discussions held to dissect what factors led to their apparent rejection. Companies often repeat innovation mistakes, without benefitting from the hindsight from others. I will illustrate many media based products I have been involved with and were left on the shelf, only to come to life later. Although innovative enough, I will share the insights that probably led them not to come to market.

BIO: S. Joy Mountford is currently a consultant to eBay on the future of ecommerce. Through her long career in human-computer interaction she has been an internationally recognized leader in the field. She has designed and led teams designing a wide variety of systems. She has led teams designing and developing a wide variety of computer systems. She was a VP of User Experience Design at Yahoo!, a VP of Digital User Experience and Design at Barnes and Noble and an Osher Fellow at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, CA. She was a senior project lead at Interval Research, and continues to consult to a variety of companies and to present innovative talks world-wide. She headed the acclaimed Human Interface Group at Apple in the late '80s and '90s; beginning her career as a designer at Honeywell and a project leader in the Interface Research Group at Microelectronics Computer Consortium (MCC). Her impact continues through the International Design Expo, which she created over 20 years ago to challenge the next generation of interdisciplinary graduates.
Brain and BodyPaperRoom: Ballroom E
 
 
 
 
 
 
Touché: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects - Paper
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Touché uses a novel Swept Frequency Capacitive Sensing technique that can easily add rich touch and gesture sensitivity to a wide variety of objects, including the human body and water.
Abstract » Touché proposes a novel Swept Frequency Capacitive Sensing technique that can not only detect a touch event, but also recognize complex configurations of the human hands and body. Such contextual information significantly enhances touch interaction in a broad range of applications, from conventional touchscreens to unique contexts and materials. For example, in our explorations we add touch and gesture sensitivity to the human body and liquids. We demonstrate the rich capabilities of Touché with five example setups from different application domains and conduct experimental studies that show gesture classification accuracies of 99% are achievable with our technology.
ACM
 
Detecting Error-Related Negativity for Interaction Design - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Demonstrate the capabilities of an off-the-shelf headset in detecting Error Related Negativity on a single trial basis. Show that the detection accuracies are sufficient for use in real-time interactive applications.
Abstract » This paper examines the ability to detect a characteristic brain potential called the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) using off-the-shelf headsets and explores its applicability to HCI. ERN is triggered when a user either makes a mistake or the application behaves differently from their expectation. We first show that ERN can be seen on signals captured by EEG headsets like Emotiv� when doing a typical multiple choice reaction time (RT) task � Flanker task. We then present a single-trial online ERN algorithm that works by pre-computing the coefficient matrix of a logistic regression classifier using some data from a multiple choice reaction time task and uses it to classify incoming signals of that task on a single trial of data. We apply it to an interactive selection task that involved users selecting an object under time pressure. Furthermore the study was conducted in a typical office environment with ambient noise. Our results show that online single trial ERN detection is possible using off-the-shelf headsets during tasks that are typical of interactive applications. We then design a Superflick experiment with an integrated module mimicking an ERN detector to evaluate the accuracy of detecting ERN in the context of assisting users in interactive tasks. Based on these results we discuss and present several HCI scenarios for use of ERN.
ACM
 
Implanted User Interfaces - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the effect of skin on traditional components for sensing input, providing output, and for communicating, synchronizing and charging wirelessly.
Abstract » We investigate implanted user interfaces that small devices provide when implanted underneath human skin. Such devices always stay with the user, making their implanted user interfaces available at all times. We discuss four core challenges of implanted user interfaces: how to sense input through the skin, how to produce output, how to communicate amongst one another and with external infrastructure, and how to remain powered. We investigate these four challenges in a technical evaluation where we surgically implant study devices into a specimen arm. We find that traditional interfaces do work through skin. We then demonstrate how to deploy a prototype device on participants, using artificial skin to simulate implantation. We close with a discussion of medical considerations of implanted user interfaces, risks and limitations, and project into the future.
ACM
 
EEG Analysis of Implicit Human Visual Perception - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Explores use of EEG as an implicit measure of video quality. Can be used to derive a new perception-based quality metric for use in image-based rendering and optimization of IBR techniques
Abstract » Image Based Rendering (IBR) allows interactive scene
exploration from images alone. However, despite
considerable development in the area, one of the main
obstacles to better quality and more realistic visualizations
is the occurrence of visually disagreeable artifacts. In this
paper we present a methodology to map out the perception
of IBR-typical artifacts. This work presents an alternative to
traditional image and video quality evaluation methods by
using an EEG device to determine the implicit visual
processes in the human brain. Our work demonstrates the
distinct differences in the perception of different types of
visual artifacts and the implications of these differences.
ACM
 
Development and Evaluation of Interactive System for Synchronizing Electric Taste and Visual Content - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes apparatuses to add electric taste to food or drink and the latencies for electric taste and visual stimuli to develop an interactive system synchronizing those contents.
Abstract » Electric taste is a characteristic taste produced when the tongue is electrically stimulated. We have proposed apparatuses to add electric taste to food and drink. An interactive system could be developed to synchronize video contents using the reversibility and instantaneity of electric taste. However, to do so, the presentation time must be determined based on the different latency for the perception of each sense. We measured the latencies for electric taste and visual stimuli as a basic evaluation for a content presentation system in which electric taste and visual content are synchronized.
ACM
Women in UX Leadership in BusinessPanelRoom: Ballroom F
 
 
Women in UX Leadership in Business - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership in business. Our panelists of women leaders will share their insights with the UX community.
Abstract » The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership. Despite ongoing progress toward equality, women still haven’t reached significant representation in leadership positions in the high-tech industry. Is the field of User Experience an exception to this norm? Does the interdisciplinary nature of UX play a role in making it easier or more difficult for women in our field? Does a career in UX, regardless of gender place a glass ceiling on upward mobility into “C” level positions? Our accomplished panel of UX managers will share their professional journeys, their observations on advantages and disadvantages, and their advice for the next generation.
Empathy and Technology: Focus on the End UserCase Study & PaperRoom: Ballroom G
 
 
 
 
 
 
Empathy, Participatory Design and People with Dementia - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present a participatory design approach for people with dementia focusing on their experiences by developing an empathic relationship with them illustrated through the design of a safe walking aid.
Abstract » We describe the development, application and evaluation of a design method tailored for working with people with mild to moderate dementia. Our experiences with the approach highlighted areas where designers and participants held radically different views. The tenet of our approach was that to overcome these differences we needed to create an empathic relationship between participants and designers. To achieve this we modified participatory design techniques to foster respectful engagement with participants in the development of a digital aid to facilitate �safe walking‟. The process begins with broad qualitative scoping and design work then moves to developing personally tailored, individual designs to further exploration of the experiential elements of the domain while reducing the need for the participants to engage in abstract thought. Reflection highlights a number of important areas that demand consideration when undertaking research in this area and, more generally, when performing design work with people with dementia.
ACM
 
From Death to Final Disposition: Roles of Technology in the Post-Mortem Interval - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes technology roles in collaborative processes, in the time from user death to final disposition. Provides insights into design for end of life and repurposing of data.
Abstract » In this paper, we describe collaborative processes and stakeholders involved in the period from when a person dies until they are laid to rest: the funeral, final disposition of the body, and (in some circumstances) victim identification. The rich mixture of technologies currently deployed during this brief period are categorized and critically analyzed. We then reflect on the implications of our findings, both for the design of technology that takes the end of life into account, and for the wider HCI community.
ACM
 
On Saliency, Affect and Focused Attention - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Study how saliency of relevant information impacts user engagement metrics, namely, focused attention and affect. Of interest to website owner, entertainment-oriented or other, interested in understanding user engagement.
Abstract » We study how the visual catchiness (saliency) of relevant information impacts user engagement metrics such as focused attention and emotion (affect). Participants completed tasks in one of two conditions, where the task-relevant information either appeared salient or non-salient. Our analysis provides insights into relationships between saliency, focused attention, and affect. Participants reported more distraction in the non-salient condition, and non-salient information was slower to find than salient. Lack-of-saliency led to a negative impact on affect, while saliency maintained positive affect, suggesting its helpfulness. Participants reported that it was easier to focus in the salient condition, although there was no significant improvement in the focused attention scale rating. Finally, this study suggests user interest in the topic is a good predictor of focused attention, which in turn is a good predictor of positive affect. These results suggest that enhancing saliency of user-interested topics seems a good strategy for boosting user engagement.
ACM
 
The Way I Talk to You: Sentiment Expression in an Organizational Context - Note
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Empirically identifies the relationships between sentiment expression and the four primary dimensions of social interactions in organizations: involvement, tie strength, network size, and performance.
Abstract » Sentiment is a rich and important dimension of social interaction. However, its presence in computer-mediated communication in corporate settings is not well understood. This paper provides a preliminary study of people�s expression of sentiment in email conversations in an organizational context. The study reveals that sentiment levels evolve over time during the process of newcomers� socialization, that sentiment varies according to tie-strength with the recipient, and that sentiment patterns can be indicative of one�s position in the corporate social network as well as job performance. These findings shed light on the complex and dynamic nature of sentiment patterns, and would inspire further explorations and applications of sentiment analysis in organizations.
ACM
 
Eustressed or Distressed? Combining Physiology with Observation in User Studies - Short Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study presents method that enables quantification and disambiguation of emotional arousal states. Emotional analysis in human-centered computing can benefit from this method that efficiently combines quantitative and qualitative information.
Abstract » In this article the authors describe a novel way to conduct user studies via the combination of a physiological and an observational information channel. The method enables not only the quantification of arousing emotional states but also their disambiguation into positive or negative instances. The physiological channel targets sympathetic responses and is materialized as a perspiratory signal extracted from thermal imagery of the perinasal area. The observational channel is materialized via decoding of facial expressions. However, while such decoding is usually performed in the visible spectrum, the authors have developed an algorithm to carry this out in thermal imagery instead. Thus, thermal imaging is used for both physiological and observational analysis. The potential of this dual unobtrusive methodology is demonstrated with some examples from a stress study, where users (surgeons in this case) interact with laparoscopic training boxes.
Course 6: Introduction to Research and Design for SustainabilityCourseRoom: 11A
 
 
Course 6: Introduction to Research and Design for Sustainability - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will give an introduction to the domain of Sustainable HCI. We will both discuss existing findings and approaches as well as open questions and future research needs.
Abstract » Research and Design for Sustainability is increasingly recognized as an essential focus for the CHI community, but the topic presents unique challenges in its definition, its concrete impact on User Experience as a discipline and field of research, and its tactical implementation in day-to-day practitioners’ work. In this Introduction, we will give an in-depth introduction to the domain of User Experience/HCI Research and Design for Sustainability. We will both discuss existing findings and approaches, as well as many of the intellectually fascinating open questions of this topic; we will also focus on practical strategies that practitioners can use to address them.

This course targets researchers as well as practitioners alike, who are currently working in, or are interested in the field of Research and Design for Sustainability. Even though the course will touch on industrial/product design for sustainability, its main focus will be on software products and holistic experiences. For this Introduction course, no prior experience in researching or designing for sustainability is necessary. Experienced researchers or professionals are welcome to participate in this course as a refresher to the current state of the art in the topic.

Both instructors have been involved in Sustainable Research and Design for a number of years, one in a research and educational setting (at Indiana University - Bloomington), the other in a corporate R&D environment (most recently at Samsung Research). Eli Blevis leads the Sustainable Interaction Design research group at Indiana. Daniela Busse has been working on various Sustainability projects since 2006 (e.g. on Energy Management, Carbon Labeling, Business Design for Sustainability). Both have co-authored several CHI panels, workshops and a SIG on sustainable HCI, were invited speakers at the National Science Foundation Workshop for an HCI & Sustainability research agenda in 2010, and are recognized as leading figures in Sustainable HCI.
WorkplaceCase Study & PaperRoom: 19AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
"A Pace Not Dictated by Electrons": An Empirical Study of Work Without Email - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Empirical study shows that when information workers' email was cut off, they multitasked less and had lower stress. Results suggest how organizations can alleviate the burden of email on employees.
Abstract » We report on an empirical study where we cut off email usage for five workdays for 13 information workers in an organization. We employed both quantitative measures such as computer log data and ethnographic methods to compare a baseline condition (normal email usage) with our experimental manipulation (email cutoff). Our results show that without email, people multitasked less and had a longer task focus, as measured by a lower frequency of shifting between windows and a longer duration of time spent working in each computer window. Further, we directly measured stress using wearable heart rate monitors and found that stress, as measured by heart rate variability, was lower without email. Interview data were consistent with our quantitative measures, as participants reported being able to focus more on their tasks. We discuss the implications for managing email better in organizations.
ACM
 
Designing Experiential Prototypes for the Future Workplace - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describes a successful Xerox-sponsored open innovation project that generated innovative designs and prototypes for the future of the workplace with Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT).
Abstract » In this paper, we describe a successful Xerox-sponsored open innovation project that generated innovative designs and prototypes for the future of the workplace by the future workers of tomorrow - 42 undergraduate students with a unique combination of skills in creative media design and interactive development at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). During the course of 20 weeks, through close collaborations between the Xerox research team and RIT faculty and students, we developed an experience-centric methodology for designing and developing rapid experiential prototypes. As a result, seven interactive and futuristic prototypes were created, demonstrated and also well-received at both Xerox and community events.
 
You've got video: Increasing clickthrough when sharing enterprise video with email - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We summarize our research on increasing the information scent of video recordings that are shared via email in a corporate setting. We report on the results of two user studies.
Abstract » In this Note we summarize our research on increasing the information scent of video recordings that are shared via email in a corporate setting. We compare two types of email messages for sharing recordings: the first containing basic information (e.g. title, speaker, abstract) with a link to the video; the second with the same information plus a set of video thumbnails (hyperlinked to the segments they represent), which are automatically created by video summarization technology. We report on the results of two user studies. The first one compares the quality of the set of thumbnails selected by the technology to sets selected by 31 humans. The second study examines the clickthrough rates for both email formats (with and without hyperlinked thumbnails) as well as gathering subjective feedback via survey. Results indicate that the email messages with the thumbnails drove significantly higher clickthrough rates than the messages without, even though people clicked on the main video link more frequently than the thumbnails. Survey responses show that users found the email with the thumbnail set significantly more appealing and novel.
ACM
 
Does the iPad add Value to Business Environments? - Long Case Study
Community: managementCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing benefits and drawbacks of iPad usage in a business environment. Can assist companies in understanding how they can benefit from the use of mobile tablets.
Abstract » Mobile tablets like the iPad recently had a huge success in the consumer market. This generates the demand to use them productively in business environments. The underlying case study evaluates the introduction of iPads at an applied research company. The study gives evidence that the iPad adds value to this particular business environment especially in terms of productivity and joy of use. A detailed composition of benefits and drawbacks shows major factors that have to be considered when thinking about introducing and integrating iPads to a business environment.
 
Impression Formation in Corporate People Tagging - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: People tagging offers unique insight about self-presentation and concurrently the perception by others based on explicit data in the form of tags in an organizational environment. Findings suggest design implications.
Abstract » This research explores the relationship between self-presentation and perception by others as manifested explicitly through the use of tags in a people tagging system. The study provides insights relevant for the organizational context since it is based on a system implemented within IBM. We developed a detailed codebook and used it to categorize 9,506 tags assigned to a sample of taggers. Our analysis examines the use of self tags versus social tags (assigned by others) across different categories and sub-categories. While overlap exists, self tags tend to be more factual describing technology expertise, social tags augment the individual tags by adding a personal dimension.
ACM
Monday, May 07, 16:30
alt.chi: Physical Lovealt.chiRoom: 12AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
I Just Made Love: The System and the Subject of Experience - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: In this work, we propose a new paradigm to understand experience design by focusing on the subject of interaction as opposed to the existing paradigm which is the user.
Abstract » Experience has become increasingly relevant to the field of HCI in recent decades and a number of approaches have been drawn from multiple disciplines to engage this rich and elusive topic. In this work, we provide a critical interpretative account of the experience of using a sexually oriented social media website called I Just Made Love. We do this by critically interpreting the traces of interaction, user data populating the site, to understand the role of the systemic structures that shape the subject of interaction and in turn the experience. We approach this experience from the perspective of the “subject of interaction” as opposed to the “user” and introduce some benefits of such a strategy. Through our insights and discussion, we explore how design choices at IJML contribute to certain types of sexual performances and intimate experiences.
 
"It's in Love with You" - Communicating Status and Preference with Simple Product Movements - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: A study where users perceive a product with adaptive movements as expressing agency and it becomes part of their social context. Can assist design and understanding of automated product interaction.
Abstract » In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, interact with a TV designed to move in way that communicates the agency related attributes social status or likeability. Results show that the TV movements are perceived differently when one versus two users are present. While most single users evaluate the TV positively, most users in pairs find the differential treatment problematic.
 
Black-boxing the User: Internet Protocol over Xylophone Players (IPoXP) - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Internet Protocol over Xylophone Players inverts the traditional mode of human-computer interaction and problematizes the user/interface distinction, raising a number of conceptual issues.
Abstract » We introduce IP over Xylophone Players (IPoXP), a novel Internet protocol between two computers using xylophone-based Arduino interfaces. In our implementation, human operators are situated within the lowest layer of the network, transmitting data between computers by striking designated keys. We discuss how IPoXP inverts the traditional mode of human-computer interaction, with a computer using the human as an interface to communicate with another computer.
 
Design for X?: Distribution Choices and Ethical Design - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Sex-oriented technologies at an adult trade show prompt the authors to reframe "values in design" as a question of the choice of distribution of agency among users and designers.
Abstract » This paper investigates an especially value-laden product category: sex-oriented technologies. Reviewing four systems encountered through qualitative fieldwork at an adult entertainment trade show, we examine how designers make claims for distribution of agency in their systems, and the consequent technical choices. In the face of diverse configurations of systems, users, and designers, we suggest that designers treat their practice less as an expression of enduring or user-specific “values,” and more as a series of decisions about the ethical distribution of control and responsibility within systems.
 
The Machine in the Ghost: Augmenting Broadcasting with Biodata - alt.chi
Contribution & Benefit: Explores the explicit use of biodata as part of a narrative for television and film. Raises some key research challenges about “acting” biodata and the nature of accessible biodata visualisations.
Abstract » This paper examines how ‘biodata’ – physiological information captured from the human body – might enhance television shows by giving viewers access to actors’ physiological data. We broach this challenge through a prototype-show called The Experiment Live, in which four ‘paranormal investigators’ were outfitted with sensors as they explored a ‘haunted’ basement. This experience has enabled us to probe the challenges of using biodata as part of broadcasting and formulate an agenda for future research that includes: exploring whether/how biodata can be acted and/or simulated; and developing techniques that treat biodata visualisations in similar ways to existing camera-based production processes.
Uses of Media & Creation of Web ExperiencesPaperRoom: 17AB
 
 
 
 
 
Too Close for Comfort: A Study of the Effectiveness and Acceptability of Rich-Media Personalized Advertising - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes first study investigating how personalized rich media ads are perceived by users. Findings can help design noticeable, interesting ads that are also comfortable for the user.
Abstract » Online display advertising is predicted to make $29.53 billion this year. Advertisers believe targeted and personalized ads to be more effective, but many users are concerned about their privacy. We conducted a study where 30 participants completed a simulated holiday booking task; each page showing ads with different degrees of personalization. Participants fixated twice as long when ads contained their photo. Participants reported being more likely to notice ads with their photo, holiday destination, and name, but also increasing levels of discomfort with increasing personalization. We conclude that greater personalization in ad content may achieve higher levels of attention, but that the most personalized ads are also the least acceptable. The noticeability benefit in using someone's photo to make them look at an ad may be offset by the privacy cost. As more personal data becomes available to advertisers, it becomes important that these trade-offs are considered.
ACM
 
Why Johnny Can't Opt Out: A Usability Evaluation of Tools to Limit Online Behavioral Advertising - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes usability problems identified through a laboratory study to evaluate tools to limit OBA. Designers will be aware of these problems and could use our methodology to evaluate their tools.
Abstract » We present results of a 45-participant laboratory study investigating the usability of nine tools to limit online behavioral advertising (OBA). We interviewed participants about OBA and recorded their behavior and attitudes as they configured and used a privacy tool, such as a browser plugin that blocks requests to specific URLs, a tool that sets browser cookies indicating a user's preference to opt out of OBA, or the privacy settings built into a web browser.

We found serious usability flaws in all tools we tested. Participants found many tools difficult to configure, and tools' default settings were often minimally protective. Ineffective communication, confusing interfaces, and a lack of feedback led many participants to conclude that a tool was blocking OBA when they had not properly configured it to do so. Without being familiar with many advertising companies and tracking technologies, it was difficult for participants to use the tools effectively.
ACM
 
<Insert Image>: Helping the Legal Use of Creative Commons Images - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present an Open Media Retrieval model for searching and using Creative Commons content. The design will reduce accidental copyright infringements and the time needed for searching open content.
Abstract » Media creation applications cater poorly to one very common usage: Situations in which the users need media that they do not own and for which they are unwilling to pay. Finding and using externally produced media is currently a cumbersome process. Often, users locate the content using a search engine, copy it into their work, cross their fingers, and hope they do not infringe on any copyrights. While the authors have shared hundreds of millions of images with permissive licenses, the license terms are too complicated for other users to follow. In our studies, we found that even the well-intentioned users still fail to respect copyrights in simple image reuse situations. We therefore introduce an Open Media Retrieval (OMR) model to remedy this problem and supplement it with prototypes that access various legal image sources directly within the creative work flow and provide automatic credits to the original authors.
ACM
 
Fighting for My Space: Coping Mechanisms for SNS Boundary Regulation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents results from a qualitative interview-based study to identify "coping mechanisms" that Social Networking Site users devise outside explicit boundary-regulation interface features in order to manage interpersonal boundaries.
Abstract » Sharing information online via social network sites (SNSs) is at an all-time high, yet research shows that users often exhibit a marked dissatisfaction in using such sites. A compelling explanation for this dichotomy is that users are struggling against their SNS environment in an effort to achieve their preferred levels of privacy for regulating social interactions. Our research investigates users' SNS boundary regulation behavior. This paper presents results from a qualitative interview-based study to identify "coping mechanisms" that users devise outside explicit boundary-regulation interface features in order to manage interpersonal boundaries. Our categorization of such mechanisms provides insight into interaction design issues and opportunities for new SNS features.
ACM
Course 7: Assessing Usability Capability Using ISO StandardsCourseRoom: 13A
 
 
Course 7: Assessing Usability Capability Using ISO Standards - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Learn how to assess usability maturity and identify areas where an organization needs to improve, either by using a workshop for process improvement, or a formal assessment of usability capability.
Abstract » The most commonly reported approach to usability process improvement is for an organization to start with usability testing as this has recognized value, even though the benefits are limited by the difficulty of making significant improvements late in the lifecycle. The perceived benefits of testing are then used to gradually justify activities earlier in the lifecycle.

The difficulty with this approach is that it usually only involves relatively junior management. When personnel change, or economies are being made in the organization the usability work can be vulnerable.

The course will suggest a more structured approach to usability process improvement, by auditing the extent to which the good practice embodied in ISO TR 18529 is implemented in typical projects, and identifying areas for organizational improvement.

The course recommends use of material from ISO standards not just because they are standards, but because they contain the most comprehensive and systematic information available, which represents the consensus of international experts in the field.

Each ISO 18529 activity can be assessed as not done, partially done, largely done or fully done, as part of systems development. This can be carried out relatively informally in a process improvement workshop, or as part of a more formal process assessment of usability maturity (analogous to the software process assessment that can be carried out using the SEI CMM - Capability Maturity Model).

This information enables an organization to decide how much improvement is desirable in particular areas, or on an activity-by-activity basis.

Case studies will be presented of assessments of different degrees of formality that have been carried out in three organizations.

The course is suitable for anyone interested in assessing usability maturity and improving usability capability. Basic familiarity with the area of user-centered design is assumed, but no prior knowledge of ISO standards is needed.
Course 8: Evidenced-Based Social Design of Online CommunitiesCourseRoom: 15
 
 
Course 8: Evidenced-Based Social Design of Online Communities - Course
Contribution & Benefit: To become successful, online communities must meet challenges, including starting up and encouraging contributions. This tutorial reviews social science theory and research on these topics and translates it into design recommendations.
Abstract » Online communities are among the fastest growing sections of the Internet and provide members with information, companionship, social support and entertainment. Although as a class these online communities are very successful, the success of particular ones varies widely and many fail.

To become or remain successful, online communities must meet a number of challenges that are common to offline as well as online groups and organizations. For example, online communities must handle the start-up challenge: early in their lifecycle they have few members to generate content and little content to attract members. Throughout their lifecycle, they must recruit and socialize newcomers, encourage commitment and contribution from members, solve problems of coordination and encourage appropriate behavior among members and interlopers alike. This tutorial is organized around two of these design challenges – starting a community and getting members to contribute to it.

The social sciences can tell us a lot about how to make thriving online communities. Economics and various branches of psychology offer theories of individual motivation and of human behavior in social situations. Properly interpreted, they can inform choices about how to get a community started and motivate contributions.

After taking this tutorial, students will appreciate the value of using social science research as the basis for social design. They will have had an introduction to the social science literature relevant to problems of encouraging contributions in online communities and starting a community from scratch. Through exercises, they will appreciate how to translate theory and evidence into designs. They will have pointers to where to learn more.

The tutorial is based on the presenters’ new book, Kraut & Resnick (2012). Building successful online communities: Evidence-based social design. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Participants will receive prints of relevant book chapters.
Course 9: Practical Statistics for User Research Part ICourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 9: Practical Statistics for User Research Part I - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Learn to generate confidence intervals and compare two designs using rating scale data, binary measures and task times for large and small sample sizes.
Abstract » If you don't measure it you can't manage it. User-research is about more than rules of thumb, good design and intuition: it's about making better decisions with data. Is Product A preferred more than Product B? Will more users complete tasks on the new design? Learn how to conduct and interpret appropriate statistical tests on small and large sample data then communicate your results in easy to understand terms to stakeholders.


Features

-- Get a visual introduction or refresher to the most important statistical concepts for applied use.
-- Know which statistical test to use and when
-- Be able to compare two interfaces or versions (A/B Testing) by showing statistical significance (e.g. Product A takes 20% less time to complete a task than Product B p <.05).

-- Clearly understand both the limits and data available from small sample usability data through use of confidence intervals.

Audience

Open to anyone who's interested in quantitative user research. Participants should be familiar with the process of conducting usability tests or research as well as basic descriptive statistics such as the mean, median and standard deviation and have access to Microsoft Excel. Participants will receive an Excel calculator which will perform the statistical calculations.

The presentation will be a mix of enthusiastic instruction, with movie-clips, pictures, demonstrations and interactive exercises all aimed at helping make the abstract topic of statistics concrete, memorable and actionable.
Tools for Video + ImagesPaperRoom: 18AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TeleAdvisor: A Versatile Augmented Reality Tool for Remote Assistance - Note
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a hands-free transportable augmented reality system, consisting of a camera and a pico projector mounted on a tele-operated robotic arm. Can support remote assistance tasks around physical objects.
Abstract » TeleAdvisor is a novel solution designed to support remote assistance tasks in many real-world scenarios. It consists of a video camera and a small projector mounted at the end of a tele-operated robotic arm. This enables a remote helper to view and interact with the workers� workspace, while controlling the point of view. It also provides the worker with a hands-free transportable device to be placed anywhere in his or her environment. Active tracking of the projection space is used in order to reliably correlate between the camera�s view and the projector space.
ACM
 
DragLocks: Handling Temporal Ambiguities in Direct Manipulation Video Navigation - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses possible interaction breakdowns in direct manipulation video navigation systems in the presence of objects pausing in the video. Presents and evaluates two solutions that modify the trajectory geometry.
Abstract » Direct manipulation video navigation (DMVN) systems allow to navigate inside video scenes by spatially manipulating objects in the video. Problems arise when dealing with temporal ambiguities where a time span is projected onto a single point in image space, e.g., when objects stop moving. Existing DMVN systems deal with these cases by either disabling navigation on the paused object or by allowing jumps in the timeline. Both of these workarounds are undesirable as they introduce inconsistency or provoke loss of context. We analyze current practices regarding temporal ambiguities and introduce two new methods to visualize and navigate object pauses. User tests show that the new approaches are better suited for navigation in scenes containing temporal ambiguities and are rated higher in terms of user satisfaction.
ACM
 
CamBlend: An Object Focused Collaboration Tool - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: New panoramic focus+context video collaboration system designed to facilitate the interaction with and around objects. Exploratory study showed several successful new uses & existing problems in fractured spaces.
Abstract » CamBlend is a new focus-in-context panoramic video collaboration system designed to facilitate the interaction with and around objects in a lightweight, flexible package. As well as the ability to view very high resolution local and remote video that covers a full 180° field of view, the system contains a number of tools which facilitate bi- directional pointing between two remote spaces. In the first quasi-naturalistic exploratory study on a focus-in-context video system, we show a number of unique object referencing behaviours, including un-intentional or 'implicit' pointing and a number of scenarios where this was advantageous. Additionally the study highlighted some of the problems inherent in aligning between screen-based and real-world perspectives.
ACM
 
Swift: Reducing the Effects of Latency in Online Video Scrubbing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes two experiments to test the effects of latency on video navigation tasks and the Swift technique which is designed to mitigate these effects.
Abstract » We first conduct a study using abstracted video content to measure the effects of latency on video scrubbing performance and find that even very small amounts of latency can significantly degrade navigation performance. Based on these results, we present Swift, a technique that supports real-time scrubbing of online videos by overlaying a small, low resolution copy of the video during video scrubbing, and snapping back to the high resolution video when the scrubbing is completed or paused. A second study compares the Swift technique to traditional online video players on a collection of realistic live motion videos and content-specific search tasks which finds the Swift technique reducing completion times by as much as 72% even with a relatively low latency of 500ms. Lastly, we demonstrate that the Swift technique can be easily implemented using modern HTML5 web standards.
ACM
 
Video Summagator: An Interface for Video Summarization and Navigation - Note
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a 3D video visualization-based interface for video summarization and navigation. Allows a user to quickly look into the video cube, understand the video, and navigate to the content of interest.
Abstract » This paper presents Video Summagator (VS), a volume-based interface for video summarization and navigation. VS models a video as a space-time cube and visualizes the video cube using real-time volume rendering techniques. VS empowers a user to interactively manipulate the video cube. We show that VS can quickly summarize both the static and dynamic video content by visualizing the space-time information in 3D. We demonstrate that VS enables a user to quickly look into the video cube, understand the content, and navigate to the content of interest.
ACM
 
Video as memorabilia: User needs for collaborative automatic mobile video production - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines for designers of collaborative video production tools based on a field study of automatic remixing of audience captured video. Can assist in considering memorabilia, control and acknowledgement issues.
Abstract » Digital memorabilia, such as video remixes, can increase the value of attending music events. Remixes can be made using video clips recorded by attendees during the event; however, producing them is a laborious task. In this paper we study the prospects of an automatic video remixing and present the results of a study on users' perceptions and attitudes towards collaborative automatic mobile video production. The three findings are as follows: People assess automatic video remix memorabilia as fairly equal to amateur-made manual ones, even if the manually-created video remixes are better in overall quality; as a remixing actor, a computer can be perceived to be more trustworthy than a human remixer; and, the quality of the video remix and the publication forum of the remix outcome plays a significant role when people are deciding whether or not they need public acknowledgement for their contribution. We conclude by discussing the design implications for collaborative automatic mobile video production.
ACM
Course 10 (Part 1 of 2): Finding Your Way in Design ResearchCourseRoom: 13B
 
 
Course 10 (Part 2 of 2): Finding your way in Design Research - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Come and learn about design research by "prototyping" your current research program to see where it fits in the design research continuum. Helpful if you’re new to the field/Students.
Abstract » Have you heard the term design research and you’re not really sure what it means? Perhaps you have some idea and you think you’ want to do research through design, or perhaps you think that research for design is more what you’re about? Based both on the recent work published at CHI and DIS (Zimmerman et al 2007 & Zimmerman et al 2010) as well as the work of Horvath (Horvath 2007, 2008) we’ll define the continuum of design research and how it relates to both classical mono-disciplinary research and design practice, we’ll help you find your way in the wonderful world of design research.

This course is hands-on and while we do spend some time in lecture-mode we will spend a the majority of the time in disucssion and using the concept of prototyping to understand Design Research and where your own research fits into the whole thing.

This course is aimed at early stage reserchers with 0-7 years experience, students (both MS and PhD) and anyone new to HCI, Design, or Design Research.

This course is taught in two parts, and between the two sessions you will spend 10-30 minutes making your prototype. We provide all the materials, you provide your content. Attendance at both sessions is be necessary if you want to be able to follow what we will do in the course.This course has been taught as a required module for PhD students at Delft for several years as well as to a PhD summer school where students found it not only interesting, but very helpful to clarify their research program and where it fits into design research.
Sustainability and Behavior ChangePaperRoom: 18CD
 
 
 
 
 
 
Collapse Informatics: Augmenting the Sustainability & ICT4D Discourse in HCI - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Augments the discourse on sustainable HCI and ICT4D to include notions of preparation for and adaptation to potential societal collapse, suggesting exemplars for interactivity design in response to such scenarios.
Abstract » Research in many fields argues that contemporary global industrial civilization will not persist indefinitely in its current form, and may, like many past human societies, eventually collapse. Arguments in environmental studies, anthropology, and other fields indicate that this transformation could begin within the next half-century. While imminent collapse is far from certain, it is prudent to consider now how to develop sociotechnical systems for use in these scenarios. We introduce the notion of collapse informatics - the study, design, and development of sociotechnical systems in the abundant present for use in a future of scarcity - as a complement to ICT4D and mitigation-oriented sustainable HCI. We draw on a variety of literatures to offer a set of relevant concepts and articulate the relationships among them to orient and evaluate collapse informatics work. Observing that collapse informatics poses a unique class of cross-cultural design problems, we sketch the design space of collapse informatics and provide a variety of example projects. We explore points of connection and distinction between collapse informatics and sustainable HCI, ICT4D, and crisis informatics. Finally, we discuss next steps and comment on the potential value of collapse informatics work even in the event that collapse never occurs.
ACM
 
Beyond Energy Monitors: Interaction, Energy, and Emerging Energy Systems - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reviews energy-related literature from within and outside of HCI. Characterizes a dominant cluster of work related to "energy consumption feedback", and points to design and research opportunities with emerging energy systems.
Abstract » Motivated by a recent surge of research related to energy and sustainability, this paper presents a review of energy-related work within HCI as well as from literature outside of HCI. Our review of energy-related HCI research identifies a central cluster of work focused on electricity consumption feedback (ECF). Our review of literature outside of HCI highlights a number of emerging energy systems trends of strong relevance to HCI and interaction design, including smart grid, demand response, and distributed generation technologies. We conclude by outlining a range of opportunities for HCI to engage with the experiential, behavioral, social, and cultural aspects of these emerging systems, including highlighting new areas for ECF research that move beyond our field�s current focus on energy feedback displays to increase awareness and motivate individual conservation behavior.
ACM
 
The Dubuque Water Portal: Evaluation of the Uptake, Use and Impact of Residential Water Consumption Feedback - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Evaluation of a water portal deployed to 303 homes that used feedback and social techniques to produce a 6.6% decrease in water consumption. Can assist designers of residential feedback systems.
Abstract » The Dubuque Water Portal is a system aimed at supporting voluntary reductions of water consumption that is intended to be deployed city-wide. It provides each household with fine-grained, near real time feedback on their water consumption, as well as using techniques like social comparison, weekly games, and news and chat to encourage water conservation. This study used logs, a survey and interviews to evaluate a 15-week pilot with 303 households. It describes the Portal's design, and discusses its adoption, use and impacts. The system resulted in a 6.6% decrease in water consumption, and the paper employs qualitative methods to look at the ways in which the Portal was (or wasn't) effective in supporting its users and enabling them to reduce their consumption. The paper concludes with a discussion of design implications for residential feedback systems, and possible engagement models.
ACM
 
Embedded interaction in a Water Fountain for Motivating Behavior Change in Public Space - Note
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Presents an augmented water fountain with audiovisual feedback aimed at improving and motivating the water-drinking experience. Shows an inspiring way of conducting long-term in-the-wild studies that affect users and public space.
Abstract » This paper presents an interactive installation for a public space aimed at motivating new behaviors by augmenting the space with subtle and playful audiovisual interaction aesthetically integrated in a shared environment. Designed to complement an existing water fountain with projected light and sound, the embedded installation encouraged people to take a drink, increasing the proportion of people who used the water fountain by 42% to 57% approximately for nine months. Sensors evaluated the impact of multiple interaction modalities on actual water usage. We found that subtle interaction can improve the experience of a space, in particular for those that use it frequently, and lead to sustained behavior change, especially when its modalities are responsive to the level of activity in the space.
ACM
 
A Transformational Product to Improve Self-Control Strength: the Chocolate Machine - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The Chocolate Machine is an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength. Self-control is at the heart of many desirable behaviours, but often neglected by Persuasive Technologies.
Abstract » Lack of self-control is at the heart of many undesirable behaviors, such as overeating, overspending, and even overworking. While the field of Persuasive Technologies searches for ways to change attitudes and behaviors, it often neglects the science of self-control. We present the Chocolate Machine, an exploratory interactive product to train self-control strength based upon Ego Depletion theory. A field study showed the machine to increase perceived self-control over time, while providing a sustained positive experience. This makes the machine transformational, aiming at facilitating behaviors people find worthwhile, but hard to implement.
ACM
CHI2012 Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Shaping the FutureSIG MeetingRoom: 11B
 
 
CHI2012 Games and Entertainment Community SIG: Shaping the Future - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: The Games and Entertainment SIG will explore where to take this community in future at CHI, including identifying researchers and commercial practitioners interested in leadership of the group.
Abstract » The community of games and entertainment includes researchers and practitioners focusing on player-centered development and evaluation of all forms of games and applications that focus on entertainment. Games and entertainment have been represented in all CHI venues including workshops, tutorials, papers, and notes. In 2011 Games and Entertainment was selected as a Special Community at CHI, a designation that continues this year and can be taken into future CHI conferences. This year’s Games and Entertainment SIG meeting will be a venue for exploring where to take this community in future at CHI, including identifying strong research and commercial talent in our community interested in playing leadership roles.
Interacting With Robots & AgentsCase Study, Paper & ToCHIRoom: 16AB
 
 
 
 
 
The Role of Gender on Effectiveness and Efficiency of User-Robot Communication in Navigation Tasks - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes gender differences in spatial communication and navigation in Human-Robot Interaction. Presents a novel methodology and design recommendations for dialogue and navigating systems that equally support users of both genders.
Abstract » Many studies have identified gender differences in communication related to spatial navigation in real and virtual worlds. Most of this research has focused on single-party communication (monologues), such as the way in which individuals either give or follow route instructions. However, very little work has been reported on spatial navigation dialogues and whether there are gender differences in the way that they are conducted. This paper will address the lack of research evidence by exploring the dialogues between partners of the same and of different gender in a simulated Human-Robot Interaction study. In the experiments discussed in this paper, pairs of participants communicated remotely; in each pair, one participant (the instructor) was under the impression that s/he was giving route instructions to a robot (the follower), avoiding any perception of gendered communication. To ensure the naturalness of the interaction, the followers were given no guidelines on what to say, however each had to control a robot based on the user’s instructions. While many monologue-based studies suggest male superiority in a multitude of spatial activities and domains, this study of dialogues highlights a more complex pattern of results. As anticipated, gender influences task performance and communication. However, the findings suggest that it is the interaction – the combination of gender and role (i.e., instructor or follower) – that has the most significant impact. In particular, pairs of female users/instructors and male ‘robots’/followers are associated with the fastest and most accurate completion of the navigation tasks. Moreover, dialogue-based analysis illustrates how pairs of male users/instructors and female ‘robots’/followers achieved successful communication through ‘alignment’ of spatial descriptions. In particular, males seem to adapt the content of their instructions when interacting with female ‘robots’/followers and employ more landmark references compared to female users/instructors or when addressing males (in male-male pairings). This study describes the differences in how males and females interact with the system, and proposes that any female ‘disadvantage’ in spatial communication can disappear through interactive mechanisms. Such insights are important for the design of navigation systems that are equally effective for users of either gender.
 
Ripple Effects of an Embedded Social Agent: A Field Study of a Social Robot in the Workplace - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describe a long-term field study of a social delivery robot in a workplace. Can assist the development of agents, avatars, and robots for individuals and organizations.
Abstract » Prior research has investigated the effect of interactive social agents presented on computer screens or embodied in robots. Much of this research has been pursued in labs and brief field studies. Comparatively little is known about social agents embedded in the workplace, where employees have repeated interactions with the agent, alone and with others. We designed a social robot snack delivery service for a workplace, and evaluated the service over four months allowing each employee to use it for two months. We report on how employees responded to the robot and the service over repeated encounters. Employees attached different social roles to the robot beyond a delivery person as they incorporated the robot's visit into their workplace routines. Beyond one-on-one interaction, the robot created a ripple effect in the workplace, triggering new behaviors among employees, including politeness, protection of the robot, mimicry, social comparison, and even jealousy. We discuss the implications of these ripple effects for designing services incorporating social agents.
ACM
 
Designing Effective Gaze Mechanisms for Virtual Agents - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A model for designing effective gaze mechanisms for virtual agents and its evaluation. The model will allow designers to create gaze behaviors that accomplish specific high-level outcomes.
Abstract » Virtual agents hold great promise in human-computer interaction with their ability to afford embodied interaction using nonverbal human communicative cues. Gaze cues are particularly important to achieve significant high-level outcomes such as improved learning and feelings of rapport. Our goal is to explore how agents might achieve such outcomes through seemingly subtle changes in gaze behavior and what design variables for gaze might lead to such positive outcomes. Drawing on research in human physiology, we developed a model of gaze behavior to capture these key design variables. In a user study, we investigated how manipulations in these variables might improve affiliation with the agent and learning. The results showed that an agent using affiliative gaze elicited more positive feelings of connection, while an agent using referential gaze improved participants' learning. Our model and findings offer guidelines for the design of effective gaze behaviors for virtual agents.
ACM
 
How Does Telenoid Affect the Communication between Children in Classroom Setting? - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the qualitative findings of a field study that revealed the effects of a tele-operated humanoid robot on facilitating schoolchildren’s cooperation. Can assist in designing effective tele-communication tools in education.
Abstract » It needs to be investigated how humanoid robots may affect people in the real world when they are employed to express the presence, a feel of being there, in tele-communication. We brought Telenoid, a tele-operated humanoid robot, into a classroom at an elementary school to see how schoolchildren respond to it. Our study is exploratory and we focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between schoolchildren. We found that Telenoid affected the way children work as group. They participated in the group work more positively, became more spontaneous, and differentiated their roles. We observed that Telenoid's limited capability led them to change their attitudes so that they could work together. The result suggests that the limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants in classroom setting.
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel)PanelRoom: Ballroom D
 
 
The Arts, HCI, and Innovation Policy Discourse (Invited Panel) - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel relates issues in HCI/arts to innovation policy discourse in order to bring a fresh perspective to the STEM/arts divide in HCI.
Abstract » Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
Hot Moves: Shape-changing and Thermal InterfacesPaperRoom: Ballroom E
 
 
 
 
 
 
"Baby It's Cold Outside": The Influence of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on Thermal Feedback - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the impact of ambient temperature and humidity on the use of thermal interfaces. The outcome of our evaluations are a set of design recommendations.
Abstract » Thermal feedback is a new area of research in HCI and, as such, there has been very little investigation of the impact of environmental factors on its use for interaction. To address this shortcoming we conducted an experiment to investigate how ambient temperature and humidity could affect the usability of thermal feedback. If environmental conditions affect perception significantly, then it may not be suitable for mobile interactions. Evaluations were conducted outdoors in varying environmental conditions over a period of 5 months. Results showed that the ambient temperature has a significant impact on people's ability to detect stimuli and also their perception of these stimuli. Humidity has a negligible effect for most humidity values. Despite this, previous thermal feedback design recommendations still hold in varying temperatures and humidities showing that thermal feedback is a useful tool for mobile interaction.
ACM
 
PINOKY: A Ring That Animates Your Plush Toys - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: PINOKY is a wireless ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs.
Abstract » PINOKY is a wireless ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs. A user is thus able to instantly convert any plush toy into a soft robot. The user can control the toy remotely or input the movement desired by moving the plush toy and having the data recorded and played back. Unlike other methods for animating plush toys, PINOKY is non-intrusive, so alterations to the toy are not required. In a user study, 1) the roles of plush toys in the participants' daily lives were examined, 2) how participants played with plush toys without PINOKY was observed, 3) how they played with plush toys with PINOKY was observed, and their reactions to the device were surveyed. On the basis of the results, potential applications were conceptualized to illustrate the utility of PINOKY.
ACM
 
Shape-Changing Interfaces: A Review of the Design Space and Open Research Questions - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Reviews work on physical interfaces that use shape change as input or output, so-called shape-changing interfaces. Provide an overview of the design space of such interfaces and identify open research questions.
Abstract » Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important.
ACM
 
MimicTile: A Variable Stiffness Deformable User Interface for Mobile Devices - Note
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a user interface that can recognize deformation-based gestures and provide haptic feedback. Presents engineers and researchers with the methods to control SMAs and to recognize gestures.
Abstract » MimicTile is a novel variable stiffness deformable user interface for mobile devices that implements two key features. The first feature is an input interface that accepts a variety of deformation-based gestures, providing a user with several ways of interacting with a small mobile device. The other feature is the ability to provide information to the user through haptic feedback by varying the stiffness of the interface. The features are suitable for enhancing mobile applications. They were implemented using only shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as the actuator. SMA wire is extremely flexible, making it ideal for deformable user interfaces. In MimicTile, SMA wires act as both actuators and external input sensors. The actuator function works by altering stiffness based on user input. This study also discusses ideas for further development of deformable user interfaces.
ACM
 
Animating Paper Using Shape Memory Alloys - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents mechanisms and design guidelines for using shape memory alloys to actuate paper. We believe that blending paper with electronics is promising for engaging diverse audiences in building electronics.
Abstract » Our aim is to make shape memory alloys (SMAs) accessi- ble and visible as creative crafting materials by combining them with paper. In this paper, we begin by presenting mech- anisms for actuating paper with SMAs along with a set of design guidelines for achieving dramatic movement. We then describe how we tested the usability and educational potential of one of these mechanisms in a workshop where participants, age 9 to 15, made actuated electronic origami cranes. We found that participants were able to successfully build con- structions integrating SMAs and paper, that they enjoyed do- ing so, and were able to learn skills like circuitry design and soldering over the course of the workshop.
ACM
Invited Panel: Creating Great User Experience: Facing the Challenges AheadPanelRoom: Ballroom F
 
 
Invited Panel: Creating Great User Experience: Facing the Challenges Ahead - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel provides practicing user experience professionals a chance to ask questions to and hear from a diverse set of leading user experience consultants.
Abstract » Creating products and systems that deliver exceptional user experience is a challenge faced by product managers, user experience specialists, and product designers. The challenge has grown keener as users expect to interact seamlessly across a variety of platforms, as computing completes its move from being about computers to being integrated into life activities, and as businesses continue to expand their reach and address diverse user populations with different cultural expectations and norms. This panel brings together three experienced consultants to share their thoughts and answer your questions.
Intimacy and ConnectionPaperRoom: Ballroom G
 
 
 
 
 
 
Intimacy in Long-Distance Relationships over Video Chat - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an interview study of how couples in long distance relationships use video chat systems for shared living and intimacy over distance. Provides suggestions for future video chat system design.
Abstract » Many couples live a portion of their lives in a long-distance relationship (LDR). This includes a large number of dating college students as well as couples who are geographically-separated because of situational demands such as work. We conducted interviews with individuals in LDRs to understand how they make use of video chat systems to maintain their relationships. In particular, we have investigated how couples use video to "hang out" together and engage in activities over extended periods of time. Our results show that regardless of the relationship situation, video chat affords a unique opportunity for couples to share presence over distance, which in turn provides intimacy. While beneficial, couples still face challenges in using video chat, including contextual (e.g., location of partners, time zones), technical (e.g., mobility, audio/video quality, networking), and personal (e.g., a lack of physicality needed by most for intimate sexual acts) challenges.
ACM
 
How Do Couples Use CheekTouch over Phone Calls? - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes how romantic couples use a novel audio-tactile communication technique called CheekTouch over phone calls. Shows a possibility of enriching emotions with touch over phone calls.
Abstract » In this paper we introduce CheekTouch, an affective audio-tactile communication technique that transmits multi-finger touch gestures applied on a sender's mobile phone to a receiver's cheek in real time during a call. We made a pair of CheekTouch prototypes each with a multi-touch screen and vibrotactile display to enable bidirectional touch delivery. We observed four romantic couples in their twenties using our prototype system in a lab setting over five consecutive days, and analyzed how CheekTouch affected their non-verbal and emotional communication. The results of the user study showed that CheekTouch could effectively support audio-tactile communication in various ways - persuading, conveying status, delivering information, emphasizing emotion/words, calling for attention, and being playful.
ACM
 
The Spread of Emotion via Facebook - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Correlational study showing that emotions (defined as posts with emotional words) spread through Facebook. Also addresses two confounds in the Emotional Contagion literature.
Abstract » In this paper we study large-scale emotional contagion through an examination of Facebook status updates. After a user makes a status update with emotional content, their friends are significantly more likely to make a valence-consistent post. This effect is significant even three days later, and even after controlling for prior emotion expressions by both users and their friends. This indicates not only that emotional contagion is possible via text-only communication and that emotions flow through social networks, but also that emotion spreads via indirect communications media.
ACM
 
It's Complicated: How Romantic Partners Use Facebook - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A qualitative study exploring how romantic partners make Facebook-related decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them. Provides examples/ideas for thinking about designs and theorizing about ways people manage privacy and relationships.
Abstract » Romantic partners face issues of relational development including managing information privacy, tension between individual and relational needs, and accountability to existing friends. Prior work suggests that affordances of social media might highlight and shape these tensions; to explore this, we asked 20 people to reflect daily for two weeks on feelings and decisions around their own and others' Facebook use related to their relationships. Most generally, we find that tensions arise when romantic partners must manage multiple relationships simultaneously because Facebook audiences are so present and so varied. People also engage in subtle negotiation around and appropriation of Facebook's features to accomplish both personal and relational goals. By capturing both why people make these decisions and how Facebook's affordances support them, we expect our findings to generalize to many other social media tools and to inform theorizing about how these tools affect relational development.
ACM
 
Lost in Translation: Understanding the Possession of Digital Things in the Cloud - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents and interprets field evidence related to people's perceptions of personal digital things kept in Cloud Computing environments. Findings are interpreted to detail design and research opportunities.
Abstract » People are amassing larger and more diverse collections of digital things. The emergence of Cloud computing has enabled people to move their personal files to online places, and create new digital things through online services. However, little is known about how this shift might shape people�s orientations toward their digital things. To investigate, we conducted in depth interviews with 13 people comparing and contrasting how they think about their possessions, moving from physical ones, to locally kept digital materials, to the online world. Findings are interpreted to detail design and research opportunities in this emerging space.
ACM
Invited SIG: Designing for the living room TV experienceSIG MeetingRoom: 11A
 
 
Invited SIG: Designing for the living room TV experience - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG brings together practitioners and academic user researchers and designers who are interested in or working on defining both the software and hardware aspects of the user experience for TV.
Abstract » This SIG brings together practitioners and academic user researchers and designers who are interested in or working on defining both the software and hardware aspects of the user experience for TV. This SIG will be useful to people at all stages ranging from early research to released products. We especially welcome people from product labs.
HCI4D: BusinessCase Study & PaperRoom: 19AB
 
 
 
 
 
Understanding Negotiation in Airtime Sharing in Low-income Microenterprises - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Paper presents a study of airtime sharing among low income, microenterprises in India. Findings and design thoughts point to lessons for bandwidth sharing in HCI and HCI4D.
Abstract » Shared access to airtime is a prominent mode of connectivity access in the developing world. We seek to understand airtime sharing among low-income microenterprises in India (small, low-capital businesses, such as flower sellers and milkmen), that constitute 90% of the total enterprises in India. We introduce social negotiation as the foundation of airtime sharing. We highlight negotiation mechanisms in the microenterprise, showing how shared resources are used towards personal interests amidst tensions and value conflicts, by adapting, modifying, subverting, and repurposing airtime. We then explore the design space of airtime and bandwidth sharing in low-income communities, including designing for negotiation and improving readability of airtime.
ACM
 
Taking Micro-Enterprise Online: The Case of Kenyan Businesses - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper presents findings, of Kenyan micro-entrepreneurs' need for websites. It highlights need for technology to work with existing practices rather than enforce its own form of usage onto users.
Abstract » In this paper we describe the findings of a research study recently carried out amongst micro-entrepreneurs and freelance web developers in Kenya. The objective was to understand the level of need for website creation by such entrepreneurs for their businesses and further, the challenges associated with website design and maintenance. The study was inspired by the phenomenal uptake of Internet use in the country coupled with a need to explore how micro-entrepreneurs are faring in this space, what potential exists, and how it could be realized. The findings of the study show that the Internet can be the new frontier for many micro-entrepreneurs who want to take their businesses to the next level. The study also provides critical insights into the realities of micro-enterprise, and hence relevant issues to take into consideration in seeking to take micro-enterprise online. The insights therein cover such issues as affordability of solutions, quick return on investment, convergence of current business methods and practices with those presented by an online environment for greater impact, and need for very simple, intuitive web design tools and platforms. Innovation may be required so as to come up with more website options that are better suited to the needs of micro-entrepreneurs and that are cost-effective. Alternatively other internet-based tools or platforms could be developed to help micro-entrepreneurs conduct business online. This is because the typical websites of today are not necessarily suitable for their needs.
 
Experiences with Bulk SMS for Health Financing in Uganda - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Analyzes the deployment and use of a Bulk SMS system for a health financing project in Uganda over 6 months. Can assist designers in understanding organizational use of SMS platforms.
Abstract » Short message service (SMS, aka text messaging) is a low-cost and effective means of communication for organizations attempting to maintain contact with many people. In this paper we look at the deployment and of a bulk mobile text-messaging platform (Bulk SMS), conceived and commissioned by a health non-governmental organization (NGO) for use in communicating with the 100+ private health facilities. We show how the platform emerged from existing practices, the features and expectations of the system, and the ways in which it was used. Common failure points include infrastructural limitations, human error, and unexpected use cases. We find that 1) the use of SMS as a media enables new types of communication, and 2) SMS alone is not sufficient for maintaining relationships within the NGO program.
 
Design Re-thinking for the Bottom of the Pyramid: A Case Study Based on Designing Business Software for SMEs in India - Long Case Study
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study highlighting design factors considered while adapting enterprise software for Indian consumers. Can be useful for those building technology solutions for developing markets.
Abstract » Breaking out of the traditional notion that affordability and mass consumption are the most important pre-requisites for entering a large and developing market like India, we elicit alternate and equally critical factors to design products that can provide instant and long-term value to Indian consumers. These factors from a design thinking perspective are: a) sustainability cost for business viability, b) micro-localization needs for human desirability and c) infrastructure considerations for technical feasibility. Our research insights are based on experiences from designing business analytics software for small and midsized enterprises in India. However, our findings are broadly applicable to design thinkers, researchers and designers creating technology solutions for any developing market.
Tuesday, May 08, 09:30
Pen + TouchPaper & ToCHIRoom: 12AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
Natural Use Profiles for the Pen: An Empirical Exploration of Pressure, Tilt, and Azimuth - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: This is the first study to investigate the natural profiles of pen pressure, tilt, and azimuth (PTA) and their inter-relationships, providing fundamental data for efficient natural UI design.
Abstract » Inherent pen input modalities such as tip pressure, tilt and azimuth (PTA) have been extensively used as additional input channels in pen-based interactions. We conducted a study to investigate the natural use profiles of PTA, which describes the features of PTA in the course of normal pen use such as writing and drawing. First, the study reveals the ranges of PTA in normal pen use, which can distinguish pen events accidently occurring in normal drawing and writing from those used for mode switch. The natural use profiles also show that azimuth is least likely to cause false pen mode switching while tip pressure is most likely to cause false pen mode switching. Second, the study reveals correlations among various modalities, indicating that pressure plus azimuth is superior to other pairs for dual-modality control.
ACM
 
Evaluating and Understanding the Usability of a Pen-based Command System for Interactive Paper - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: User studies on a pen-gesture-based interactive paper system for Active Reading. Can help understand how such a system is learned and used in typical scenarios and how researchers evaluate it.
Abstract » To combine the affordance of paper and computers, prior research has proposed numerous interactive paper systems that link specific paper document content to digital operations such as multimedia playback and proofreading. Yet, it remains unclear to what degree these systems bridge the inherent gap between paper and computers when compared to existing paper-only and computer-only interfaces. In particular, given the special properties of paper, such as limited dynamic feedback, how well does an average novice user learn to master an interactive paper system? What factors affect the user performance? And how does the paper interface work in a typical use scenario?

To answer these questions, we conducted two empirical experiments on a generic pen-gesture-based command system, called PapierCraft [Liao, et al., 2008], for paper-based interfaces. With PapierCraft, people can select sections of printed documents and issue commands such as copy and paste, linking and in-text search. The first experiment focused on the user performance of drawing pen gestures on paper. It proves that users can learn the command system in about 30 minutes and achieve a performance comparable to a Table PC-based interface
supporting the same gestures. The second experiment examined the application of the command system in active reading tasks. The results show promise for seamless integration of paper and computers in active reading for their combined affordance. In addition, our study reveals some key design issues, such as the pen form factor and feedback of gestures. This paper contributes to better understanding on pros and cons of paper and computers, and sheds light on the design of future interfaces for document interaction.
 
A-Coord Input: Coordinating Auxiliary Input Streams for Augmenting Contextual Pen-Based Interactions - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We explore a-coord input, a technique that involves coordinating two auxiliary pen channels in conjunction. Experiments demonstrate a-coord input's effectiveness for both discrete-item selection, and multi-parameter selection and manipulation tasks.
Abstract » The human hand can naturally coordinate multiple finger joints, and simultaneously tilt, press and roll a pen to write or draw. For this reason, digital pens are now embedded with auxiliary input sensors to capture these actions. Prior research on auxiliary input channels has mainly investigated them in isolation of one another. In this work, we explore the coordinated use of two auxiliary channels, a class of interaction techniques we refer to as a-coord input. Through two separate experiments, we explore the design space of a-coord input. In the first study we identify if users can successfully coordinate two auxiliary channels. We found a strong degree of coordination between channels. In a second experiment, we evaluate the effectiveness of a-coord input in a task with multiple steps, such as multi-parameter selection and manipulation. We find that a-coord input facilitates coordination even with a complex, aforethought sequential task. Overall our results indicate that users can control at least two auxiliary input channels in conjunction which can facilitate a number of common tasks can on the pen.
ACM
 
Personalized Input: Improving Ten-Finger Touchscreen Typing through Automatic Adaptation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce and evaluate two novel personalized keyboard interfaces. Results show that personalizing the underlying key-press classification model improves typing speed, but not when accompanied by visual adaptation.
Abstract » Although typing on touchscreens is slower than typing on physical keyboards, touchscreens offer a critical potential advantage: they are software-based, and, as such, the keyboard layout and classification models used to interpret key presses can dynamically adapt to suit each user�s typing pattern. To explore this potential, we introduce and evaluate two novel personalized keyboard interfaces, both of which adapt their underlying key-press classification models. The first keyboard also visually adapts the location of keys while the second one always maintains a visually stable rectangular layout. A three-session user evaluation showed that the keyboard with the stable rectangular layout significantly improved typing speed compared to a control condition with no personalization. Although no similar benefit was found for the keyboard that also offered visual adaptation, overall subjective response to both new touchscreen keyboards was positive. As personalized keyboards are still an emerging area of research, we also outline a design space that includes dimensions of adaptation and key-press classification features.
ACM
 
Bimanual Marking Menu for Near Surface Interactions - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: We describe a mouseless, near-surface version of the Bimanual Marking Menu system. The system offers a large number of accessible commands and does not interfere with multi-touch interactions.
Abstract » We describe a mouseless, near-surface version of the Bimanual Marking Menu system. To activate the menu system, users create a pinch gesture with either their index or middle finger to initiate a left click or right click. Then they mark in the 3D space near the interactive area. We demonstrate how the system can be implemented using a commodity range camera such as the Microsoft Kinect, and report on several designs of the 3D marking system.

Like the multi-touch marking menu, our system offers a large number of accessible commands. Since it does not rely on contact points to operate, our system leaves the non-dominant hand available for other multi-touch interactions.
ACM
Affective PresencePaperRoom: 17AB
 
 
 
 
 
Group Hedonic Balance and Pair Programming Performance: Affective Interaction Dynamics as indicators of Performance - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Study examining the relationship between affective interaction dynamics and performance in pair-programming teams. Presents researchers with new methods and theory regarding the role of emotions in team interaction.
Abstract » Inspired by research on the role of affect in marital interactions, the authors examined whether affective interaction dynamics occurring within a 5-minute slice can predict pair programming performance. In a laboratory experiment with professional programmers, Group Hedonic Balance, a measure of the balance between positive and negative expressed affect, accounted for up to 35% of the variance in not only subjective but also objective pair programming performance. Implications include a new set of methods to study pair programming interactions and recommendations to improve pair programming performance.
ACM
 
Learning How to Feel Again: Towards Affective Workplace Presence and Communication Technologies - Paper
Community: engineeringCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a technique for estimating affective state and communication preferences. The technique uses non-invasive data from a presence state stream and provides more accurate predictions than humans who work together.
Abstract » Affect influences workplace collaboration and thereby impacts a workplace's productivity. Participants in face-to-face interactions have many cues to each other's affect, but work is increasingly carried out via computer-mediated channels that lack many of these cues. Current presence systems enable users to estimate the availability of other users, but not their affective states or communication preferences. This work demonstrates the feasibility of estimating affective state and communication preferences from a stream of presence states that are already being shared in a deployed presence system.
ACM
 
AffectAura: An Intelligent System for Emotional Memory - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present AffectAura, an emotional prosthetic, that combines a multi-modal sensor system for continuously predicting user affective states with an interface for user reflection.
Abstract » We present AffectAura, an emotional prosthetic that allows users to reflect on their emotional states over long periods of time. We designed a multimodal sensor set-up for continuous logging of audio, visual, physiological and contextual data, a classification scheme for predicting user affective state and an interface for user reflection. The system continuously predicts a user's valence, arousal and engage-ment, and correlates this with information on events, communications and data interactions. We evaluate the interface through a user study consisting of six users and over 240 hours of data, and demonstrate the utility of such a reflection tool. We show that users could reason forward and backward in time about their emotional experiences using the interface, and found this useful.
ACM
 
Understanding Heart Rate Sharing: Towards Unpacking Physiosocial Space - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Explores how people make sense of interpersonal heart rate feedback in everyday social settings through a technology probe deployment. Identifies two categories of effects, with implications for supporting social connectedness.
Abstract » Advances in biosensing make it possible to include heart rate monitoring in applications and several studies have suggested that heart rate communication has potential for improving social connectedness. However, it is not known how people understand heart rate feedback, or what issues need to be taken into account when designing technologies including heart rate feedback. To explore this, we created a heart rate communication probe that was used in two qualitative in-lab studies and a two-week field trial in participants' homes. Results show that heart rate feedback is a strong connectedness cue that affects the interaction in various ways, depending on a number of interrelated factors. In particular, we found two distinct categories of effects: heart rate as information and heart rate as connection. We propose two mechanisms that could explain these observations and draw out the implications they have for future use of heartbeat communication to support social connectedness or other aspects of social interaction.
ACM
Course 11: Agile UX: Bridging the Gulf through Experience and ReflectionCourseRoom: 13A
 
 
Course 11: Agile UX: Bridging the gulf through experience and reflection - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will teach participants how user experience can work effectively within agile teams through a team-based design activity, group retrospectives and sharing of real-world experiences.
Abstract » Many in the agile and user experience (UX) communities have identified the need to integrate UX into agile organizations. However, there are challenges to successfully integrating the two. Issues include different mindsets, experiences, practices and goals which create a gulf between UX people and agile developers. Meridium Inc. has partnered with Virginia Tech with the support of an NSF STTR grant to find ways to integrate UX into agile teams. In our approach, extreme scenario-based design (XSBD), we combine elements from several agile and usability processes including XP, Scrum and scenario-based usability engineering. It has been successfully used at Meridium in several projects. In this course, our goal is to present our approach to integrating UX into agile as well as high level practices shared between the different integration approaches. We will encourage critical thinking, reflection and active discussion of the issues surrounding agile UX through a group-based hands-on design activity combined with retrospectives and sharing of real-world experiences.
Course 13: Designing with the Mind in Mind: The Psychological Basis for UI Design RulesCourseRoom: 15
 
 
Course 13: Designing with the Mind in Mind: The Psychological Basis for UI Design Rules - Course
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Explains the perceptual and cognitive psychology behind interaction design principles and guidelines. Provides powerful examples of how human perception and cognition work (and don't work).
Abstract » UI design rules, guidelines, and heuristics are not simple recipes to be applied mindlessly. Applying them effectively requires determining their applicability (and precedence) in specific situations. It also requires balancing the trade-offs that inevitably arise in situations when design rules appear to contradict each other. By understanding the underlying psychology for the design rules, designers and evaluators enhance their ability to interpret and apply them. Explaining that psychology is the focus of this two-part course. The first part focuses on perception; the second part focuses on cognition.
Course 14: Inspiring Mobile Interaction DesignCourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 14: Inspiring Mobile Interaction Design - Course
Contribution & Benefit: The course will introduce empowering mobile design philosophies, principles and methods as well as giving specific guidance on key consumer application areas such as pedestrian navigation and social-local aware services.
Abstract » With six billion cellular subscriptions, the mobile phone (or “cellphone”) is an essential part of everyday life. It’s a business tool to clinch important deals; a “remote control” for the real world, helping us cope with daily travel delay frustrations; a “relationship appliance” to say goodnight to loved-ones when away from home; a community device to organize political demonstrations.

This course is about applying interaction design approaches to the mobile arena. It provides an understanding of what makes for successful future mobile user experiences; ones that really connect with what people want, and operate in straightforward, satisfying ways.

As a practice, interaction design owes much to the long-established discipline of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and the associated usability industry.
Interaction design, though, extends the mainstream practices. It is more about crafting the “customer experience” rather than a process that focuses on “ease-of-use”. Interaction designers have to have passion and heart: whereas usability is often seen as a privative – something you only notice when it is not there – interaction design is about making a statement.

This course is about shifting the mobile design perspective away from “smart” phones, to people who are smart, creative, busy, or plain bored. Our aim is to help attendees to provide users with future products and services that can change their (or even the whole) world.

The course will both introduce interesting and empowering mobile design philosophies, principles and methods as well as giving specific guidance on key consumer application areas such as pedestrian navigation and location aware services.

Our aim is to inspire attendees to strive for breathtakingly effective services. We want attendees to leave the course with a fresh perspective on their current projects and an eagerness to build a long-term better future for mobile users.
Games: Community + CommunicationCase Study & PaperRoom: 18AB
 
 
 
 
 
Martian Boneyards: Can a Community of Players be a Community of Practice? - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of Martian Boneyards, an MMO-based science-mystery game designed to foster collaborative inquiry. Demonstrates how designers can shape an evolving game narrative, responding to players’ activities and accumulating knowledge.
Abstract » Martian Boneyards is a prototype game run in a massively-multiplayer online environment designed to entice gamers to partake in collaborative scientific inquiry. This case study examines the steps designers took to foster a community of inquiry within the game. Designers played characters in the game, allowing them to be responsive to players’ activities and accumulating knowledge. Players were drawn to the narrative and close relationships they developed with the designers’ characters and other players. An informal and communal reward system was used to further nurture collaboration among the community. Findings suggest games like this one show promise for fostering science identity and scientific inquiry.
 
Athletes and Street Acrobats: Designing for play as a Community Value in Parkour - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We developed a mobile community service for the Parkour community. We discuss how the successful design relied understanding the culture as a 'fun community', valuing play over achievement and competition.
Abstract » Participatory design methods face challenges when designing for a widespread youth community. In such projects, it is not enough to design in collaboration with a few selected individuals; one must also strive to understand the community at a deeper level and incorporate its values and practices into the design solution.

We report on our process of designing with, and for, an identified youth group: the Parkour and Freerunning community. We show how the successful design relied not only on employing methods of participatory observation and participatory design, but also on acquiring an understanding of the practice as a "fun community", valuing play over achievement and competition.
ACM
 
Communication and Commitment in an Online Game Team - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an experiment on inducing communication in online game groups. Examines the influence of communication topic and communicator role on group commitment. Extends our understanding of commitment in online groups.
Abstract » Theories about commitment in online settings and empirical evidence from offline environments suggest that greater communication in online groups should lead members to become more committed and participate longer. However, experimental evidence is sparse, in part because of difficulties inducing communication online. Moreover, previous work has not identified the route by which communication leads to increased commitment. In this paper, we investigated whether task versus social communication modeled by a leader versus a peer influenced the amount that group members talked and their willingness to continue participating in the group. We conducted an experiment within ad hoc groups in the online game World of Warcraft. Results suggest that communication early in a group�s history causes members to talk more later on and that the early communication increases their commitment through its influence on group atmosphere rather than through increased member participation. Social communication by a peer is especially valuable in increasing commitment.
ACM
 
Twiage: A Game for Finding Good Advice on Twitter - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Examines the feasibility of crowdsourcing the identification of "useful advice" on Twitter through a Game with a Purpose (GWAP) called Twiage.
Abstract » Millions of recommendations, opinions and experiences are shared across popular microblogging platforms and services each day. Yet much of this content becomes quickly lost in the stream shortly after being posted. This paper looks at the feasibility of identifying useful content in microblog streams so that it might be archived to facilitate wider access and reference. Towards this goal, we present an experiment with a game-with-a-purpose called
\\emph{Twiage} that we designed to determine how well the deluge of content in �raw� microblog streams could be turned into filtered and ranked collections using ratings from players. Experiments with Twiage validate the feasibility of applying human-computation to this problem, finding strong agreement about what constitutes the ``most useful'' content in our test dataset. Second, we compare the effectiveness of various methods of eliciting such ratings, finding that a �choose-best� interface and Elo rating ranking scheme yield the greatest agreement in the fewest rounds. External validation of resulting top-rated twitter content with a domain expert found that while the top Twiage-ranked �tweets� were among the best of the set, there was a tendency for players to also select what we term �weak spam� -- e.g., promotional content disguised as articles or reviews, indicating a need for more stringent content filtering.
ACM
Course 12: Designing With and For Children in the 21st century: Techniques and PracticesCourseRoom: 13B
 
 
Course 12: Designing With and For Children in the 21st century: Techniques and Practices - Course
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This course will cover technology co-design methods involving children; covering history, practical techniques, roles of adults and children, and practical issues relating to an intergenerational design team.
Abstract » Children are fast becoming a large user-segment of new technologies in the world. The CHI community has acknowledged children as important users by featuring an "HCI for Kids" community this year. We believe that it is critical that the HCI community continue to lead the way in supporting the best possible design of technology for children. To this end, this course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques which balance the voices and contributions of adults and children. We will also ground these techniques in information on the history of co-design with children, as well as child development as it relates to the design of technology for children. We will additionally focus on the roles of the adult in and intergenerational co-design team, including addressing practical issues of beginning a co-design team.

This course will include a historical overview of co-designing with children. We will also address understanding how child development should be considered in technology design and the technology design process. The course will include hands-on experience using techniques for designing new technologies with and for children. It will also offer participants an understanding of the role of the adult in co-design processes with children, including consideration of practical issues in co-design.

The audience for this course requires no special background. We welcome and encourage attendance by industry professionals, academics, and students from a wide variety of communities (e.g., design, computer science, information studies, and psychology).
Healthcare + Technology: Putting Patients FirstPaperRoom: 18CD
 
 
 
 
 
 
Findings of e-ESAS: A Mobile Based Symptom Monitoring System for Breast Cancer Patients in Rural Bangladesh - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS - the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system developed for rural BC patients.
Abstract » Breast cancer (BC) patients need traditional treatment as well as long term monitoring through an adaptive feedback-oriented treatment mechanism. Here, we present the findings of our 31-week long field study and deployment of e-ESAS � the first mobile-based remote symptom monitoring system (RSMS) developed for rural BC patients where patients are the prime users rather than just the source of data collection at some point of time. We have also shown how �motivation� and �automation� have been integrated in e-ESAS and creating a unique motivation-persuasion-motivation cycle where the motivated patients become proactive change agents by persuading others. Though in its early deployment stages (2 months), e-ESAS demonstrates the potential to positively impact the cancer care by (1) helping the doctors with graphical charts of long symptom history (automation), (2) facilitating timely interventions through alert generation (automation) and (3) improving three way communications (doctor-patient-attendant) for a better decision making process (motivation) and thereby improving the quality of life of BC patients.
ACM
 
Problems of Data Mobility and Reuse in the Provision of Computer-based Training for Screening Mammography - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the problems encountered reusing clinical data to deliver training in breast cancer screening. Details how data curation processes and tools can be better designed to improve data reuse.
Abstract » This paper explores some of the problems encountered in using a data archive to build tools for training radiologists to interpret breast screening images. We detail our experiences of taking images and case notes created as part of the work of breast cancer screening and using them as resources for training. Four instances of the use of the archive in training are described in detail and the problems they reveal are discussed. We formulate some general lessons for the mobility and re-use of rich ensembles of data and artefacts drawn from complex professional settings. We argue for a richer representation of the context from which the data was taken than can be achieved through making selected relations explicit in metadata. We also conclude that facilities for correcting and elaborating data should be available at the point of use, and not separated out as distinct activities.
ACM
 
Supporting visual assessment of food and nutrient intake in a clinical care setting - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents the mappmal application to support visual assessment of food consumption in a clinical setting. The application provides a reliable but conservative measure of nutritional intake from partially consumed meals.
Abstract » Monitoring nutritional intake is an important aspect of the care of older people, particularly for those at risk of malnutrition. Current practice for monitoring food intake relies on hand written food charts that have several inadequacies. We describe the design and validation of a tool for computer-assisted visual assessment of patient food and nutrient intake. To estimate food consumption, the application compares the pixels the user rubbed out against predefined graphical masks. Weight of food consumed is calculated as a percentage of pixels rubbed out against pixels in the mask. Results suggest that the application may be a useful tool for the conservative assessment of nutritional intake in hospitals.
ACM
 
Tackling Dilemmas in Supporting 'The Whole Person' in Online Patient Communities - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We discuss ways to better support patients' personal as well as medical information needs in online patient community settings.
Abstract » Online health communities that engage the patient as a whole person attend to personal and medical needs in a holistic manner. Whether current communities structure interaction between health professionals and patients to address the whole person is an open question. To gain insights into this question, we examined a sample of online patient communities to understand health professionals' involvement in bringing in medical advice into peer-patient conversations. We found the communities fall short in supporting the whole person, because (1) patient expertise and clinical expertise generated by health professionals are shared separately, and (2) patients' quantified data are separate from narrative experiences. Such separation in the design of these systems can lead to limitations in addressing patients' interwoven medical and personal concerns. We discuss dilemmas and design implications for supporting the whole person in online patient communities.
ACM
 
Interaction Proxemics and Image Use in Neurosurgery - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Articulates the spatial organization of collaborative work practices in neurosurgery theatres by drawing on interaction proxemics and F-formations. Discusses opportunities and difficulties relating to touchless interaction in surgical settings.
Abstract » Within medical settings there is a growing interest in exploring touchless interaction technologies. The primary motivation here is to avoid contact during interaction with data so as to maintain asepsis. However, there is another important property of touchless interaction that has significant implications for their use within such settings � namely that interaction behaviour is spatially distal from the device being interacted with. To further understand these implications we present fieldwork observations of work practice in neurosurgery theatres. Drawing on the notion of interaction proxemics and the theory of F-formations, our analysis articulates the spatial organization of collaborative work practices and interaction in these settings. From this understanding of spatial practices, we discuss opportunities and difficulties relating to the design of touchless interaction technologies for in surgical settings.
ACM
Course 5: Art and HCI in CollaborationCourseRoom: 11B
 
 
Course 5: Art and HCI in Collaboration - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will enable participants to develop skills in planning and carrying out collaborative projects in the intersection of HCI and the digital arts.
Abstract » In this two-session course, we address how CHI
practitioners and researchers can work collaboratively
with digital artists on interaction projects. We establish
the context of the relationship between digital arts and
HCI through the forty-year history of interactive digital
art. We then address the benefits and challenges of
collaboration across disciplines through presentation,
discussion, and appeal to case studies. We guide
participants to understand potential issues that may
emerge in collaborative projects they would like to
undertake, or are undertaking, and work with them to
establish an agenda to move forward with
collaboration.

The course will proceed through a series of topics:
• An introduction featuring the promises of collaboration between HCI and digital arts
• A presentation of the history of interactive digital art
• Discussions of challenges to collaboration
• Encouragement of participants to submit ideas for collaborative projects they would like to work on, or are currently
working on, with issues they are facing or anticipate facing
• Case studies to ground the discussion of issues
• Reflective discussion of the digital art represented at CHI2012
• Encouragement of participants to write an agenda for their collaborative projects based on results of the course.
Critical Perspectives on DesignPaperRoom: 16AB
 
 
 
 
 
What Should We Expect From Research Through Design? - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This essay characterises research through design theory as provisional and elaborative, and suggests annotated portfolios as a way forward. Will benefit those wishing to understand design's contribution to HCI.
Abstract » In this essay, I explore several facets of research through design in order to contribute to discussions about how the approach should develop. The essay has three parts. In the first, I review two influential theories from the Philosophy of Science to help reflect on the nature of design theory, concluding that research through design is likely to produce theories that are provisional, contingent, and aspirational. In the second part, I discuss three possible interpretations for the diversity of approaches to research through design, and suggest that this variation need not be seen as a sign of inadequate standards or a lack of cumulative progress in the field, but may be natural for a generative endeavour. In the final section, I suggest that, rather than aiming to develop increasingly comprehensive theories of design, practice based research might better view theory as annotation of realised design examples, and particularly portfolios of related pieces. Overall, I suggest that the design research community should be wary of impulses towards convergence and standardisation, and instead take pride in its aptitude for exploring and speculating, particularising and diversifying, and - especially - its ability to manifest the results in the form of new, conceptually rich artefacts.
ACM
 
Sustainably Unpersuaded: How Persuasion Narrows our Vision of Sustainability - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Critically analyzes persuasive technology as a modernist approach to solving social problems. Identifies structural limitations of persuasive technology as an approach to sustainability and offers alternatives.
Abstract » In this paper we provide a critical analysis of persuasive sustainability research from 2009-2011. Drawing on critical sociological theory of modernism, we argue that persuasion is based on a limited framing of sustainability, human behavior, and their interrelation-ship. This makes supporting sustainability easier, but leads to characteristic patterns of breakdown. We then detail problems that emerge from this narrowing of vision, such as how the framing of sustainability as the optimization of a simple metrics places technologies incorrectly as objective arbiters over complex issues of sustainability. We conclude by suggesting alternative approaches to move beyond these problems.
ACM
 
Undesigning Technology: Considering the Negation of Design by Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Motivates and develops the question: To what extent and in what ways should the intentional negation of technology be an acknowledged and legitimate area of design research activity within HCI?
Abstract » Motivated by substantive concerns with the limitations and negative effects of technology, this paper inquires into the negation of technology as an explicit and intentional aspect of design research within HCI. Building on theory from areas including philosophy and design theory, this paper articulates a theoretical framework for conceptualizing the intentional negation of technology (i.e., the undesign of technology), ranging from the inhibition of particular uses of technology to the total erasure or foreclosure of technology. The framework is then expanded upon to articulate additional areas of undesigning, including self-inhibition, exclusion, removal, replacement, restoration, and safeguarding. In conclusion a scheme is offered for addressing questions concerning the disciplinary scope of undesign in the context of HCI, along with suggestions for ways that undesigning may be more strongly incorporated within HCI research.
ACM
 
Affordances in HCI: Toward a Mediated Action Perspective - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Discusses analyses of affordances in HCI research and outlines a mediated action perspective on affordances as a relational property of a three-way interaction between the person, mediational means, and environment.
Abstract » Interpretations of the concept of "affordances" in HCI are becoming increasingly diverse, extending well beyond the original Gibsonian meaning. We discuss some of the key analyses of affordances in HCI research and make three related claims. First, we argue that many current interpretations of the concept are essentially incompatible with Gibson. Second, we hold that the Gibsonian concept of affordances, conceptualized as interaction between animals and their environments, provides some important insights, but is, in the end, of limited relevance to HCI research. Third, we call for adopting a mediated action perspective on affordances as an alternative to Gibson's ecological psychology. We outline a view of technology affordances as possibilities for human action mediated by cultural means conceived as a relational property of a three-way interaction between the person, mediational means, and environment. We conclude with a discussion of prospects for future conceptual and empirical explorations of the meditational perspective in HCI research.
ACM
Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHISpecial EventsRoom: Ballroom D
 
 
Town Hall meeting on Peer Reviewing at CHI - Special Events
Contribution & Benefit: In this Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss how to improve and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation.
Abstract » The CHI community is vibrant, growing, and interdisciplinary, and peer review is at the heart of what it means to be a community of researchers. In this Special Town Hall on Peer Review, we discuss the question of how to grow and change our reviewing practices to meet the challenge of both ongoing growth and increasing interdisciplinary participation. Our community has seen a wide variety of explorations of the best way to change and improve our practices: alt.chi’s open reviewing, CSCW’s revise & resubmit process and UIST’s removal of page limits are all ways to address the changing nature of this research. This Town Hall will provide an opportunity to discuss and address this ongoing question.
I Am How I Touch: Authenticating UsersPaper & ToCHIRoom: Ballroom E
 
 
 
 
 
Homogenous Physio-Behavioral Visual and Mouse Based Biometric - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new biometric technique that uses cognitive features and mouse dynamics without the introduction of new hardware. This technique opens doors for advanced biometrics used for static authentication.
Abstract » In this research, we propose a novel biometric system for static user authentication that homogeneously combines mouse dynamics, visual search capability and short-term memory effect. The proposed system introduces the visual search capability, and short-term memory effect to the biometric-based security world for the first time. The use of a computer mouse for its dynamics, and as an input sensor for the other two biometrics, means no additional hardware is required than the standard mouse. Experimental evaluation showed the system effectiveness using variable or one-time passwords. All of these attributes qualify the proposed system to be effectively deployed as a static authentication mechanism.

Extensive experimentation was done using 2740 sessions collected from 274 users. To measure the performance, a computational statistics model was specially designed and used; a statistical classifier based on Weighted-Sum produced an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 2.11%.
 
Biometric-Rich Gestures: A Novel Approach to Authentication on Multi-touch Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a new approach to login/authentication on multi-touch devices, using behavior-based biometrics gleaned from five-finger gestures. This approach better aligns usability with security, than is the case for text-based passwords.
Abstract » In this paper, we present a novel multi-touch gesture-based authentication technique. We take advantage of the multi- touch surface to combine biometric techniques with gestural input. We defined a comprehensive set of five-finger touch gestures, based upon classifying movement characteristics of the center of the palm and fingertips, and tested them in a user study combining biometric data collection with usability questions. Using pattern recognition techniques, we built a classifier to recognize unique biometric gesture characteristics of an individual. We achieved a 90% accuracy rate with single gestures, and saw significant improvement when multiple gestures were performed in sequence. We found user ratings of a gestures desirable characteristics (ease, pleasure, excitement) correlated with a gestures actual biometric recognition ratethat is to say, user ratings aligned well with gestural security, in contrast to typical text-based passwords. Based on these results, we conclude that multi-touch gestures show great promise as an authentication mechanism.
ACM
 
Touch me once and I know it's you! Implicit Authentication based on Touch Screen Patterns - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents two user studies of an implicit authentication approach for touch screen phones. Proofs that it is possible to distinguish users by the way they perform the authentication.
Abstract » Password patterns, as used on current Android phones, and other shape-based authentication schemes are highly usable and memorable. In terms of security, they are rather weak since the shapes are easy to steal and reproduce. In this work, we introduce an implicit authentication approach that enhances password patterns with an additional security layer, transparent to the user. In short, users are not only authenticated by the shape they input but also by the way they perform the input. We conducted two consecutive studies, a lab and a long-term study, using Android applications to collect and log data from user input on a touch screen of standard commercial smartphones. Analyses using dynamic time warping (DTW) provided first proof that it is actually possible to distinguish different users and use this information to increase security of the input while keeping the convenience for the user high.
ACM
 
WebTicket: Account Management Using Printable Tokens - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes development and evaluations of WebTicket that manages web accounts using paper-based or mobile-phone-based tickets. Demonstrates that WebTicket provides reliable and phishing-resilient user authentication.
Abstract » Passwords are the most common authentication scheme today. However, it is difficult for people to memorize strong passwords, such as random sequences of characters. Additionally, passwords do not provide protection against phishing attacks. This paper introduces WebTicket, a low cost, easy-to-use and reliable web account management system that uses "tickets", which are tokens that contain a two-dimensional barcode that can be printed or stored on smartphones. Users can log into accounts by presenting the barcodes to webcams connected to computers. Through two lab studies and one field study consisting of 59 participants in total, we found that WebTicket can provide reliable authentication and phishing resilience.
ACM
Music Interaction Research - Let's Get the Band Back TogetherPanelRoom: Ballroom F
 
 
Music Interaction Research - Let's Get the Band Back Together - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: This panel discusses music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become marginal in HCI and how to revive it.
Abstract » The ubiquity of music consumption is overarching. Statistics for digital music sales, streaming video videos, computer games, and illegal sharing all speak of a huge interest. At the same, an incredible amount of data about every day interactions (sales and use) with music is accumulating through new cloud services. However, there is an amazing lack of public knowledge about everyday music interaction. This panel discusses the state of music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become so marginal in HCI and discuss how to revive it. Our two discussion themes are: orientation towards design vs. research in music related R&D, and the question if and how private, big data on music interactions could enlighten our understanding of ubiquitous media culture.
Visionary Models + ToolsPaperRoom: Ballroom G
 
 
 
 
 
Color Naming Models for Color Selection, Image Editing and Palette Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Contributes methods for constructing probabilistic models of color naming from unconstrained color-name judgments. These models enable new ways for users to express colors and evaluate their designs.
Abstract » Our ability to reliably name colors provides a link between visual perception and symbolic cognition. In this paper, we investigate how a statistical model of color naming can enable user interfaces to meaningfully mimic this link and support novel interactions. We present a method for constructing a probabilistic model of color naming from a large, unconstrained set of human color name judgments. We describe how the model can be used to map between colors and names and define metrics for color saliency (how reliably a color is named) and color name distance (the similarity between colors based on naming patterns). We then present a series of applications that demonstrate how color naming models can enhance graphical interfaces: a color dictionary & thesaurus, name-based pixel selection methods for image editing, and evaluation aids for color palette design.
ACM
 
The Untapped Promise of Digital Mind Maps - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Existing mind mapping software applications have been evaluated, ethnographic research performed, and a framework of principles has been developed to inform the design of future tools for collaborative knowledge management.
Abstract » Digital mind mapping tools present a fertile area for research on human-computer interaction. We evaluated numerous existing mind mapping software applications, performed ethnographic research with a variety of users, and developed a framework of principles to inform the design of future tools for collaborative knowledge management. Our findings suggest an opportunity to advance digital mind mapping beyond the existing state-of-the-art, particularly in the areas of improving workflow, facilitating collaboration, and supporting information storage and retrieval. We conclude with suggestions for how to improve digital mind mapping systems, specifically with regard to real-time collaborative thinking.
ACM
 
Delta: A Tool For Representing and Comparing Workflows - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a system that aids users in comparing workflows, specifically those used in image-editing tasks. Can assist designers in developing tools for comparing workflows in various domains.
Abstract » Tutorials and sample workflows for complicated, feature-rich software packages are widely available online. As a result users must differentiate between workflows to choose the most suitable one for their task. We present Delta, an interactive workflow visualization and comparison tool that helps users identify the tradeoffs between workflows. We conducted an initial study to identify the set of attributes users attend to when comparing workflows, finding that they consider result quality, their knowledge of commands, and the efficiency of the workflow. We then designed Delta to surface these attributes at three granularities: a high-level, clustered view; an intermediate-level list view that contains workflow summaries; and a low-level detail view that allows users to compare two individual workflows. Finally, we conducted an evaluation of Delta on a small corpus of 30 workflows and found that the intermediate list view provided the best information density. We conclude with thoughts on how such a workflow comparison system could be scaled up to larger corpora in the future.
ACM
 
QuickDraw : Improving Drawing Experience for Geometric Diagrams - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: QuickDraw is a pen-based prototype diagramming that uses constraint inference and a novel beautification algorithm to enable the drawing of precise geometric diagrams
Abstract » We present QuickDraw, a prototype sketch-based drawing
tool, that facilitates drawing of precise geometry diagrams
that are often drawn by students and academics in several
scientific disciplines. Quickdraw can recognize sketched dia-
grams containing components such as line segments and cir-
cles, infer geometric constraints relating recognized compo-
nents, and use this information to beautify the sketched dia-
gram. Beautification is based on a novel algorithm that iter-
atively computes various sub-components of the components
using an extensible set of deductive rules. We conducted a
user study comparing QuickDraw with four state-of-the-art
diagramming tools: Microsoft PowerPoint, Cabri II Plus, Ge-
ometry Expressions and Geometer�s SketchPad. Our study
demonstrates a strong interest among participants for the use
of sketch-based software for drawing geometric diagrams.
We also found that QuickDraw enables users to draw precise
diagrams faster than the majority of existing tools in some
cases, while having them make fewer corrections.
ACM
Course 15: User Experience Evaluation in Entertainment and GamesCourseRoom: 11A
 
 
Course 15: User Experience Evaluation in Entertainment and Games - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods methods, opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games.
Abstract » Benefits: This course comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods methods, opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games. It provides an overview on what user experience is about (in contrast to usability), it provides an understanding on enablers for successful future games and entertainment experiences and which user experience evaluation methods are currently available and used for the development of games.

Objectives of this course are:
• to provide an overview on user experience evaluation in the games and entertainment area.
• to provide definitions of user experience, and discuss the factors that contribute to the overall user experience in a game (e.g. flow, immersion, playability)
• to explain how game development is different from software engineering development, especially the evaluation phase.
Based on these foundations the objective is:
• to give an overview on existing methods
• to allow participants in the course a first hands-on experience on how to apply one of the methods to a real game.


Audience:
* Developers and designers: the course will help to establish an understanding how to evaluate user experience in the area of games and entertainment and how outcomes of the evaluation can be integrated in the next iteration of the game and entertainment application development;
* Industrial and academic researchers: the course will provide an overview on current methods in the area, and can help to understand the concept of user experience.
* Students: the course provides a first introduction to user experience in games, but lessons can also be taken for the application in other domains.
It's a Big Web!Case Study & PaperRoom: 19AB
 
 
 
 
 
Talking in Circles: Selective Sharing in Google+ - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: This paper describes a mixed-methods analysis of selective sharing behavior in social networks through study of Google+. It also offers a glimpse into early behavior in a new social system.
Abstract » Online social networks have become indispensable tools for information sharing, but existing �all-or-nothing� models for sharing have made it difficult for users to target information to specific parts of their networks. In this paper, we study Google+, which enables users to selectively share content with specific �Circles� of people. Through a combination of log analysis with surveys and interviews, we investigate how active users organize and select audiences for shared content. We find that these users frequently engaged in selective sharing, creating circles to manage content across particular life facets, ties of varying strength, and interest-based groups. Motivations to share spanned personal and informational reasons, and users frequently weighed �limiting� factors (e.g. privacy, relevance, and social norms) against the desire to reach a large audience. Our work identifies implications for the design of selective sharing mechanisms in social networks.
ACM
 
Omnipedia: Bridging the Wikipedia Language Gap - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: We present Omnipedia, a system that allows users to gain insight from 25 Wikipedia language editions simultaneously. We discuss the system, its multilingual data mining algorithms, and a 27-user study.
Abstract » We present Omnipedia, a system that allows Wikipedia readers to gain insight from up to 25 language editions of Wikipedia simultaneously. Omnipedia highlights the similarities and differences that exist among Wikipedia language editions, and makes salient information that is unique to each language as well as that which is shared more widely. We detail solutions to numerous front-end and algorithmic challenges inherent to providing users with a multilingual Wikipedia experience. These include visualizing content in a language-neutral way and aligning data in the face of diverse information organization strategies. We present a study of Omnipedia that characterizes how people interact with information using a multilingual lens. We found that users actively sought information exclusive to unfamiliar language editions and strategically compared how language editions defined concepts. Finally, we briefly discuss how Omnipedia generalizes to other domains facing language barriers.
ACM
 
Social Annotations in Web Search - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Surprisingly, using eyetracking and interviews, we found social annotations in web search to be neither universally useful nor noticeable. However, further experimentations show possible improvements to annotation design.
Abstract » We ask how to best present social annotations on search results, and attempt to find an answer through mixed-method eye-tracking and interview experiments. Current practice is anchored on the assumption that faces and names draw attention; the same presentation format is used independently of the social connection strength and the search query topic. The key findings of our experiments indicate room for improvement. First, only certain social contacts are useful sources of information, depending on the search topic. Second, faces lose their well-documented power to draw attention when rendered small as part of a social search result annotation. Third, and perhaps most surprisingly, social annotations go largely unnoticed by users in general due to selective, structured visual parsing behaviors specific to search result pages. We conclude by recommending improvements to the design and content of social annotations to make them more noticeable and useful.
ACM
 
Designing for a Billion Users: A Case Study of Facebook - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: A case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook. Highlights the perspectives of designers, engineers, UX researchers, and other product stakeholders.
Abstract » Facebook is the world’s largest social network, connecting over 800 million users worldwide. The type of phenomenal growth experienced by Facebook in a short time is rare for any technology company. As the Facebook user base approaches the 1 billion mark, a number of exciting opportunities await the world of social networking and the future of the web. We present a case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook from the perspective of designers, engineers, managers, user experience researchers, and other stakeholders at the company. Our case study illustrates various complexities and tradeoffs in design through a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) lens and highlights implications for tackling the challenges through research and practice.
Tuesday, May 08, 10:50
Poster interactions focusing on Work in Progress: Design and User ExperienceWorks In ProgressRoom: Exhibition Hall
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Postboard: free-form tangible messaging for people with aphasia (and other people) - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we report the design of a communication system for people with aphasia. It consists of pairs of physical whiteboards that are connected over the internet. This allows users to combine any personal language skills with visuals and already existing materials at hand. The design has been based on feedback and evaluation sessions with aphasics and their therapists. The user test results show that the design provides a low entry barrier and enables relaxed conversations.
 
Understanding Designer Brainstorms: The Effect of Analog and Digital Interfaces on Dominance - Works In Progress
Abstract » Brainstorming has long been an integral part of the design
process. However, only recently have technological advances
given rise to collaborative interfaces for facilitating brainstorming
activities. While there has been some research on
the effects of these technologies on group dynamics, little is
known about how collaborative interfaces affect dominance
within a brainstorm in interaction design. In this paper, we
explore the relationship between one collaborative technology,
the DiamondTouch Tabletop, and dominance in designer
brainstorms.
 
Do Cognitive Styles of Users affect Preference and Performance related to CAPTCHA Challenges? - Works In Progress
Abstract » A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is nowadays a widely used security mechanism for constructing a high-confidence proof that the entity interacting with a remote service is actually a human being. Aiming to investigate the relation among users' cognitive styles, and CAPTCHA challenges in terms of preference and performance, a study is in progress which entails a psychometric-based survey for extracting users' cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario with two variations of CAPTCHA mechanisms. A total of 131 participants of age between 19 and 25 participated in the reported study providing interesting insights with respect to users' cognitive styles and CAPTCHA preference and performance issues.
 
Visualizing Sentiments in Business-Customer Relations with Metaphors - Works In Progress
Abstract » This project explores how the visualization of sentiments, extracted from social media posts, can foster transparency and strengthen relations between businesses and their customers. Guided by the nature of the data and an iterative design based on our end users’ feedback, we examine a variety of visualization styles and metaphors as possible directions for a common set of tools to benefit both groups of users.
 
MixT: Automatic Generation of Step-by-Step Mixed Media Tutorials - Works In Progress
Abstract » As software interfaces become more complicated, users rely on tutorials to learn, creating an increasing demand for effective tutorials. Existing tutorials, however, are limited in their presentation: Static step-by-step tutorials are easy to scan but hard to create and don't always give all of the necessary information for how to accomplish a step. In contrast, video tutorials provide very detailed information and are easy to create, but they are hard to scan as the video-player timeline does not give an overview of the entire task. We present MixT, which automatically generates mixed media tutorials that combine the strengths of these tutorial types. MixT tutorials include step-by-step text descriptions and images that are easy to scan and short videos for each step that provide additional context and detail as needed. We ground our design in a formative study that shows that mixed-media tutorials outperform both static and video tutorials.
 
Sharing Narrative and Experience: Digital Stories and Portraits at a Women’s Centre - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present our work-in-progress designing technologies to foster social connection with isolated immigrant women in the UK. We report our preliminary studies using digital storytelling and digital portrait methods with participants at a Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) centre supporting women who have experiences of domestic violence. While these methods have provided valuable insights, in contexts where participants feel vulnerable and cultural diversity is the norm, HCI's conventional assumptions about storytelling and probe use cannot be taken for granted. We describe our rationale for the adaptation of methods and tensions highlighted through the process.
 
Sketch-based Interface for Interaction with Unmanned Air Vehicles - Works In Progress
Abstract » In order to decrease the number of casualties and limit the number of potentially dangerous situations that Soldiers encounter, the US military is exploring the use of autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to fulfill air support requests (ASR) from the field. The interface for this system must provide interaction in modes that facilitate the completion of the support request in various scenarios, and it must be usable by operators of all skill levels, without requiring extensive training or considerable expertise. Sketches are a simple and natural way to exchange information and ideas. Sketching as a form of human-computer interaction can be very useful in areas where information is represented graphically. In this paper we present the development of an interface that that allows the user to plan an ASR using sketch and other inputs while conforming to the user’s mental model of natural interaction.
 
Exquisite Corpses that explore interactions - Works In Progress
Abstract » Inspired by the Surrealist technique known as exquisite corpse, we investigated a novel method for exploring low-level interactions. By creating a video collection of input actions and output reactions, we created a tool that allows quick video sketching of interactions. Designers can mix and match different actions, and quickly see the results. We present three examples and conclude with our lessons learned from using this technique.
 
Exploring Material-Centered Design Concepts for Tangible Interaction - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we present two concepts for material-centered design of tangible interaction: (1) material-based interaction constraints and (2) material-driven user engagement. This approach applies material iconography as underlying theory, a method from art history that focuses on the characteristics and meanings of materials. Our reflections are based on experiences with an interactive installation we have built: the soap bubble user interface, a tangible user interface that has been presented and used in six public and semi-public settings. This work contributes to the emerging field of research on materiality of tangible user interfaces.
 
Spatial Awareness and Intelligibility for the Blind: Audio-Touch Interfaces. - Works In Progress
Abstract » Many people with visual disabilities mainly use audio feedback as a primary modality for interaction. Representing the visual environment with appropriate sounds contributes to make it intelligible to the blind. This audio-encoded environment still needs to be accessed in the same way as sighted people scan visual contents with their gaze. A finger-based scanning could be seen as a gaze-like strategy for those with visual impairments to be able of sensing an audio-represented context. We present in this work a computational interface that meets both, the visual-audio codification and the multi-touch interaction, so as to enlarge legibility of the environment for the blind and to facilitate navigating to desired locations, exploration, and serendipitous discovery. The core of this interface is the color and depth codification into musical instruments sounds, which effectively provides spatial awareness, audio revealing of boundaries and obstacles detection. The main contribution of our work is the assistance provided by this interface toward an active interaction of the user with his fingers that makes it possible to selectively explore, to discover points of interest, develop personalized strategies for navigating, and, in general, enjoy a greater sense of independence.
 
It’s Neat to Feel the Heat: How Can We Hold Hands at a Distance? - Works In Progress
Abstract » There is a growing body of work in HCI on the design of communication technologies to help support long distance relationships. We build upon this work by presenting three different prototypes based on hand holding. This distinguishes itself by basing distance communication metaphors on elements of co-located hand-holding actions. We then present an evaluation of the prototypes based on a three-phase interview process with 12 participants. We conclude by discussing the combined evocative power of unique physical metaphors and memories in fostering romantic connections at a distance.
 
Deriving Requirements for an Online Community Interaction Scheme: Indications from Older Adults - Works In Progress
Abstract » Social media and online communication encourage social interaction but do little to strengthen community relations between people who live in the same area. The aim of this work is to develop a set of requirements, in this initial case from a group of older adults, for an online system aimed at increasing local face-to-face communication and enhancing community interaction. Eleven older adults took part in two discussion groups to develop this list of requirements. The results of these discussions are presented and come under six broad categories, these being: Security/Information, Social, Physical, Interface, Crime and Management. We also suggest additional requirements we think would benefit the system and future directions.
 
Multiple Visualizations and Debugging: How do we co-ordinate these? - Works In Progress
Abstract » There are many popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE) that provide multiple visualizations and other sophisticated functionalities to facilitate program comprehension and debugging. To better understand the effectiveness and role of multiple visualizations, we conducted a preliminary study of java program debugging with a professional, multi-representation IDE. We found that program code and dynamic representations (dynamic viewer, variable watch and output) attracted the most attention of programmers. Static representations like Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams and Control Structure Diagrams (CSD) saw significantly lesser usage. Interesting eye gaze patterns of programmers were also revealed by the study.
 
DigitShadow: Facilitating Awareness of Home Surroundings - Works In Progress
Abstract » DigitShadow is a novel information affordance aimed at enhancing the awareness of home surroundings. It aggregates local online information and events happening in the neighborhood, and communicates them to the inhabitants by supporting both peripheral and focused attention. DigitShadow casts the digital “shadow” of online information to the ambient level, and then facilitates the transition to attentive and interactive level to provide detail information. We illustrate the design process of DigitShadow, including the contextual interviews, the data analysis and findings from a cognitive perspective, the conceptual design framework, and the preliminary prototyping.
 
SparkInfo: Designing a Social Space for Co-Creation of Audiovisual Elements and Multimedia Comments - Works In Progress
Abstract » People can have more insights and social experiences when they collaborate on collecting, revisiting, and utilizing their contents, such as images and videos; however, designing a social space that offers rich co-creation and exploration of multimedia contents remains a challenge. We propose a new system, SparkInfo, which enables users to create, exchange and augment their audiovisual elements in ways that are personally unique and sociable. SparkInfo is designed for a group of people, who have created audiovisual elements for the same purpose or at the same event, to collect their elements in one place and have a meaningful experience of their co-created media resources. SparkInfo provides a social space for the co-creation of audiovisual and multimedia resources. In the process of exploring and embellishing their materials, SparkInfo users can create new ideas, stories, and information. By utilizing this process, the users are able to experience how SparkInfo can embody the cycle of knowledge building, re-mixing, and sharing.
 
PseudoButton: Enabling Pressure-Sensitive Interaction by Repurposing Microphone on Mobile Device - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose a new interaction technique, called PseudoButton, which emulates a pressure-sensitive touch sensor by repurposing a built-in microphone on mobile devices. This simple and novel technique increases input expressivity of the device and expands its interaction area for users to alleviate the occlusion problem caused by touchscreens without adding extra sensors. To verify our idea, we implemented a prototype and conducted a preliminary evaluation on it. The results show that participants can input at accuracy of 94% for five different pressure levels with minimal error.
 
Tactile Feedback on Flat Surfaces for the Visually Impaired - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we introduce a mobile, generic, and inexpensive visuo-tactile sensory substitution device for the visually impaired. The device helps users to explore the world around them, by pointing it towards objects of the environment and rendering tactile information to the objects sensed by a camera. With the help of two visually impaired participants, we conducted three preliminary experiments and evaluated the performance of the device in detecting, reaching and exploring tasks. Both participants were able to detect, explore and reach for a given object of interest in a controlled room setting using only the tactile information rendered on the flat panel of the device. The implication of results and future directions for tactile assistive devices are discussed.
 
"Listen2dRoom": Helping Blind Individuals Understand Room Layouts - Works In Progress
Abstract » Over half a million Americans are legally blind. Despite much effort in assistive technology, blindness remains a major challenge to accessibility. For individuals who are blind, there has been considerable research on indoor/outdoor way finding, but there has been little research on room layout information. The purpose of the current research is to support blind individuals to understand the layout of an unfamiliar room. We found some important applications for this type of assistive technology such as safety, easy-to-use furniture and home appliances. To this end, we identified user needs and variables with blind participants, designed and evaluated prototype systems, and iteratively improved the system. The overall process, findings, and on-going future works are discussed. This effort is expected to enhance independence for persons who are blind.
 
Back Keyboard: A Physical Keyboard on Backside of Mobile Phone using QWERTY - Works In Progress
Abstract » Since smart phones adopted touchscreen, users have been enjoying large displays. However, when using soft keyboard, the available size of the display becomes less than 50%. In this paper Back Keyboard, a physical keyboard installed backside of mobile phone, is presented. Also the design process with a prototype through a series of studies is described. User evaluation was conducted with the prototype; the average text entry rate was 15.3 WPM (SD: 3.6) and the error rate was 12.2% (SD: 9.0) after a 40-minute typing session. Moreover, the text entry rates of Back Keyboard and general keyboards for PCs did not have significant relations. This means that the prototype could be used smoothly regardless of one’s ability of typing on a PC.
 
Clerk agent promotes consumers’ ethical purchasing behavior in unmanned purchase environment - Works In Progress
Abstract » This study explored whether cues from others in a purchase environment have an effect on purchase behavior for products with fair-trade labels, an ethical attribute of products, among Japanese consumers. By manipulating cues from others, we assessed consumers’ intentions to purchase fair-trade products under three different experimental situations: 1) the observed condition, in which participants’ purchasing behaviors were observed by others (N = 84), 2) the agent condition, in which participants’ purchasing behaviors were observed by a clerk-like agent (N = 118), and 3) the non-observed condition, in which participants’ purchasing behaviors could not be observed by others (N = 106). The results of this conjoint experiment demonstrate that participants under both the agent and observed conditions valuated fair-trade products higher than those under the non-observed condition, although participants both in the agent and the non-observed conditions were instructed that their responses would remain anonymous. These findings imply that implications of the presence of others, such as a clerk-like agent in an unmanned purchase environment, enhance ethical purchasing behaviors as with manned purchase environments.
 
Can Users Live with Overconfident or Unconfident Systems?: A Comparison of Artificial Subtle Expressions with Human-like Expression - Works In Progress
Abstract » We assume that expressing the levels of confidence using human-like expressions will cause users to have a poorer impression of a system than if artificial subtle expressions (ASEs) were used when the quality of the presented information does not match the expressed level of confidence. We confirmed that this assumption was correct by conducting a psychological experiment.
 
Design Principles: Crowdfunding As A Creativity Support Tool - Works In Progress
Abstract » Creativity supports societal and economic prosperity. As such, HCI researchers have been concerned with creating technologies to support creativity. Crowdfunding offers a new type of creativity support tool where creators rely on the crowd to collect, create, relate, and donate creative work. With the rapid growth of crowdfunding platforms, design principles are needed to guide platform development. This paper presents design principles informed by Shneiderman’s Genex Framework for creativity support tools in order for designers to answer the call from Human Computer Interaction (HCI) to empower more people to be more creative.
 
Automatic Web Design Refinements based on Collective User Behavior - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper explores the following question: Could web browsing data be used to inform design refinements? An interactive tool to help website builders in the process of redesigning web layouts is introduced. The novelty of the approach is that visual modifications are generated, either completely or partially unsupervised, according to the collective behavior of the website visitors. Implications of the method and its importance for the HCI community are discussed as well.
 
Visual Planner: Beyond Prerequisites, Designing an Interactive Course Planner for a 21st Century Flexible Curriculum - Works In Progress
Abstract » In the 21st century knowledge economy there is a growing need for the types of creative thinkers who can bridge the engineering mindset with the creative mindset, combining multiple types of skills. New economies will need workers who have "diagonal" skill sets, who can develop systems and content as an integrative process. This requires a new type of training and curriculum. In the newly formed "Digital Culture" undergraduate program at ASU, we attempt to support new types curricula by structuring differently the way students move through courses. With a constantly shifting and changing curriculum, structuring course enrollment using class “prerequisites” leads to fixed and rigid pathways through the curriculum. Instead, Digital Culture structures course sequences based on the students accumulation of abstract "Proficiencies" which are collected by students as they complete courses, and which act as keys to unlock access to higher level course. As a student accumulates more and more of these proficiencies, they are increasingly able to unlock new courses. This system leads to more flexible and adaptive pathways through courses while ensuring that students are prepared for entrance into more advanced classes. It is however more complicated and requires that students strategically plan their route through the curriculum. In order to support this kind of strategic planning we have designed and deployed a course planning system where students can simulate various possible paths through the curriculum. In this paper, we show our design process in coming up with our "Digital Culture Visual Planner". This design process starts with a network analysis of how all the Digital Culture courses are interrelated by, visualizing the relationships between “proficiencies” and courses. A number of possible design directions result from this analysis. Finally we select a single design and refine it to be understandable, useful and usable by new undergraduate Digital Culture majors.
 
Super Mirror: A Kinect Interface for Ballet Dancers - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose the Super Mirror, a Kinect-based system that combines the functionality of studio mirrors and prescriptive images to provide the user with instructional feedback in real-time. In this study, we developed a working prototype of this system, which records ballet movements (also called “positions” and “poses”), captures live motion, and shows the difference between the two.
 
Using Visual Website Similarity for Phishing Detection and Reporting - Works In Progress
Abstract » Phishing is a severe threat to online users, especially since attackers improve in impersonating other websites. With websites looking visually the same, users are fooled more easily. However, the close visual similarity can also be used to counteract phishing. We present a framework that uses visual website similarity: (1) to detect possible phishing websites and (2) to create better warnings for such attacks. We report first results together with the three step process planned for the project. We expect the detection results to be comparable to previously published work which would allow for new kinds of phishing warnings with better coverage, less false positives and explicit user recommendations how to avoid these critical situation.
 
Video Call, or Not, that is the Question - Works In Progress
Abstract » New technologies have made video calling in vehicles
possible. Results from a driving simulator experiment
indicate that video calling reduces visual attention on
the road. While in some situations drivers would refrain
from engaging in this activity, our results should serve
as a warning to interface designers, lawmakers,
transportation officials, and drivers that video calling
presents a real distraction from driving.
 
eInclusion @ Cyprus Universities: Provision and Web Accessibility - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents part of a work-in-progress that aims
to discuss issues of accessibility in higher education
regarding equal opportunities in the use and access of
information and technology for students with disabilities
in Cyprus. All Cypriot university Websites have been
examined using accessibility evaluation techniques and the
provisions made by the higher education officers for equal
access to their university websites have been reviewed.
The results showed that all university pages show
accessibility problems, with the public ones having the
least errors. With respect to provisions, results showed
that internal regulations and policy of universities did not
include any speci c provisions for web or other technology
accessibility.
 
Towards Stress-less User Interfaces: 10 Design Heuristics Based on the Psychophysiology of Stress - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we identify 10 design heuristics used to minimize the number of stressors in an interface. They are meant to complement other interface design heuristics. The heuristics are based on characteristics of stressors drawn from decades of empirical study. These include both evolutionary (survival) and psychosocial sources of stressors. The list is followed by the results of an exploratory heuristic evaluation conducted on four different mobile Twitter clients. It shows how the heuristics complement Nielsen’s usability heuristics by enabling designers to evaluate and differentiate interfaces along two dimensions: usability and potential for stress. The results of the paper are useful for designers and scholars interested in systems that induce, or mitigate the risk of inducing, negative psychophysiological state change. Current methods of evaluating interfaces on this dimension require user interviews and physiological monitoring.
 
MammiBelli: Sharing Baby Activity Levels Between Expectant Mothers and Their Intimate Social Groups - Works In Progress
Abstract » Many expectant mothers desire to share information about their pregnancy with family and friends in their intimate social group. This includes details about baby growth and activity (e.g., kicks). Based on interviews with new and expectant mothers, we have designed an initial prototype called MammiBelli that allows pregnant women to share baby activity information with family and friends over distance.
 
Hands-Up: Motion Recognition using Kinect and a Ceiling to Improve the Convenience of Human Life - Works In Progress
Abstract » Now we display information everywhere, but ceiling is the last place we haven’t used extensively. A ceiling at home, an overhead surface ordinarily used for structural and aesthetic purpose and less used compared to other interior surfaces, is expected to be a perfect screen when people lay on the bed. In this paper, we present Hands-Up system, our novel way to utilize ceiling to display information and to interact with by using Microsoft Kinect, which could give commands to the computer through a minimum hands motion. The Hands-Up system has been created by a combination of the specific situation on the bed and a smart device, Kinect, which can read human movements. We made a prototype and designed User Interface (UI) suitable for the system.
 
Touch & Detach: Physics-based Unbinding and Observation of Complex Virtual Objects in 3D Space - Works In Progress
Abstract » The main contribution of this study is the stable and intuitive detach method, named “Touch & Detach,” for 3D complex virtual objects using gesture-based operations in mixed reality space. In general modeling software, parts of a complex 3D object are grouped in a multi-level hierarchy for efficient operation and ungrouping is necessary for observing or manipulating a part in detail. Our method uses real-world bond metaphors (such as glue or a joint) to prevent incorrect operations and improve the system’s operational feeling and responsiveness. This paper presents the details of our proposed method and an informal user study.
 
VizDeck: A Card Game Metaphor for Fast Visual Data Exploration - Works In Progress
Abstract » Scientists in all fields are acquiring data at a rate that is challenging the limits of human cognitive capacity. At the same time, researchers’ attention is increasingly claimed by ever more diverse demands on their time. Visual perception is the highest bandwidth channel into the human brain, yet many existing visualization tools require a period of training rendering them inaccessible from a practical standpoint for many users. In addition, appropriate visualizations for cognitively overloaded users may differ from those optimized for analysis.
We present VizDeck, a web-based visualization system for relational data that uses a card game metaphor and automatic visualization techniques to assist scientists and researchers in creating interactive visual dashboard applications in seconds with no programming necessary.
 
What’s the Best Music You Have? Designing Music Recommendation for Group Enjoyment in GroupFun - Works In Progress
Abstract » Satisfaction and enjoyment are essential in group entertaining domains in which individuals share their preferences and actively participate in group decisions. Group recommender systems (GRS) do not yet employ methods and features allowing users to discover others’ interests in an enjoyable fashion. Based on an in-depth user study and a user-centered design approach, we created GroupFun, a collaborative environment that help groups of friends’ arrive at a common decision fostering group enjoyment and offering them a unique, fun music experience. We also conducted a user evaluation consisting in: system usage, questionnaires and open interviews to collect user feedback about our algorithms and interaction. Our results present GroupFun as an enjoyable and entertaining group decision platform which highly motivates users.
 
Has NFC the potential to revolutionize self-reported electronic data capture? - An empirical comparison of different interaction concepts - Works In Progress
Abstract » The objective of this paper is to analyze and assess different electronic data capture (EDC) interaction concepts regarding usability, hedonistic and pragmatic quality. We designed an application (app) for self-reported nutrition documentation and developed three different interaction concepts: an iPhone app, a computer based app and an app for a near field communication (NFC)-enabled phone with a smart poster. A plain paper protocol was used as a reference object. The prototype was evaluated in a laboratory setting with (n=206) participants. Our results show the potential of NFC for self-reported EDC. NFC outperformed the other solutions on pragmatic and hedonistic aspects, while the prototypes of iPhone and PC underperformed. The results provide initial findings for the design of such systems.
 
Knoby: Pet-like Interactive Door Knob - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present pet-like characteristics as a useful interactivity model for future products that could be more usable, emotional and sustainable. We investigated this issue by designing Knoby, a pet-like interactive door knob. Dogs’ emotional and behavioral characteristics were applied to a product concept in the design development process. The main features of Knoby include i) emotional expression of welcoming through its tail movement, ii) locking and unlocking interface similar to people’s interaction with a dog, and iii) continuous dynamic interaction for long term product attachment. Preliminary evaluation has showed that users perceive Knoby to be alive and to support emotional and playful interaction. This research provides a new perspective on the development of complex and intelligent products, and this model can be used as a design method for considering different pets and associated characteristics.
 
Photocation: Tangible Learning System for DSLR Photography - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present Photocation, a tangible photography education system that invites people to explore and learn about the technical settings involved in a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The basic DSLR camera elements such as aperture, ISO and shutter speed are represented in tangible forms so that people can physically manipulate and explore how these settings interact with one another to produce different types of photographic expressions. A built-in physical diorama further provides a controlled environment to test their photographic settings against. By physically exploring with Photocation, aspiring photographers can familiarize themselves with the interactive linkages of the basic DSLR elements and take exemplary photos before transferring their knowledge to full-fledged DSLR cameras. We present the design rationale, a prototype, and a preliminary evaluation of our prototype.
 
A Platform for Large-Scale Machine Learning on Web Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » The Web is an enormous and diverse repository of design examples. Although people often draw from extant designs to create new ones, existing Web design tools do not facilitate example reuse in a way that captures the scale and diversity of the Web. To do so requires using machine learning techniques to train computational models which can be queried during the design process. In this work-in-progress, we present a platform necessary for doing such large-scale machine learning on Web designs, which consists of a Web crawler and proxy server to harvest and store a lossless and immutable snapshot of the Web; a page segmenter that codifies a page’s visual layout; and an interface for augmenting the segmentations with crowdsourced metadata.
 
How to Use Behavioral Research Insights on Trust for HCI System Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » Trust has been shown to be a major antecedent of technology acceptance and usage. Consequently, behavioral research has created vast insights on trust building. However, only a small fraction of the existing literature also shows ways of systematically including these insights into system design. Hence, the potential of most behavioral insights on trust for developing new systems often remains only partly realized. To alleviate this problem, we present a way to systematically derive trust-supporting design elements using trust theory. Using a laboratory experiment, we show that the trust-related design elements derived from theory are regarded as being important by the participants, and significantly increased their trust in a restaurant recommendation system as well as in their intention to use it in the future.
 
Opportunistic Engagement by Designing on the Street - Works In Progress
Abstract » Lightweight, opportunistic participatory design exercises in public spaces have the potential to collect large volumes of candid feedback and insights from members of the public. We motivate the need for ‘designing on the street’ in terms of the time and resource requirements of traditional participatory design methods, and begin the process of unpicking the conditions for success and practical requirements. We demonstrate through a pilot study that opportunistic participatory design can be a useful tool for addressing design challenges in everyday settings, where most people have some familiarity with the design area.
 
Unearthing the Family Gems: Design Requirements for a Digital Reminiscing System for Older Adults - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents preliminary findings from a study investigating the reminiscing habits of older adults. We first define the concept of reminiscence, including aspects such as how, when and why it takes place. Then we present our findings from an interview study with older adults, where they reflect on their own habits related to reminiscing, and consider these reflections with respect to software that might support digital reminiscing. Finally we summarize our plan for future work.
 
Smart Material Interfaces: A New Form of Physical Interaction - Works In Progress
Abstract » Smart Material Interface (SMI) is the latest generation of user interface that makes use of engineered materials and leverages their special properties. SMIs are capable of changing their physical properties such as shape, size and color, and can be controlled under certain (external) conditions. We provide an example of such an SMI in the form of a prototype of a vacuum cleaner. The prototype uses schematic electrochromic polymer at the suction nozzle of the vacuum cleaner, which changes its color depending on the dust level on a floor. We emphasize on the new affordances and communication language supported by SMIs, which challenges the current metaphors of user interfaces in the field of HCI.
 
Investigating One-Handed Multi-digit Pressure Input for Mobile Devices - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper presents initial results from the design and evaluation of one-handed squeezing of a mobile phone: the application of force by each individual digit, and combinations of digits, of one hand as a means of interacting with a mobile device. As part of the evaluation we also consider how to alter the size of the interaction space to best suit the number of digits being used. By identifying which digits can accurately apply force both individually and in combination with others, we can then design one-handed, multi-channel input for mobile interaction. The results suggest that not all digits are equally accurate, and that some are more accurate when used in combination with others. Further, increasing the size of the underlying interaction space to suit the number of digits used improves user performance.
 
Designing For the Task: What Numbers are Really Used in Hospitals? - Works In Progress
Abstract » In the English language, the letters of the alphabet do not occur with equal frequency. Some letters occur far more often than others, for example the letter ‘e’ occurs more frequently than ‘z’. In this paper we show that as with letters, digits too suffer from unequal distributions in some situations. Here we show that the most common digits being used when programming infusion pumps to administer drugs to patients are 0, 1, 2 and 5. The digit 9 is also frequently used to set an infusion to run at the maximum rate possible. With this information, we evaluate three current forms of infusion pump input with regards to the digits that are actually being programmed into the machines. We argue that the current number interface designs used in medical devices should take into account these findings in order to produce interfaces that are both more suitable for the task, and less error prone in use.
 
Does Proprioception Guide Back-of-Device Pointing as Well as Vision? - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present research that investigates the amount of guidance required by users for precise back-of-device interaction. We explore how pointing effectiveness is influenced by the presence or absence of visual guidance feedback. Participants were asked to select targets displayed on an iPad device, by touching and releasing them from underneath the device. Another iPad was used to detect finger positions from the rear. Results showed that participants were able to select targets as accurately without visual feedback of finger position as they were with it. Additionally, no significant increase in workload was identified when visual feedback was removed. Our results show that users do not require complex techniques to visualize finger position on the rear of device. Visual feedback does not affect any performance parameters, such as effectiveness, perceived performance, and the number of trials needed to select a target. We also outline the implications of our findings and our future work to fully investigate the effect of visual guidance feedback.
 
Hold That Thought: Are Spearcons Less Disruptive than Spoken Reminders? - Works In Progress
Abstract » Speech reminders can severely disrupt list recall. Spearcons, time-compressed speech messages, might be less disruptive because they are much shorter. In this study, we asked 24 younger participants to recall 64 short lists of digit, animal, food, or furniture names. List items were presented one at a time; the number of items presented depended on individual digit spans. Spearcons affected list recall to the same extent as speech. However, people with higher digit spans had significantly worse recall. This could be due to short-term memory overload or the longer presentation time of long lists. We discuss implications for menu design.
 
Modeling Dwell-based Eye Pointing at Two-dimensional Targets - Works In Progress
Abstract » Zhang et al. (2010) proposed a performance model for dwell-based eye pointing. However, their model was based on a specific circular target condition, without the ability to predict the performance of acquiring conventional rectangular targets. In this paper, we extend their one-dimensional model to two-dimensional (2D) target conditions. Carrying out an experiment, we evaluate the abilities of different model candidates to find out the most appropriate one. The new index of difficulty we redefine for 2D eye pointing (IDeye) can properly reflect the asymmetrical impact of target width and height, and consequently the IDeye model can accurately predict the performance for 2D targets (R2 > 0.9). According to the results of our study, the new model can provide more useful design implications for gaze-based interactions.
 
Informing User Experience Design about Users: Insights from Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we explore what type of information from end-users designers find useful for early concept evaluations. We addressed the question through a study where user feedback taken from a real design project was assessed by four designers working in the project. We found that designers consider elaborate feedback indicating clear attitudes and motivations and feedback revealing past experiences of people most valuable. Finally, we discuss the methodology for evaluating the value of user feedback.
 
The Effects of Positive and Negative Self-Interruptions in Discretionary Multitasking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Human multitasking is often the result of self-initiated interruptions in the performance of an ongoing task. Compared to externally induced interruptions, self-interruptions have not received enough research attention. To address this gap, this paper develops a detailed classification of self-interruptions rooted in positive and negative feelings of task progress based on responses subjects provided after completing a multitasking laboratory experiment. The results suggest that multitasking due to negative feelings is associated with more self-interruptions than those triggered by positive feelings and that more self-interruptions may produce lower accuracy in all tasks. Therefore, negative internal triggers of self-interruptions seem to unleash a downward spiral that ultimately affects performance.
 
FlyTalk: Social Media to Meet the Needs of Air Travelers - Works In Progress
Abstract » The aviation industry plays a vital role in supporting economies and connecting people worldwide; it is a cornerstone of modern life. However, user experience of air travel is often marked by frustration, stress and confusion. Indeed, over the last decade, traveler satisfaction with air travel experiences has steadily declined. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews (using a range of user research methods) that aims to understand the needs of air travelers. Key insights from this process are presented and a conceptual system design, based on connecting travelers using existing social media systems, is introduced. Ultimately, this paper argues that applying innovation in social media technology to air travel has the potential to improve user experiences and reduce industry costs, making travelling smoother, cheaper and more satisfying.
 
Seamless and Continuous User Identification for Interactive Tabletops Using Personal Device Handshaking and Body Tracking - Works In Progress
Abstract » Touch-based tabletops are a form of embedded device for group collaboration. This work tackles two key problems for effective use of such tabletops: there is currently no easy way for people to identify themselves to the table; and most current hardware does not link a person's touches to their identity. This paper presents a system which tackles these problems as it can identify users and keeps track of their actions around interactive tabletops. To start the user identification, a user puts their personal device onto the interactive surface. Once this is paired with the tabletop, linking the device owner's identity to the table, the system continuously tracks any touch by that user. The system seamlessly and continuously associates each user touch with an identity.
 
Mobile Applications to Support Dietary Change: Highlighting the Importance of Evaluation Context - Works In Progress
Abstract » Along with the smart phone came smart phone applications, which range in functionality, complexity and price. Hugely popular are lifestyle applications which include tools for diet and exercise. Despite the popularity of these applications however, we have yet to see any form of rigorous investigation into their value, i.e. their impact on user behaviour and long term health goals. We embarked on a live clinical trial of a behavior based mobile application designed to assist users on meal replacement diet programs to judge its impact and value. Our analysis showed that users were more engaged with a fully interactive application than an information based application, and that varying analysis conditions seemed to result in varying impact.
 
Investigating In-car Safety Services on the Motorway: the Role of Screen Size - Works In Progress
Abstract » Today’s in-car information systems are undergoing an evolution towards device miniaturization as well as to real-time telematics services. In a road study with 26 participants, we investigated whether small smartphone-sized screens are recommendable for the communication of realtime safety services. We did not find strong overall differences between large and small screen setups in any of our investigated measures. However, when no audio was presented, safety services presentation on small screens resulted in significantly more long glances to the HMI than on large screen. Also, subjective comprehensibility of driving recommendations was best when screen size was large and audio presentation was available. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
 
Values in Action (ViA) - Combining Usability, User Experience and User Acceptance - Works In Progress
Abstract » The shift in HCI towards emotions, values, needs etc., (third-wave HCI) reflects the new understanding of interactions between users and technology. However, the focus on usability in the first-wave slightly got out of sight in the second-wave, which mainly addressed the user in working environments, and even more in the third-wave HCI. This wave holds a focus on emotions, experiences and values, not only at work but also during leisure time. We have identified a lack of suitable frameworks and concepts, which provide an integrated view on values on the one hand and usability, user experience and user acceptance on the other hand. For evaluating a prototype in an Ambient Assisted Living project we developed an approach for combining value- and user-centered design with factors related to usability, user experience and user acceptance.
 
Designing a tool for exploratory information seeking - Works In Progress
Abstract » We describe an on-going design process in building Querium, a search system for multi-session exploratory search tasks. Querium extends a conventional search interface with a sophisticated search history interface that helps people make sense of their search activity over time. Information seeking is a cognitively demanding process that can benefit from many kinds of information. Our design process has focused on creating interfaces that facilitate on-going sense-making while keeping the interaction efficient, fluid, and enjoyable.
 
Understanding Effects of Time and Proximity on Collaboration: Implications for Technologies to Support Collaborative Information Seeking - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present a user study involving 80 participants in 40 pairs about the implications of four time-space conditions in a collaborative information seeking task, namely: co-located, remotely located with text chat, remotely located with audio chat, and asynchronous. Results suggest that when individuals are co-located, their search behaviors tend to overlap thus affecting their ability to find diverse and useful information. On the other hand, when people are remotely located, the levels of independency and diversity depend upon the richness of the communication channel being used. Finally, when collaborative search is performed asynchronously, team members reach high levels of independency at the cost of effectiveness. These findings are particularly essential in various areas of research and application such as human-computer interaction (HCI) and information retrieval (IR), providing additional knowledge that would enable system designers to provide better support for the information search process of teams.
 
Using Affect to Evaluate User Engagement - Works In Progress
Abstract » User Experience (UX) emerged beyond the traditional views of usability to account for users’ emotional response to the aesthetics of an interactive product. This paper outlines the first of a series of studies on User Engagement (UE), a subset of UX, which focuses upon the quality of the within session interactive experience. The aim of this study is to explore affect through the responses to interactive features and how this impacts upon user judgment. Initial findings indicate that websites with more interactive features generate enhanced positive affect within session, which may predominate over a longer term, thus impacting on the overall user experience.
 
Drawing Shapes and Lines: Spawning Objects on Interactive Tabletops - Works In Progress
Abstract » In tabletop computing it is crucial to instantiate objects, such as documents or virtual containers, in an ergonomically convenient way for users. Particularly, objects need to be positioned within reach of users, need to be orientated properly, and need to be scaled appropriately for convenient interaction by touch. As the user’s location at the device is usually unknown to the system, objects are typically spawned at a default position and with a default orientation and size in tabletop user interfaces. Thus, users typically need to manipulate objects after instantiation until they are properly aligned and scaled, which can be a cumbersome and time-consuming process. We designed two gesture-based interaction techniques to instantiate objects with a convenient orientation, size, and position, making further adjustments to these properties unnecessary. We describe the functionality of both techniques and discuss insights gathered during initial evaluations.
 
The Routines and Social Behaviours of Frequent mCommerce Shoppers - Works In Progress
Abstract » Recently, there has been widespread growth of mobile shopping and buying, termed mCommerce. With this comes a need to understand user’s routines and social behaviours in mCommerce activities so we can understand how to design for the mobile space. To address this, we conducted a diary and interview study with regular mobile device users to explore their mobile shopping activities. Our results describe a variety of usage patterns including spontaneous purchasing and routine shopping where people gravitate to their mobile device even if a computer is nearby.
 
MicPen: Pressure-Sensitive Pen Interaction Using Microphone with Standard Touchscreen - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper introduces MicPen, a low-cost pressure-sensitive stylus pen interface for standard touchscreen displays that uses a microphone to estimate the amount of pressure applied to the pen. This is achieved by filtering and analyzing the acoustic signal generated when the tip of the pen is rubbed on the touchscreen. The advantage of this approach is that it is inexpensive, reliable and suitable for mobile interaction because it does not require mechanical parts to sense the input pressure. Results from a user study shows that the participants recognized five out of ten different pressure levels with perfect accuracy, and nine out of ten with minimal error.
 
Dream Drill: Learning Application - Works In Progress
Abstract » Some evidence indicates that sleep supports memory consolidation. Items studied before sleeps are memorized more efficiently than those not followed by sleep. Consequently, we propose a learning management system based on these findings. The system includes an alarm clock, whose alarm is set only if a user answers some questions. The user also has to answer the same questions once the clock has awakened him or her in the morning. We implemented a prototype and conducted a user study with five participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the system.
 
The Usefulness of an Immersion Questionnaire in Game Development - Works In Progress
Abstract » It would be in the interest of game developers to be able to design for immersive player experiences and to verify that their design iterations have succeeded. We conducted playtest evaluations for two versions of a new mobile game in development (Foozles) and one version of a commercially available benchmark game (Angry Birds) to assess the usefulness of an established immersion questionnaire in game development. Our results on Foozles were unexpected: we measured a decrease in players’ basic attention and emotional involvement between playing sessions although the intention of the developers was to improve the game.
 
Towards a Combined Method of Web Usability Testing: An Assessment of the Complementary Advantages of Lab Testing, Pre-Session Assignments, and Online Usability Services - Works In Progress
Abstract » Lab-based testing is one of the key methods employed for evaluating web site usability. Yet the artificial conditions of the setting, including surveillance and stylized tasks, can distort user behavior and limit the data that can be obtained. This paper reports on the effectiveness of this standard method compared against two complementary methods which involve more natural, user-driven evaluation contexts, namely, pre-session homework assignments and online usability testing. Using illustrations from recent studies of online shopping sites we detail the advantages and limitations of each method and claim that employing them in combination could improve the quantity and quality of findings. We then propose that future work should focus on optimizing this combined method through sequencing, so that one evaluation approach would inform the design of subsequently used ones.
 
Kinetic Device: Designing Interactions with a Deformable Mobile Interface - Works In Progress
Abstract » We introduce the user-centered research that we are conducting using functional deformable research prototypes. This work has recently crystallized in the demonstration of the Nokia Kinetic Device (figure 1). In the large design space that opens before us around deformable user interfaces (DUIs), we have chosen to focus on mobile personal interfaces. We aim to investigate how human factors should influence the transition from rigid to deformable hardware. In this paper, we propose the topics that a research agenda should cover, and we discuss our research methodology. We also describe the functional deformable research prototype (called Kinetic DUI-RP) that we are using to conduct our research. Finally, we present an initial set of design guidelines that future research will develop further.
 
Ghost Fingers: A Hybrid Approach to the Interaction with Remote Displays - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we describe a novel interaction method called Ghost Fingers, which enables efficient and intuitive switching between keyboard and multi-touch input on systems where the display is out of arm’s reach. In addition, Ghost Fingers provides a translucent real-time visualization of the fingers and hands on the remote display, creating a closed interaction loop that enables direct manipulation even on remote displays. Our solution includes a wireless keyboard with attached imaging sensor that is used to both determine the position of the user’s hand and fingers, and to provide a real-time translucent overlay of hand and fingers over the remote UI.
 
Cooking Together: A Digital Ethnography - Works In Progress
Abstract » Cooking together is an important part of everyday life, a social event in which people enhance their relationships through shared stories and swapping ideas on food preparation. We present a new methodology for studying human interaction to inform the design of interactive systems. In our digital ethnography we study a selection of YouTube videos and use Kendon’s theory of F-formations to catalogue a set of spatial patterns created between cooks, kitchen spaces and cameras that influence the social aspects of cooking together. A new F-formation specific to this domain is identified and used to suggest design opportunities for a digitally enhanced kitchen space for sharing the social experience of “cooking together” for people living in different homes.
 
Care Robot Able to Show the Order of Service Provision through Bodily Actions in Multi-Party Settings - Works In Progress
Abstract » Service robots, such as tea-serving robots, should be
designed to show the order of service provision in
multi-party settings. An ethnographic study we
conducted at an elderly care center revealed that the
gaze and bodily actions of care workers can serve this
function. To test this, we developed a robot system
able to utilize its gaze and other gestures in this way.
Experimental results demonstrated that the robot could
effectively display the order of service provision using
this method, and highlighted the benefits of employing
the gaze for robots working in multi-party settings.
 
Applying Participatory Design Theory to Designing Evaluation Methods - Works In Progress
Abstract » System evaluators face several challenges in designing evaluation methods, including measurement and relevance, context, establishing common ground with users, and eliciting users’ tacit knowledge. To address these challenges, we propose applying participatory design theory to designing evaluation methods by increasing user involvement and by integrating this process into the overall process of system design.
 
rainBottles: Gathering Raindrops of Data from the Cloud - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper introduces a design for a new way of managing the flow of information in the age of overflow. The devices, rainBottle, collect virtual data and converts it into a virtual liquid that fills up specially designed glass bottles. The bottles then serve as an ambient interface displaying the quantity of information in a queue as well as a tangible controller for opening the applications associated with the data in the bottles. With customizable data relevance metrics, the bottles can also serve as filters by letting less relevant data overflow out of the bottle.
 
The meanings of music sharing in tween life - Works In Progress
Abstract » The effects of digitalization for music sharing have been debated vastly. However, the new practices of making widely available music meaningful for those who share it remain largely uncovered. We set out to study this through exploring how the tweens of early 2010’s face this challenge. In a qualitative exploration with Finnish children aged 10-13 years, we identified practices of making digital music meaningful: socially considerate sharing, modification and associations outside music, and consideration for the difficulties of infrastructure. We find that the content gains value in the socio-technical network of sharing practices. This observation challenges the notions of digital music as a “mass” format lacking personal or social value.
 
Shape Your Body: Control a Virtual Silhouette Using Body Motion - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we propose to use our body as a puppetry controller, giving life to a virtual silhouette through acting. A framework was deployed based on Microsoft Kinect using OpenNI and Unity to animate in real-time a silhouette. This was used to perform a set of experiments related to the user’s interaction with human and non-human like puppets. We believe that a performance-driven silhouette can be just as expressive as a traditional shadow puppet with a high degree of freedom, making use of our entire body as an input. We describe our solution that allows real-time interactive control of virtual shadow puppets for performance animation based on body motion. We show through our experiment, performed by non-expert artists, that using our body to control puppets is like mixing the performance of an actor with the manipulation of a puppeteer.
 
The Hankie Probe: a Materialistic Approach to Mobile UX Research - Works In Progress
Abstract » Mobile user experience (UX) research can benefit from unexplored opportunities from theory and practice. Contemporary sociology has developed sophisticated understandings of mobilities that can expand the scope of mobile HCI research. At the same time, we need to extend the scope of mobile experience beyond its current main foci on the portable device and moments of experience. We report the interim results of exploratory pilot studies of a fabric based probe that has been developed to extend the scope of mobile experience research both theoretically and in the range of insights that can be collected in mobile user studies. We report our initial experiences with a 'hankie' (handkerchief) probe that aims to gather rich usage and experience insights for early stages of design.
 
GestureCommander: Continuous Touch-based Gesture Prediction - Works In Progress
Abstract » GestureCommander is a touch-based gesture control system for mobile devices that is able to recognize gestures as they are being performed. Continuous recognition allows the system to provide visual feedback to the user and to anticipate user commands to possibly decrease perceived response time. To achieve this goal we employ two Hidden Markov Model (HMM) systems, one for recognition and another for generating visual feedback. We analyze a set of geometric features used in other gesture recognition systems and determine a subset that works best for HMMs. Finally we demonstrate the practicality of our recognition HMMs in a proof of concept mobile application for Google’s Android mobile platform that has a recognition accuracy rate of 96% over 15 distinct gestures.
 
Test-driven Development for the Web – Increasing Efficiency of Web Development - Works In Progress
Abstract » With the rapid growth of World Wide Web, demands on
website developers have increased dramatically. At the
same time new web development challenges have
emerged. These challenges include enabling web
developers with a low level of experience, fast paced
development cycles and a disconnect between different
phases of web development. In this paper we present
algorithms which address some of these challenges.
Our algorithms lower the barrier of expertise and
experience required to transform development
requirements into web pages, bridge the divide
between web testing and development as well as
improve test case maintenance. We also present a
survey we conducted among web developers to
understand their problems, experiments to
demonstrate the performance of our algorithms and a
user study that shows the value of our approach.
 
Participatory Design of Social Search Experiences - Works In Progress
Abstract » Social search engines connect users with content created or recommended by social contacts. A new participatory design methodology was created to understand user needs for social search and propose solutions to these needs. The method involved participants interacting with a mock-up of a social search experience and co-creating solutions with the researchers. We present two key findings highlighting specific user needs and corresponding design solutions. The participatory design methodology was useful in bridging the gap between the research and design phases of the development project.
 
Turtledove: A Tangible Grain Interface for Image Organization - Works In Progress
Abstract » Interfaces supporting bi-manual interaction offer great benefits. In recent years, a variety of multi-touch systems have even shown new possibilities for multi-finger input. However, multi-finger interactions do not always show better performance. We propose an interface consisting of a large amount of minimal tangible objects called tangible grains combined with a visual projection. The system is intended to add passive physical feedback to increase performance and improve the quality of the interface. In this paper we present the concept, the implementation and first small-scale user studies of a tangible grain interface for the organization and, especially, the sorting and tagging of images.
 
ResEval Mash: A Mashup Tool that Speaks the Language of the User - Works In Progress
Abstract » End-user development (i.e., enabling end-users without programming skills to build their own applications) is undergoing a revolution, as mashups are widely considered to be the most appealing development tool for the situational, short-span applications. Plain technology (e.g., SOAP/WSDL web services) or simple modeling languages (e.g., Yahoo! Pipes) don't convey enough meaning to non-programmers. In this paper, we propose a domain-specific approach to mashups that speaks the language of the user", i.e., that is aware of the terminology, concepts, rules, and conventions (the domain) the user is comfortable with. We exemplify the approach by implementing a mashup tool for a specific domain (research evaluation) and describe the respective user study. The results of a first user study confirm that domain-specific mashup tools indeed lower the entry barrier to mashup development.
 
A Sensemaking Environment for Literary Text - Works In Progress
Abstract » We present a sensemaking environment for literary text analysis. Literature study is a cycle of reading, interpretation, exploration, and understanding. While there is now abundant technological support for reading and interpreting literary text in new ways through text-processing algorithms, the other parts of the cycle -- exploration and understanding -- have been relatively neglected. Motivated by the literature on sensemaking, we are developing a software system that integrates tools for algorithmic processing of text with interaction techniques that support the interpretive, exploratory, and note-taking aspects of scholarship. At present, our project supports grammatical search and contextual similarity determination, visualization of patterns of word context, and examination and organization of the source material for comparison and hypothesis-building. This article illustrates its capabilities by analyzing language-use differences between male and female characters in Shakespeare's plays. We find that when love is a major plot point, the language Shakespeare uses to refer to women becomes more physical, and the language referring to men becomes more sentimental. Future work will incorporate additional sensemaking tools to aid comparison, exploration, grouping, and pattern recognition.
 
EyeRing: A Finger-worn Assistant - Works In Progress
Abstract » Finger-worn interfaces are a vastly unexplored space for interaction design. It opens a world of possibilities for solving day-to-day problems, for visually impaired people and sighted people. In this work we present EyeRing, a novel design and concept of a finger-worn device. We show how the proposed system may serve for numerous applications for visually impaired people such as recognizing currency notes and navigating, as well as helping sighted people to tour an unknown city or intuitively translate signage. The ring apparatus is autonomous, however it is counter parted by a mobile phone or computation device to which it connects wirelessly, and an earpiece for information retrieval. Finally, we will discuss how finger worn sensors may be extended and applied to other domains.
 
A Security Assessment of Tiles: A New Portfolio-Based Graphical Authentication System - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we propose Tiles, a graphical authentication system in which users are assigned a target image and subsequently asked to select segments of that image. We assess the extent to which this system provides protection against two security threats: observation attacks and sharing of authentication credentials in two laboratory-based studies. We note some of the vulnerabilities of the new system but provide evidence that automated manipulation of the similarity of the decoy images can help mitigate the threat from verbal sharing and observation attacks.
 
Couch Mobility – The Cell Phone’s Most Important Feature at Home is Mobility - Works In Progress
Abstract » A preliminary analysis of diary study of cell phone use in the home shows that mobility is an important feature at home and phones are more mobile than laptop computers with wifi. The phone adds functionality to the home, such as text messaging, reminders and integrated picture taking and sending. The needs of mobile phone use in the home are similar to the needs in traditional mobile use situations: mobility, quick access, ease of use.
 
In Search of Theoretical Foundations for UX Research and Practice - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper we point out the relevance of and the need for a theoretical discussion around UX research and practice. Although there is a good coverage of methodological and design related topics in the HCI literature, there is still a lack of theoretical focus in the rapidly increasing work on user experience (UX). We analyzed 122 individual items on theories collected in a CHI’11 special interest group session on UX theories and theoretical frameworks. The data set was filtered and categorized in several iterations, resulting in 56 items distributed over 7 major theory categories and related to 9 relevant disciplines. The categories are an initial mapping of the field and point towards the directions for further conceptual and theoretical clarification. Our results help to explore the multi-disciplinary nature of UX and to build a more solid foundation for UX research and practice.
 
Kinect in the Kitchen: Testing Depth Camera Interactions in Practical Home Environments - Works In Progress
Abstract » Depth cameras have become a fixture of millions of living rooms thanks to the Microsoft Kinect. Yet to be seen is whether they can succeed as widely in other areas of the home. This research takes the Kinect into real-life kitchens, where touchless gestural control could be a boon for messy hands, but where commands are interspersed with the movements of cooking. We implement a recipe navigator, timer and music player and, experimentally, allow users to change the control scheme at runtime and navigate with other limbs when their hands are full. We tested our system with five subjects who baked a cookie recipe in their own kitchens, and found that placing the Kinect was simple and that subjects felt successful. However, testing in real kitchens underscored the challenge of preventing accidental commands in tasks with sporadic input.
 
Multitasking in e-Learning Environments: Users’ Multitasking Strategies and Design Implications - Works In Progress
Abstract » The purpose of this study is to better understand users’ multitasking behavior patterns and to extract design implications based on user experience and user testing evaluation. To understand users’ multitasking strategies, we conducted a user testing and post-session interviews. Our preliminary results show that each user has different strategies for multitasking efficiently. Four main themes emerged as characteristics of users’ multitasking strategies in e-Learning environments, including: tiling windows, customizing shortcut keys, switching windows one by one, and utilizing visual notifications.
 
"Check out where I am!": Location-Sharing Motivations, Preferences, and Practices - Works In Progress
Abstract » Rapid growth in the usage of location-aware mobile phones has enabled Location Sharing Services (LSS) to gain mainstream adoption. Integration with social networking services has further accelerated LSS usage. We conducted an online study (N = 401) to uncover the impact of recent changes in the underlying social and technological landscape on the preferences and practices of LSS users in the US. We found that the main motivations for location sharing were to connect with one's social circle, to project an interesting image of oneself, and to receive rewards offered for "checking in." Respondents overwhelmingly preferred sharing location only upon explicit action. More than 25% of the respondents recalled at least one instance of regret over having shared location. These findings highlight the tension between the utility of location sharing and concerns with invasions of privacy. Empowering users to resolve this tension effectively can potentially drive further growth in adoption and utility of LSS.
 
Emotion as an Indicator for Future Interruptive Notification Experiences - Works In Progress
Abstract » This paper explores the relationship between emotion and the notification experience. We found a strong relationship between the user emotions used to describe interruptive notification experiences and whether the users wanted similar interruptive notifications again in the future. Participants were likely to want similar future interruptive notifications if they described their interruptive notification experiences using positive words. They were likely to not want similar future interruptive notifications if they described their interruptive notification experiences using negative words. The implications for the use of this knowledge in the design of intelligent systems and potential for future work are also discussed.
 
Phonetic Shapes: An Interactive, Sonic Guest Book - Works In Progress
Abstract » Sound exists only in the moment, and cannot be referenced or searched, except in the mutable memories of people. Because of this, it has been an overlooked modality and social information channel, particularly where nonverbal communication cues and identity are concerned. Yet, it encapsulates a person’s identity as effectively as a fingerprint or signature. Sound is even more useful when combined with other modalities, like the visual and gestural. In order to use the modality of sound effectively, however, we need tools that simultaneously analyze, persist, and present the important information in sound. What if you could capture identity and meaning in sound, and give it additional affordances, that go beyond those of written communication? In this paper, we explore the voice as identity and as the carrier of nonverbal information in the context of a sonic guest book.
 
Display Blocks: Cubic Displays for Multi-Perspective Visualization - Works In Progress
Abstract » We propose the design, implementation and evaluation of a set of tangible cubic displays. This novel approach to display technology consists of arranging six organic light emitting diode screens in a cubic form factor. We explore the possibilities that this type of display holds for data visualization, manipulation and exploration. We are especially interested in exploring how the physicality of the screen can be perceived as a cue to better interpret its contents. To this end, we propose a series of applications that leverage the affordances of this technology.
 
HCI Professions: Differences & Definitions - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we present findings from a pilot survey in which we investigated how industry practitioners who create interactive technologies discuss their work and include end users, (e.g. user research methods used). We also explored measures of empathy (a key concept for ‘walking in end-user’s shoes’) among HCI professionals. We found that there were distinct and significant differences among individuals who claimed user-centric job titles (e.g. usability engineer) from those who claimed design-centric job titles (e.g. interaction designer, developer). Differences included how job-title groups considered end-users in their work and their empathetic profiles. We used results from this pilot study to inform a more comprehensive study we are currently undertaking.
 
Point-and-Shoot Data - Works In Progress
Abstract » We explore the use of visible light as a wireless communication medium for mobile devices. We discuss the advantages of a human perceptible communication medium in regards to user experience and create tools for direct manipulation of the communication channel.
 
Webbox+Page Blossom: Exploring Design for AKTive Data Interaction - Works In Progress
Abstract » We give away our data to multiple data services without, for the most part, being able to get that data back to reuse in any other way, leaving us, at best, to re-find, re-cover, retype, remember and re-manage this material. In this work in progress, we hypothesize that if we facilitate easy interaction to store, access and reuse our personal, social and public data, we will not only decrease time spent to recreate it for multiple walled data contexts, but in particular, we will develop novel interactions for new kinds of knowledge building. To facilitate exploration of this hypothesis, we propose Page Blossom an exemplar of such dynamic data interaction that is based on data reuse via our open data platform Webbox + Active (active knowledge technology) lenses
 
Initial Approaches for Extending Sketch Recognition to Beyond-Surface Environments - Works In Progress
Abstract » Sketch recognition researchers have long concentrated their energies on investigating issues related to computer systems' difficulties in recognizing hand-drawn diagrams, but the focus has largely been on recognizing sketches on physical surfaces. While beyond-surface sketching actively takes place in diverse forms and in various activities, directly applying existing on-surface sketch recognition techniques beyond physical surfaces is far from trivial. In this paper, we investigate initial approaches for locating corners and extracting primitive geometric shapes in beyond-surface sketches, which are important ingredients of subsequent higher-level interpretations for building richer sketching interfaces. Moreover, we investigate preliminary challenges of sketch recognition in beyond-surface environments and discuss possible solutions for achieving successful next-step extensions of this work.
 
Video Increases the Perception of Naturalness During Remote Interactions with Latency - Works In Progress
Abstract » Visual telecommunication systems support natural interaction by allowing users to remotely interact with one another using natural speech and movement. Network connections and computation cause delays that may result in interactions that feel unnatural or belabored. In an experiment using an audiovisual telecommunications device, synchronized audio and video delays were added to participants' conversations to determine how delay would affect conversation. To examine the effects of visual information on conversation, we also compared the audiovisual trials to trials in which participants were presented only the audio information. We present self-report data indicating that delay had a weaker impact when both audio and video channels were available, for delays up to 500 ms, than when only the audio channel was available.
 
Slant Menu: Novel GUI Widget with Ergonomic Design - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we propose a new GUI design method based on ergonomics and describe our new menu widget named Slant Menu. Natural human hand movements on a table are reflected in this menu, which appears in an inclined direction with a curved form, rather than a conventional vertical, linear GUI menu. We have developed the prototype and conducted usability testing.
 
Increasing the reliability and validity of quantitative Laddering data with LadderUX - Works In Progress
Abstract » Laddering is an interview technique that provides rich qualitative data, and subsequent content analysis allows crossing over from qualitative to a quantitative measurement. However, the method is not tailored to data coming from user experience studies, and result-ing data analysis of UX Laddering studies risks to lack scientific rigor with respect to the reliability and validity of the data. Therefore, we present LadderUX and point out the design rationale for its special features that help UX resear¬ch¬ers measure what they actually set out to measure, ensuring that the resulting dominant means-end chains form an accurate representation of the populat¬ion under study.
 
Tagging Might not be Slower than Filing in Folders - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tagging is a promising method for organising and refinding
information. However, studies comparing tagging mechanisms to
organising information in folder hierarchies are relatively
scarce. A study with the software framework tagstore shows
that tagging does not necessarily mean slower filing
performance. For experienced users, tagging required less time,
fewer mouse clicks, and had very high acceptance rates.
 
Keyword Clouds: Having Very Little Effect on Sensemaking in Web Search Engines - Works In Progress
Abstract » Tag clouds are typically presented so that users can actively utilize community-generated metadata to query a collection. This research investigates whether such metadata representations also provide passive support for sensemaking without any direct interaction. Previous work reported potentially significant results from a pilot study of three variations of keyword cloud support (interactive, non-interactive, and absent), built from related query terms. Our full study, however, found no significant differences in learning across the three conditions. We concluded that the sensemaking and learning mainly occurred outside of the search engine, where the keyword cloud no longer provided support. Our future work will study the passive support that may be provided by keyword clouds in more integrated systems like digital libraries.
 
Reinforcement of Spatial Perception for Stereoscopic 3D on Mobile Handsets - Works In Progress
Abstract » In this paper, we propose reinforcement of spatial perception on stereoscopic 3D user interfaces. We design basic stereoscopic 3D components that can maximize reinforcement of spatial perception in user interfaces for mobile handsets. Prior works do not make sufficient use of the stereoscopic effect with autostereoscopic displays. We also investigate design methods that provide a comfortable 3D user interface on mobile handsets. Existing stereoscopic 3D technology focuses on entertainment value and emphasizes graphical effects. However, these 3D experiences require excessive parallax resulting in discomfort and visual fatigue. We propose basic design methods to reduce such negative effects.

In this paper, we try to approach stereoscopic 3D not as a technology or a function, which was the case in previous examples, but as an additional spatial experience for the users, moving closely to the original meaning of 3D space.
Tuesday, May 08, 11:30
Tools and Stats in Evaluation StudiesCase Study & PaperRoom: 12AB
 
 
 
 
 
Experiences with Collaborative, Distributed Predictive Human Performance Modeling - Long Case Study
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Case study using predictive human performance modeling in a real-world design project. Provides recommendations for avoiding pitfalls with existing modeling tools and design ideas for future collaborative modeling tools.
Abstract » Although predictive human performance modeling has been researched for 30 years in HCI, to our knowledge modeling has been conducted as a solitary task of one modeler or, occasionally, two modelers working in tight face-to-face collaboration. In contrast, we used predictive human performance modeling in a collaborative, distributed mode and reflect on that experience. We discovered that our tool for modeling, CogTool, while sufficiently functional and expressive to perform the modeling task, did not support collaborative, distributed modeling as well as we would like. We suggest process improvements in model construction, the management of assumptions, consistency, and communication, and suggest design solutions for the future of CogTool or other modeling tools. We further speculate on the generalization of our experiences to other types of usability evaluation when conducted in a distributed, collaborative environment.
 
Comparing Averages in Time Series Data - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper explores visualizations for efficient summarization through perceptually-motivated design and empirical assessment.
Abstract » ABSTRACT
Visualizations often seek to aid viewers in assessing the big
picture in the data, that is, to make judgments about aggregate
properties of the data. In this paper, we present an empirical
study of a representative aggregate judgment task: finding regions
of maximum average in a series. We show how a theory
of perceptual averaging suggests a visual design other than
the typically-used line graph. We describe an experiment that
assesses participants' ability to estimate averages and make
judgments based on these averages. The experiment confirms
that this color encoding significantly outperforms the standard
practice. The experiment also provides evidence for a
perceptual averaging theory.
ACM
 
Rethinking Statistical Analysis Methods for CHI - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Identifies fundamental problems in the statistical methods commonly used in quantitative evaluations. Proposes solutions and recommendations for best practice.
Abstract » CHI researchers typically use a significance testing approach to statistical analysis when testing hypotheses during usability evaluations. However, the appropriateness of this approach is under increasing criticism, with statisticians, economists, and psychologists arguing against the use of routine interpretation of results using "canned" p values. Three problems with current practice - the fallacy of the transposed conditional, a neglect of power, and the reluctance to interpret the size of effects - can lead us to build weak theories based on vaguely specified hypothesis, resulting in empirical studies which produce results that are of limited practical or scientific use. Using publicly available data presented at CHI 2010 [19] as an example we address each of the three concerns and promote consideration of the magnitude and actual importance of effects, as opposed to statistical significance, as the new criteria for evaluating CHI research.
ACM
 
A Spatiotemporal Visualization Approach for the Analysis of Gameplay Data - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a visualization system for gameplay data which can be adapted to different kind of games and queries. It helps to analyze and better understand player behavior within a game.
Abstract » Contemporary video games are highly complex systems with many interacting variables. To make sure that a game provides a satisfying experience, a meaningful analysis of gameplay data is crucial, particularly because the quality of a game directly relates to the experience a user gains from playing it. Automatic instrumentation techniques are increasingly used to record data during playtests. However, the evaluation of the data requires strong analytical skills and experience. The visualization of such gameplay data is essentially an information visualization problem, where a large number of variables have to be displayed in a comprehensible way in order to be able to make global judgments. This paper presents a visualization tool to assist the analytical process. It visualizes the game space as a set of nodes which players visit over the course of a game and is also suitable to observe time-dependent information, such as player distribution. Our tool is not tailored to a specific type of genre. To show the flexibility of our approach we use two different kinds of games as case studies.
ACM
Values in Research PracticeCase Study, Paper & ToCHIRoom: 17AB
 
 
 
 
 
 
Next Steps for Value Sensitive Design - Paper
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: An essay presenting four suggestions for next steps for the evolution of Value Sensitive Design. Addresses issues that we argue have inhibited the more widespread adoption and appropriation of VSD.
Abstract » Questions of human values often arise in HCI research and practice. Such questions can be difficult to address well, and a principled approach can clarify issues of both theory and practice. One such approach is Value Sensitive Design (VSD), an established theory and method for addressing issues of values in a systematic and principled fashion in the design of information technology. In this essay, we suggest however that the theory and at times the presentation of VSD overclaims in a number of key respects, with the result of inhibiting its more widespread adoption and appropriation. We address these issues by suggesting four topics for next steps in the evolution of VSD: (1) tempering VSD�s position on universal values; (2) contextualizing existing and future lists of values that are presented as heuristics for consideration; (3) strengthening the voice of the participants in publications describing VSD investigations; and (4) making clearer the voice of the researchers. We propose new or altered approaches for VSD that address these issues of theory, voice, and reportage.
ACM
 
The Relationship of Action Research to Human-Computer Interaction - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes historical, theoretical, and pragmatic aspects of conducting Action Research and its application to HCI.
Abstract » Alongside the growing interest within HCI, and arguably computing more generally, in conducting research that has substantial societal benefits, there is a need for new ways to think about and to articulate the challenges of these engaged research projects as well as their results. Action Research (AR) is a class of methods and approaches for conducting democratic and collaborative research with community partners. AR has evolved over the last several decades and offers HCI researchers theoretical lenses, methodological approaches, and pragmatic guidance for conducting socially relevant, collaborative, and engaged research. In this article, I describe the historical context and origins of AR, the scientifically rigorous practice of conducting and evaluating AR projects, and the ways in which AR might meaningfully be applied to HCI research.
 
Being in the Thick of In-the-wild Studies: The Challenges and Insights of Researcher Participation - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Applies a participant-observation methodology to two in-the-wild user studies. Shows how researcher participation can help build rapport, enhance contextual understanding, encourage empathy and stimulate reflexivity.
Abstract » We describe the insights and challenges offered by researcher participation in in-the-wild studies through the comparison of two prototype evaluations with varying levels of researcher participation. By reflecting on these studies we expose different facets of the researcher's role when interacting with participants in in-the-wild studies. We also demonstrate the value of researcher participation in contributing to the way a researcher understands participant responses: aiding rapport, promoting empathy and stimulating the researcher to reflect on their own assumptions.
ACM
 
The Envisioning Cards: A Toolkit for Catalyzing Humanistic and Technical Imaginations - Note
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce the Envisioning Cards - an innovative toolkit for scaffolding value sensitive design processes in research and design activities. Early reports on their use include ideation, co-design, and heuristic critique.
Abstract » We introduce the Envisioning Cards - a versatile toolkit for attending to human values during design processes - and discuss their early use. Drawing on almost twenty years of work in value sensitive design, the Envisioning Cards are built upon a set of four envisioning criteria: stakeholders, time, values, and pervasiveness. Each card contains on one side a title and an evocative image related to the card theme; on the flip side, the card shows the envisioning criterion, elaborates on the theme, and provides a focused design activity. Reports from the field demonstrate use in a range of research and design activities including ideation, co-design, heuristic critique, and more.
ACM
 
Designing an Improved HCI Laboratory: A Massive Synthesis of Likes & Wishes - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: management
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing a simple design exercise called “I like, I wish.” Findings from this exercise relevant to the design of more human-centered HCI research environments are discussed.
Abstract » We have performed a simple human-centered design exercise called “I like, I wish” with all of the graduate students and some faculty in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Over 300 likes and wishes were gathered and synthesized in an all-day session by a volunteer team of students. Here we report on preliminary findings from this exercise and its implications for the design of more human-centered HCI research environments.
Course 11: Agile UX: Bridging the gulf through experience and reflectionCourseRoom: 13A
 
 
Course 11: Agile UX: Bridging the gulf through experience and reflection - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course will teach participants how user experience can work effectively within agile teams through a team-based design activity, group retrospectives and sharing of real-world experiences.
Abstract » Many in the agile and user experience (UX) communities have identified the need to integrate UX into agile organizations. However, there are challenges to successfully integrating the two. Issues include different mindsets, experiences, practices and goals which create a gulf between UX people and agile developers. Meridium Inc. has partnered with Virginia Tech with the support of an NSF STTR grant to find ways to integrate UX into agile teams. In our approach, extreme scenario-based design (XSBD), we combine elements from several agile and usability processes including XP, Scrum and scenario-based usability engineering. It has been successfully used at Meridium in several projects. In this course, our goal is to present our approach to integrating UX into agile as well as high level practices shared between the different integration approaches. We will encourage critical thinking, reflection and active discussion of the issues surrounding agile UX through a group-based hands-on design activity combined with retrospectives and sharing of real-world experiences.
Course 13: Designing with the Mind in Mind: The Psychological Basis for UI Design RulesCourseRoom: 15
 
 
Course 13: Designing with the Mind in Mind: The Psychological Basis for UI Design Rules - Course
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Explains the perceptual and cognitive psychology behind interaction design principles and guidelines. Provides powerful examples of how human perception and cognition work (and don't work).
Abstract » UI design rules, guidelines, and heuristics are not simple recipes to be applied mindlessly. Applying them effectively requires determining their applicability (and precedence) in specific situations. It also requires balancing the trade-offs that inevitably arise in situations when design rules appear to contradict each other. By understanding the underlying psychology for the design rules, designers and evaluators enhance their ability to interpret and apply them. Explaining that psychology is the focus of this two-part course. The first part focuses on perception; the second part focuses on cognition.
Course 14: Inspiring Mobile Interaction DesignCourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 14: Inspiring Mobile Interaction Design - Course
Contribution & Benefit: The course will introduce empowering mobile design philosophies, principles and methods as well as giving specific guidance on key consumer application areas such as pedestrian navigation and social-local aware services.
Abstract » With six billion cellular subscriptions, the mobile phone (or “cellphone”) is an essential part of everyday life. It’s a business tool to clinch important deals; a “remote control” for the real world, helping us cope with daily travel delay frustrations; a “relationship appliance” to say goodnight to loved-ones when away from home; a community device to organize political demonstrations.

This course is about applying interaction design approaches to the mobile arena. It provides an understanding of what makes for successful future mobile user experiences; ones that really connect with what people want, and operate in straightforward, satisfying ways.

As a practice, interaction design owes much to the long-established discipline of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and the associated usability industry.
Interaction design, though, extends the mainstream practices. It is more about crafting the “customer experience” rather than a process that focuses on “ease-of-use”. Interaction designers have to have passion and heart: whereas usability is often seen as a privative – something you only notice when it is not there – interaction design is about making a statement.

This course is about shifting the mobile design perspective away from “smart” phones, to people who are smart, creative, busy, or plain bored. Our aim is to help attendees to provide users with future products and services that can change their (or even the whole) world.

The course will both introduce interesting and empowering mobile design philosophies, principles and methods as well as giving specific guidance on key consumer application areas such as pedestrian navigation and location aware services.

Our aim is to inspire attendees to strive for breathtakingly effective services. We want attendees to leave the course with a fresh perspective on their current projects and an eagerness to build a long-term better future for mobile users.
Literacy on the MarginCase Study & PaperRoom: 18AB
 
 
 
 
 
Improving Literacy in Developing Countries Using Speech Recognition-Supported Games on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Field study discussing the extent to which productive training - enabled by speech-recognition-supported games - is superior to receptive vocabulary training for reading skills. Benefits development of speech-user interfaces for literacy.
Abstract » Learning to read in a second language is challenging, but highly rewarding. For low-income children in developing countries, this task can be significantly more challenging because of lack of access to high-quality schooling, but can potentially improve economic prospects at the same time. A synthesis of research findings suggests that practicing recalling and vocalizing words for expressing an intended meaning could improve word reading skills – including reading in a second language – more than silent recognition of what the given words mean. Unfortunately, many language learning software do not support this instructional approach, owing to the technical challenges of incorporating speech recognition support to check that the learner is vocalizing the correct word. In this paper, we present results from a usability test and two subsequent experiments that explore the use of two speech recognition-enabled mobile games to help rural children in India read words with understanding. Through a working speech recognition prototype, we discuss two major contributions of this work: first, we give empirical evidence that shows the extent to which productive training (i.e. vocalizing words) is superior to receptive vocabulary training, and discuss the use of scaffolding hints to “unpack” factors in the learner’s linguistic knowledge that may impact reading. Second, we discuss what our results suggest for future research in HCI.
ACM
 
Interactive Visualization for Low Literacy Users: From Lessons Learnt To Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper summarizes the problems that low literacy user's face when searching for information online, and establishes a set of design principles for interfaces suitable for low literacy users.
Abstract » This paper aims to address the problems low literacy (LL) users face when searching for information online. The first part of this paper summarizes the problems that LL user's face, and establishes a set of design principles for interfaces suitable for LL users. This is followed by a description of how these design principles are mapped to a novel interface for interactive data retrieval. The interface was realized into a working system and evaluated against a traditional web interface for both high literacy (HL) and LL users. The suitability of the designs was analyzed using performance data, subjective feedback and an observational analysis. The findings from the study suggest that LL users perform better and prefer the proposed designs over a traditional web interface.
ACM
 
Tale of Two Studies: Challenges in Field Research with Low-literacy Adult Learners in a Developed Country - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Report on challenges and lessons learnt from the design of a mobile application to support adult literacy and its evaluation with a marginalized, functionally illiterate, group in a developed country.
Abstract » Efforts to address the problems of literacy are often focused on developing countries. However, functional illiteracy is a challenge encountered by up to 50% of adults in developed countries. In this paper we reflect on the challenges we faced in trying to design and study the use of a mobile application to support adult literacy with two user groups: adults enrolled in literacy classes and carpenters without a high school education enrolled in an essential skills program. We also elaborate on aspects of the evaluations that are specific to a marginalized, functionally illiterate, group in a developed country – aspects that are less frequently present in similar studies of mobile literacy support technologies in developing countries. We conclude with presenting the lessons learnt from our evaluations and the impact of the studies' specific challenges on the outcome and uptake of such mobile assistive technologies in providing practical support to low-literacy adults in conjunction with literacy and essential skills training.
 
Textual Tinkerability: Encouraging Storytelling Behaviors to Foster Emergent Literacy - Long Case Study
Contribution & Benefit: Case study of a storytelling prompt for fostering positive emergent literacy behaviors using: Detailed report of performative reading behaviors in emergent literacy. Video coding rubric for analyzing shared reading interactions.
Abstract » This paper presents textual tinkerability, a new concept for fostering early literacy skills during parent-child reading. Textual tinkerability maps storytelling gestures to changes in animation and text to assist reading exploration and demonstration of the link between text, spoken word, and concept. TinkRBooks are flexible tablet-based storybooks that allow readers to actively explore concepts in text using textual tinkerability. When reading TinkRBooks, both parents and children can alter text (character attributes and parts of speech) by manipulating story elements (props and characters) as they read. We demonstrate how textual tinkerability encourages more dialog, print referencing and dialogic questioning between parent-child dyads in shared reading as compared to paper books. In addition, our study reports observations of storytelling performance behaviors that foster playful and socially intimate shared reading behaviors that are closely mapped to the teaching and learning of emergent literacy skills.
Course 12: Designing With and For Children in the 21st century: Techniques and PracticesCourseRoom: 13B
 
 
Course 12: Designing With and For Children in the 21st century: Techniques and Practices - Course
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This course will cover technology co-design methods involving children; covering history, practical techniques, roles of adults and children, and practical issues relating to an intergenerational design team.
Abstract » Children are fast becoming a large user-segment of new technologies in the world. The CHI community has acknowledged children as important users by featuring an "HCI for Kids" community this year. We believe that it is critical that the HCI community continue to lead the way in supporting the best possible design of technology for children. To this end, this course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques which balance the voices and contributions of adults and children. We will also ground these techniques in information on the history of co-design with children, as well as child development as it relates to the design of technology for children. We will additionally focus on the roles of the adult in and intergenerational co-design team, including addressing practical issues of beginning a co-design team.

This course will include a historical overview of co-designing with children. We will also address understanding how child development should be considered in technology design and the technology design process. The course will include hands-on experience using techniques for designing new technologies with and for children. It will also offer participants an understanding of the role of the adult in co-design processes with children, including consideration of practical issues in co-design.

The audience for this course requires no special background. We welcome and encourage attendance by industry professionals, academics, and students from a wide variety of communities (e.g., design, computer science, information studies, and psychology).
Participatory Design with Older PeoplePaperRoom: 18CD
 
 
 
 
 
Questionable Concepts: Critique as Resource for Designing with Eighty Somethings - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes an exploration of critique as a participatory design method with groups of people aged over 80. Explains how critique is useful for identifying problems and iterating new ideas.
Abstract » This paper reports findings from a series of participatory design workshops with ten people over eighty years old. The focus of the workshops was new banking technologies for the older old. Participants were asked to discuss their current experiences of banking and given packs of concept cards which contained design sketches and brief outlines of concepts for new financial services. The designs on the cards were deliberately provocative and aimed to encourage criticism and debate. Participants wrote and drew on the cards and the workshops were recorded and transcribed. The participants were extremely critical of current banking practices and most of the new concepts we presented to them. Their questions and comments led to a number of insights and further iterations. The paper argues that critique is an essential resource for design, both in terms of identifying problems and iterating ideas.
ACM
 
Senior Designers: Empowering Seniors to Design Enjoyable Falls Rehabilitation Tools - Paper
Community: designCommunity: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Our findings suggest that seniors are an integral part of the design process and should be directly involved from the concept stages of the design of tools for their rehabilitation.
Abstract » Studies have shown that functional strength and balance exercises can reduce the risk of falling in older people if they are done on a regular basis. However, the repetitive nature of these exercises; as well as the use of instructional booklets and videos for rehabilitation may discourage seniors to exercise in the home, thereby rendering such an intervention ineffective. Our work proposed that the use of multimodal games � co-designed with seniors � could be a way of making falls rehabilitation more enjoyable; thereby improving adherence to home exercise programmes. In this paper, we first explain the process by which we identified barriers to the users� effective interaction with current home rehabilitation tools. We then go on to describe how we actively involved seniors in the initial design, and improvement of useful, enjoyable games for falls rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that seniors are an integral part of the design process and should be directly involved from the concept stages of the design of tools for their rehabilitation.
ACM
 
Cheque Mates: Participatory Design of Digital Payments with Eighty Somethings - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the participatory design of two paper-based digital payment systems with groups of people aged over 80. Provides guidance for researchers and practitioners collaborating with extraordinary user groups.
Abstract » This paper describes a project exploring the design of digital payment services in collaboration with 16 people aged over 80. Many older people find cheques valuable as a means of payment but the UK Payments Council recently proposed their abolition. We describe two designs that simultaneously aimed to preserve and augment the paper cheque as a means of making electronic payments. These were devised during participatory design workshops through critical dialogues with our eighty something participants. Workshop discussions resulted in the creation of a real world cheque system where we issued pre-paid cheques without the involvement of banks. This work informed the development of a digital cheque book based on Anoto digital pen technology. The work illustrates the value of participatory design with �extraordinary� users, such as the eighty somethings, in HCI.
ACM
 
Engaging Older People through Participatory Design - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: We present a participatory approach to design work with older people, an examination of the issues that arose applying it and reflections on issues that we encountered advocating the approach.
Abstract » The use of digital technologies is increasingly proposed in health and social care to address the aging population phenomenon but, in practice, the designers of these technologies are ill equipped to design for older people. We suggest participatory design as an approach to improving the quality of design for older people but, based on previous work and our own experiences, identify four central issues that participatory design approaches need to address. We describe an approach to early engagement in design with older people that address each of these issues and some of our experiences applying the approach in a variety of different design projects. We conclude by discussing some of the issues that have been highlighted when attempting apply this approach in different design contexts and the issues that have been raised when working with partners who are less committed to the idea of engaging with older adults in participatory design.
ACM
Articulating Lines of Research in Digital Arts, HCI, and Interaction (Invited SIG)SIG MeetingRoom: 11B
 
 
Articulating Lines of Research in Digital Arts, HCI, and Interaction (Invited SIG) - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This SIG initiates an essential step in establishing the Digital Arts at CHI by working with the audience to articulate traditions of contribution.
Abstract » The establishment of a Digital Arts Featured Community at CHI 2012 indicates the general acceptance of mutually beneficial synergies between digital arts and HCI. At this juncture, the Digital Arts Community has an opportunity to build upon this established community platform to begin articulating lines of research. This SIG initiates this essential step in establishing traditions of contribution.
Personas and DesignCase Study & PaperRoom: 16AB
 
 
 
 
 
Personas and Decision Making in the Design Process: An Ethnographic Case Study - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: An ethnographic case study that investigates the ways personas are invoked in design decision-making sessions. The relative value of personas considering their limited use in active decision-making is explored.
Abstract » Personas have become a well-lauded method to aid designers in keeping the needs of the intended user population at the forefront of the design process. However, few studies have ethnographically observed design teams that use personas, and fewer studies have looked specifically at how designers linguistically invoke personas in their decision-making sessions. This discourse analysis of the decision-making sessions of designers at a top tier design firm reveals that although the designers dedicate much time researching, developing, and refining personas, personas themselves make relatively few appearances in the designers� language during decision-making sessions. This study shows that, for persuasive ends, these designers, who are advocates of personas, routinely use other less precise and more designer-centric linguistic mechanisms in lieu of personas. Despite the scarcity of personas in the decision-making sessions, this ethnographic case study also explores the value of personas for this team even when the personas are not explicitly linguistically invoked.
ACM
 
How Do Designers and User Experience Professionals Actually Perceive and Use Personas? - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Qualitative study of how experienced user-centered design practitioners perceive and use personas for industrial software design. This paper can benefit practitioners who would like to use personas for design.
Abstract » Personas are a critical method for orienting design and development teams to user experience. Prior work has noted challenges in justifying them to developers. In contrast, it has been assumed that designers and user experience professionals--whose goal is to focus designs on targeted users--will readily exploit personas. This paper examines that assumption. We present the first study of how experienced user-centered design (UCD) practitioners with prior experience deploying personas, use and perceive personas in industrial software design. We identify limits to the persona approach in the context studied. Practitioners used personas almost exclusively for communication, but not for design. Participants identified four problems with personas, finding them abstract, impersonal, misleading and distracting. Our findings argue for a new approach to persona deployment and construction. Personas cannot replace immersion in actual user data. And rather than focusing on creating engaging personas, it is critical to avoid persona attributes that mislead or distract.
ACM
 
Revisiting Personas: The Making-of for Special User Groups - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a decision diagram for the creation of personas and its application. It aims at identifying the most appropriate approach taking into account different characteristics.
Abstract » The diversity of special user groups, i.e. elderly from 50 to 90 years and children from 6 to 14 years, is huge. Assessing their requirements is challenging, as it requires sensitivity in terms of choosing an appropriate approach to collect data. Furthermore, the illustration of the data for the subsequent design process can be difficult, if different partners are involved in a project. In order to overcome these difficulties, we are exploring a decision diagram for the creation of personas. It aims at identifying the most appropriate approach (i.e. qualitative and/or quantitative data collection), taking into account the characteristics of the special user groups among other aspects. In this case study we present how we applied the decision diagram in three different projects to create personas for elderly and children.
 
Incorporating UCD Into the Software Development Lifecycle: a Case Study - Long Case Study
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Case study describing the application of user centered design (UCD) for a project using multiple enterprise technologies. Identifies opportunities for successfully integrating UCD into the software development process.
Abstract » This case study addresses how we applied user centered design (UCD) to the software development lifecycle for the new City of Austin Utilities Online Customer Care website. The case study focuses on the use of personas, prototypes, and user testing, discusses what worked well, and provides lessons learned.
VideoVideosRoom: Ballroom D
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Communication Technologies for the Zombie Apocalypse: New Educational Initiatives - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The zombie apocalypse will present a unique challenge as communication technologies fail. This video describes STEM initiatives that will prepare children to communicate when the undead hordes are upon us.
Abstract » The threat of the zombie apocalypse has finally begun to reach a level of popular concern, both in the media and in government organizations like the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The zombie apocalypse and subsequent destruction of modern communication technologies will present a unique challenge to future generations. This video describes new STEM initiatives that will enable today's children to maintain vital information links once the undead hordes are upon us.
 
Pet Video Chat: Monitoring and Interacting with Dogs over Distance - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We designed a pet video chat system that augments a Skype audio-video connection with remote interaction features and evaluated it with pet owners to understand its usage.
Abstract » Companies are now making video-communication systems that allow pet owners to see, and, in some cases, even interact with their pets when they are separated by distance. Such ‘doggie cams’ show promise, yet it is not clear how pet video chat systems should be designed (if at all) in order to meet the real needs of pet owners. To investigate the potential of interactive dog cams, we then designed our own pet video chat system that augments a Skype audio-video connection with remote interaction features and evaluated it with pet owners to understand its usage. Our results show promise for pet video chat systems that allow owners to see and interact with their pets while away.
 
Designing Visualizations to Facilitate Multisyllabic Speech with Children with Autism and Speech Delays - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: VocSyl is a real-time voice visualization system to help teach multisyllabic speech to children with autism and speech delays.
Abstract » The ability of children to combine syllables represents an important developmental milestone. This ability is often delayed or impaired in a variety of clinical groups including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and speech delays (SPD). This video illustrates some of the features of VocSyl, a real-time voice visualization system to shape multisyllabic speech. VocSyl was designed using the Task Centered User Interface Design methodology from the beginning to the end of the design process. Children with Autism and Speech Delays, targeted users of the software, were directly involved in the development process, thus allowing us to focus on what these children demonstrate they require.
 
TimeBlocks: “Mom, can I have another block of time?” - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children.
Abstract » Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children. TimeBlocks consists of a set of cubic blocks that function as a physical progress bar. Parents and children can physically manipulate the blocks to represent the concept of time. We evaluated TimeBlocks through a field study in which six families tried TimeBlocks for four days at their homes. The results indicate that TimeBlocks played a useful role in facilitating the often challenging task of time-related communication between parents and children. We also report on a range of observed insightful novel uses of TimeBlocks in our study.
ACM
 
An Augmented Multi-touch System Using Hand and Finger Identification - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We introduce a multitouch system capable of identifying the finger and hand corresponding to each touch, and show how we use it in a multitouch 3D authoring tool.
Abstract » With the advent of devices such as smart phones and tablet computers, multi-touch applications are rapidly becoming commonplace. However, existing multi-touch sensors are not able to report which finger, or which hand, is responsible for each of the touches. To overcome this deficiency we introduce a multi-touch system that is capable of identifying the finger and hand corresponding to each touch. The system consists of a commercially available capacitive multi-touch display augmented with an infrared depth camera mounted above the surface of the display. We performed a user study to measure the accuracy of the system and found that our algorithm was correct on 92.7% of the trials.
 
TEROOS: A Wearable Avatar to Enhance Joint Activities (Video Preview) - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The video shows what communication style a wearable robot avatar offers to daily life situations. Two users can communicate by sharing their vision via the robot avatar.
Abstract » This video shows a wearable avatar named TEROOS, which is mounted on the shoulder of a person. TEROOS allows the users who wear it and control it to remotely share a vision. Moreover, the avatar has an anthropomorphic face that enables the user who controls it to communicate with people that are physically around the user who wears it. We have conducted a eld test by using TEROOS and observed that the wearable avatar innovatively assisted the users to communicate during their joint activities such as route navigating, and buying goods at a shop. In addition, both users could easily identify objects that they discussed. Moreover, shop's staf s members communicated with the user controlling TEROOS and they exhibited a typical social behavior.
ACM
 
The Design Evolution of LuminAR: A Compact and Kinetic Projected Augmented Reality Interface - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: LuminAR is kinetic projected augmented reality interface, in everyday objects, namely a light bulb and a task light. This video presents the design evolution iterations of the various LuminAR prototypes.
Abstract » LuminAR is a new form factor for a compact and kinetic projected augmented reality interface. This video presents the design evolution iterations of the LuminAR prototypes. In this video we document LuminAR’s design process, hardware and software implementation and demonstrate new kinetic interaction techniques. The work presented is motivated through a set of applications that explore scenarios for interactive and kinetic projected augmented reality interfaces. It also opens the door for further explorations of kinetic interaction and promotes the adoption of projected augmented reality as a commonplace user interface modality.
 
EyeRing: An Eye on a Finger - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: EYERING: a finger-worn personal assistant with visual analysis capabilities, that aid visually impaired people as well as the sighted.
Abstract » Finger-worn devices are a greatly underutilized form of interaction with the surrounding world. By putting a camera on a finger we show that many visual analysis applications, for visually impaired people as well as the sighted, prove seamless and easy. We present EyeRing, a ring mounted camera, to enable applications such as identifying currency and navigating, as well as helping sighted people to tour an unknown city or intuitively translate signage. The ring apparatus is autonomous, however our system also includes a mobile phone or computation device to which it connects wirelessly, and an earpiece for information retrieval. Finally, we will discuss how different finger worn sensors may be extended and applied to other domains.
 
Which Book Should I Pick? - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This research suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of large book data.
Abstract » This video proposes readability visualization, genre visualization, and combined visualization to provide unconventional information for book selection. Data visualization was initiated for the practical purpose of delivering information, as it efficiently links visual perception and data so that readers are able to instantly recognize patterns in overcrowded data. In this interdisciplinary research we used the strength of data visualization, and this paper suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of a large volume of book data.
 
Video Mediated Recruitment for Online Studies - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We illustrate that videos can support online research by driving the recruitment process. They can also help build an online community which in turn can provide many long term benefits.
Abstract » More than ever, researchers are turning to the internet as a means to conduct HCI studies. Despite the promise of a worldwide audience, recruiting participants can still be a difficult task. In this video we discuss and illustrate that videos - through their sharable and entertaining nature - can greatly assist the recruitment process. Videos can also be a crucial part in developing an online presence, which may yield a community of followers and interested individuals. This community in turn can provide many long term benefits to the research, beyond just the recruitment phase.
 
PINOKY: A Ring-like Device that Gives Movement to Any Plush Toy - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: PINOKY is a wireless ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs.
Abstract » Everyone has owned or have been in contact with plush toys in their life, and plush toys play an integral part in many areas, for example in a child's growing up process, in the medical field, and as a form of communication media. In order to enhance the interaction experience with plush toys, we created the PINOKY. PINOKY is a wireless, ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs. It is a non-intrusive device, and users can instantly convert their personal plush toys into soft robots. Currently, there are several interactions, such as letting the user control the toy remotely, or inputting the desired movement by moving the toy, and having the data recorded and played back.
 
Experience "panavi," Challenge to Master Professional Culinary Arts! - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This video introduces the user experience of "panavi" that supports cooking for domestic users to master professional culinary arts in their kitchens by managing temperature and pan movement properly.
Abstract » This video introduces the user experience of "panavi" that supports cooking for domestic users to master professional culinary arts in their kitchens by managing temperature and pan movement properly. Utilizing a sensors-embedded frying pan wirelessly connected computer system, it analyzes sensors' data, recognizes users’ conditions, and provides the users situated navigation messages. In the video, a young lady tries to cook spaghetti Carbonara using panavi, and masters this "difficult" menu by enjoying cooking process. The full paper of this work is also published in CHI '12 conference proceedings.
 
Ferro Tale: Electromagnetic Animation Interface - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Inspired by the expressiveness of sand drawing, we explore ways to use an electromagnetic array, camera feedback, computer vision, and ferromagnetic particles to produce animations.
Abstract » In this video we demonstrate the idea and the prototype
of an electromagnetic animation interface, ferro tale.

Ferromagnetic particles, such as iron filings, have very
fascinating characteristics. Therefore they are widely used
in art, education and as toys. Besides their potential to
enable visual and tactile feedback and to be used as a
medium for high resolution tangible input, peoples natural
desire to engage and explore the behavior of this material
makes them interesting for HCI.

Inspired by the expressiveness of sand drawing, we want to
explore ways to use an electromagnetic array, camera
feedback, computer vision, and ferromagnetic particles to
produce animations. The currently used magnetic
actuation device consists of a 3 by 3 coil array. Even with
such a small number of actuators, we are able
demonstrate several animation examples.
 
Supporting children with autism to participate throughout a design process - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This short film portrays a representative participatory design session involving children with autism collaborating to generate ideas for user interface characters or personas, as active participants within a design team.
Abstract » A deficit in social communication is one of a number of core features of autism that can result in the exclusion of individuals with autism from the design process. Individuals with autism can be highly motivated by new technology, and the design of technologies for individuals with autism could potentially benefit from their direct input. We structured participatory design sessions using Cooperative Inquiry specifically to support the needs of individuals with autism. This video highlights how, when appropriately supported, the challenges of the social communication deficits associated with autism can be overcome and individuals with autism can take a full and active role within the design process.
 
Towards a Wearable Music System for Nomadic Musicians - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This concept video shows the design of a wearable system for musicians to record their ideas while being away from their instruments, using an interactive shirt and belt.
Abstract » This concept video shows the design of a wearable system for musicians to record their ideas while being away from their instruments, using an interactive shirt and belt.
 
Tongueduino: Hackable, High-bandwidth Sensory Augmentation - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The tongue has an extremely dense sensing resolution and extraordinary degree of neuroplasticity. Tongueduino is an electro-tactile tongue display that uses those characteristics to interface the user's body to electronic sensors.
Abstract » The tongue is known to have an extremely dense sensing resolution, as well as an extraordinary degree of neuroplasticity, the ability to adapt to and internalize new input. Research has shown that electro-tactile tongue displays paired with cameras can be used as vision prosthetics for the blind or visually impaired; users quickly learn to read and navigate through natural environments, and many describe the signals as an innate sense. However, existing displays are expensive and difficult to adapt. Tongueduino is an inexpensive, vinyl-cut tongue display designed to interface with many types of sensors besides cameras. Connected to a magnetometer, for example, the system provides a user with an internal sense of direction, like a migratory bird. Piezo whiskers allow a user to sense orientation, wind, and the lightest touch. Through tongueduino, we hope to bring electro-tactile sensory substitution beyond the discourse of vision replacement, towards open-ended sensory augmentation that anyone can access.
 
Pen-in-Hand Command: NUI for Real-Time Strategy eSports - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: We investigate the design of embodied interaction in the context of real-time strategy eSports. Specifically, we look at pen + multi-touch interaction using a Wacom Cintiq augmented with a ZeroTouch sensor.
Abstract » Electronic Sports (eSports) is the professional play and spectating of digital games. Real-time strategy games are a form of eSport that require particularly high- performance and precise interaction. Prior eSports HCI has been keyboard and mouse based. We investigate the real-time strategy eSports context to design novel interactions with embodied modalities, because of its rigorous needs and requirements, and the centrality of the human-computer interface as the medium of game mechanics. To sense pen + multi-touch interaction, we augment a Wacom Cintiq with a ZeroTouch multi-finger sensor. We used this modality to design new pen + touch interaction for play in real-time strategy eSports.
 
Plushbot: an Introduction to Computer Science - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Plushbot is a system that allows children to create their own interactive plush toys with computational elements and ideas embedded.
Abstract » We present the Plushbot project that focuses on providing a more motivating introduction of computer science to middle school students, employing tangible programming of plush toys as its central activity. About sixty students, ages 12-14, participated in a 7.5-week study in which they created and programmed their own plush toys. In order to achieve these, they learned and used several tools, including LilyPad Arduino, Modkit and a web-based application called Plushbot, which permits the user to integrate circuitry design with a pattern of plush toy pieces. Once a design is complete, the user can print the pattern and use it as a template for creating a plush toy. Plushbot is a system that allows children to create their own interactive plush toys with computational elements and ideas embedded.
 
Fast and Frugal Shopping Challenge - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: A fast and frugal shopping challenge looks at the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions in a grocery store.
Abstract » There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. A fast and frugal shopping challenge is presented, in the style of a humorous reality TV show, where the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions are demonstrated by shoppers in a grocery store.
 
Anyone Can Sketch Vignettes! - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a sketch-based application for interactive pen-and-ink illustration. The novel interaction and workflow enables to create a wide range of paintings easily and quickly, along with preserving personal artistic style.
Abstract » Vignette is an interactive system that facilitates texture creation in pen-and-ink illustrations. Unlike existing systems, Vignette preserves illustrators’ workflow and style: users draw a fraction of a texture and use gestures to automatically fill regions with the texture. Our exploration of natural work-flow and gesture-based interaction was inspired by traditional way of creating illustrations. We currently support both 1D and 2D synthesis with stitching. Our system also has interactive refinement and editing capabilities to provide a higher level texture control, which helps artists achieve their desired vision. Vignette makes the process of illustration more enjoyable and that first time users can create rich textures from scratch within minutes.
 
SIGCHI SPrAyCE: A Space Spray Input for Fast Shape Drawing. - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: SPrAyce is a spray-based device allowing people to design in space. It's a new way of designing objects and shapes.
Abstract » Current technological solutions that enable sharing some shape-based ideas are often time demanding and painful to use. The goal of this project is to create a new device, a new way of drawing in an intuitive way. A spray-based input is created to allow natural gestures to draw 3D objects and manipulate the drawing.
 
Looking Glass: A Field Study on Noticing Interactivity of a Shop Window - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: This video shows how passers-by interact with the Looking Glass, an interactive shop window.
Abstract » In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice inter- activity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows (the honeypot effect).
ACM
 
WatchIt: Simple gestures for interacting with a watchstrap - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: WatchIt is a new way to interact with interactive wristwatch. The watchband bracelet becomes interactive, thus avoiding the fat finger problem and occlusion.
Abstract » We present WatchIt, a new interaction technique for wristwatch computers, a category of devices that badly suffers from a scarcity of input surface area. WatchIt considerably increases this surface by extending it from the touch screen to the wristband. The video shows a mockup of how simple gestures on the external and/or internal bands may allow the user to scroll a list (one-finger slide), to select an item (tap), and to set a continuous parameter like the volume of music playing (two-finger slide), avoiding the drawback of screen occlusion by the finger. Also shown is the prototype we are currently using to investigate the usability of our new interaction technique.
 
The Interactive Punching Bag - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: The ‘interactive punching bag’ is a programmable device that adds sensors, sound, lights, and a display to a conventional punching bag.
Abstract » The ‘interactive punching bag’ transforms a conventional punching bag into a programmable ‘smart device’ enhanced to provide various forms of stimulus and feedback (sound, lights, and displayed images). The physical characteristics of each punch are captured using impact sensors and accelerometers, and LEDs, speakers and an associated display can be used to provide different prompts and responses. Interactions are logged over time for analysis. The bag was devised as a means of investigating how to design interactions in the context of a fun, physical, familiar object. Preliminary studies suggest that users are surprised and engaged, and that first-time users spend more time in their first encounter if the bag is running an ‘unexpected’ program (e.g., giggling on impact rather than grunting). However, some users are sensitive about the nature of images and sounds associated with the bag, particularly where there is a conflict with social expectations or values. So far, the interactions that hold users’ attention are those, like the musical ‘punching bag keyboard’, that combine moderate physical activity with a creative element or an intellectual challenge.
 
Haptic Lotus - A Theatre Experience for Blind and Sighted Audiences - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Can technologies facilitate comparable cultural experiences for both blind and sighted audiences? The Haptic Lotus is a device that changes its form as people walk through a dark immersive installation.
Abstract » How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of ‘blindness’, through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience’s journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.

During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
 
MAWL: Mobile Assisted Word-Learning - Videos
Contribution & Benefit: Word-learning is one of the basic steps in language learning. This video demonstrates Mobile Assisted Word-Learning (MAWL): An augmented reality based collaborative interface for learning new words using a smartphone.
Abstract » Word-learning is one of the basic steps in language
learning. A general traditional approach for learning new
words is to keep a dictionary and use it whenever one
encounters a new word. This video demonstrates Mobile
Assisted Word-Learning (MAWL)[1]: an augmented
reality based collaborative social-networking interface for
learning new words using a smartphone. MAWL keeps
track and saves all textual contexts during reading process
along with providing augmented reality-based assistance
such as images, translation into native language,
synonyms, antonyms, sentence usage etc.
Kick it! Interfaces for Feet and WalkingPaper & ToCHIRoom: Ballroom E
 
 
 
 
 
Walking improves your cognitive map in environments that are large-scale and large in extent - ToCHI
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: No previous studies have used an omni-directional treadmill to investigate navigation. Contrary to previous studies using small-scale spaces, we show that physical locomotion is critical for rapid cognitive map development.
Abstract » This study investigated the effect of body-based information (proprioception, etc.) when participants navigated large-scale virtual marketplaces that were either small (Experiment 1) or large in extent (Experiment 2). Extent refers to the size of an environment, whereas scale refers to whether people have to travel through an environment to see the detail necessary for navigation. Each participant was provided with full body-based information (walking through the virtual marketplaces in a large tracking hall or on an omni-directional treadmill), just the translational component of body-based information (walking on a linear treadmill, but turning with a joystick), just the rotational component (physically turning but using a joystick to translate) or no body-based information (joysticks to translate and rotate). In large and small environments translational body-based information significantly improved the accuracy of participants’ cognitive maps, measured using estimates of direction and relative straight line distance but, on its own, rotational body-based information had no effect. In environments of small extent, full body-based information also improved participants’ navigational performance. The experiments show that locomotion devices such as linear treadmills would bring substantial benefits to virtual environment applications where large spaces are navigated, and theories of human navigation need to reconsider the contribution made by body-based information, and distinguish between environmental scale and extent.
 
Putting Your Best Foot Forward: Investigating Real-World Mappings for Foot-based Gestures - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates real-world mappings of foot-based gestures to virtual workspaces. It conducts a series of studies exploring: user-defined mappings, gesture detection and continuous interaction parameters.
Abstract » Foot-based gestures have recently received attention as an alternative interaction mechanism in situations where the hands are pre-occupied or unavailable. This paper investigates suitable real-world mappings of foot gestures to invoke commands and interact with virtual workspaces. Our first study identified user preferences for mapping common mobile-device commands to gestures. We distinguish these gestures in terms of discrete and continuous command input. While discrete foot-based input has relatively few parameters to control, continuous input requires careful design considerations on how the user's input can be mapped to a control parameter (e.g. the volume knob of the media player). We investigate this issue further through three user-studies. Our results show that rate-based techniques are significantly faster, more accurate and result if far fewer target crossings compared to displacement-based interaction. We discuss these findings and identify design recommendations.
ACM
 
ShoeSense: A New Perspective on Gestural Interaction and Wearable Applications - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a novel wearable device consisting of a shoe-mounted sensor and offering a novel and unique perspective for eyes-free gestural interaction. Presents and Evaluates three novel gesture sets.
Abstract » When the user is engaged with a real-world task it can be inappropriate or difficult to use a smartphone. To address this concern, we developed ShoeSense, a wearable system consisting in part of a shoe-mounted depth sensor pointing upward at the wearer. ShoeSense recognizes relaxed and discreet as well as large and demonstrative hand gestures. In particular, we designed three gesture sets (Triangle, Radial, and Finger-Count) for this setup, which can be performed without visual attention. The advantages of ShoeSense are illustrated in five scenarios: (1) quickly performing frequent operations without reaching for the phone, (2) discreetly performing operations without disturbing others, (3) enhancing operations on mobile devices, (4) supporting accessibility, and (5) artistic performances. We present a proof-of-concept, wearable implementation based on a depth camera and report on a lab study comparing social acceptability, physical and mental demand, and user preference. A second study demonstrates a 94-99% recognition rate of our recognizers.
ACM
 
Bootstrapper: Recognizing Tabletop Users by their Shoes - Note
Community: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Reformulating the user recognition problem as a shoe recognition problem and present a prototype that recognizes tabletop users.
Abstract » In order to enable personalized functionality, such as to log tabletop activity by user, tabletop systems need to recognize users. DiamondTouch does so reliably, but requires users to stay in assigned seats and cannot recognize users across sessions. We propose a different approach based on distinguishing users� shoes. While users are interacting with the table, our system Bootstrapper observes their shoes using one or more depth cameras mounted to the edge of the table. It then identifies users by matching camera images with a database of known shoe images. When multiple users interact, Bootstrapper associates touches with shoes based on hand orientation. The approach can be implemented using consumer depth cameras because (1) shoes offer large distinct features such as color, (2) shoes naturally align themselves with the ground, giving the system a well-defined perspective and thus reduced ambiguity. We report two simple studies in which Bootstrapper recognized participants from a database of 18 users with 95.8% accuracy.
ACM
Tangible Interfaces for Children: Cognitive, Social, & Physical Benefits and ChallengesPanelRoom: Ballroom F
 
 
Tangible Interfaces for Children: Cognitive, Social, & Physical Benefits and Challenges - Panel
Contribution & Benefit: Presentation and discussion of children using a variety of tangible interfaces, the challenges and benefits they encountered, and the importance of looking at the connection between psychological factors and design.
Abstract » With the rise of prevalence of tangible interfaces of all kinds for children, this panel will present diverse perspectives on the benefits and challenges of these interfaces. These will include: exergames, mobile applications, and using digitally enhanced feedback for non-digital environments
Music Across CHICase Study, Paper & ToCHIRoom: Ballroom G
 
 
 
 
 
 
Using Rhythmic Patterns as an Input Method - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes the use of Rhythmic Patterns for Interaction. Reports the results of two experiments showing that users can reliably reproduce and memorize rhythmic patterns.
Abstract » While interaction techniques that use the temporal dimension have been used for a long time, such as multiple clicks or spring-loaded widgets, more advanced uses of rhythmic patterns have received little attention in HCI. Using such temporal structures to convey information can be particularly useful in situations where the visual channel is overloaded or even not available. In this paper we introduce Rhythmic Interaction as the use of rhythms for input. We report the results of two experiments that show that (i) rhythmic patterns can be efficiently reproduced by novice users and recognized by computer algorithms, and (ii) rhythmic patterns can be memorized as efficiently as traditional shortcuts when associating them with visual commands. Overall, these results demonstrate the potential of Rhythmic Interaction and open the way to a richer repertoire of interaction techniques.
ACM
 
PULSE: The Design and Evaluation of an Auditory Display to Provide a Social Vibe - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Investigates the use of ambient audio to present collocated geo-social media as a user moves through the environment. Provides guidance on re-integrating geo-social media into physical environment.
Abstract » We present PULSE, a mobile application designed to allow users to gain a `vibe', an intrinsic understanding of the people, places and activities around their current location, derived from messages on the Twitter social networking site. We compared two auditory presentations of the vibe. One presented message metadata implicitly through modification of spoken message attributes. The other presented the same metadata, but through additional auditory cues. We compared both techniques in a lab and real world study. Additional auditory cues were found to allow for smaller changes in metadata to be more accurately detected, but were least preferred when PULSE was used in context. Results also showed that PULSE enhanced and shaped user understanding, with audio presentation allowing a closer coupling of digital data to the physical world.
ACM
 
Experiencing coincidence during digital music listening - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: Describes technology-mediated experiences of coincidences during digital music listening and the elements involved. Demonstrates the use of McCarthy and Wright's experience framework to an empirical investigation of user experience.
Abstract » People have reported encountering coincidences when using particular technologies to interact with personal digital content.
However, to date, there is a paucity of research to understand these experiences. This paper applies McCarthy and Wright’s
experiential framework to analyze these kinds of technology-mediated coincidences. By focusing upon encounters of
coincidence during people’s digital music listening, we identified the elements at play, elucidated the properties of the
individual elements, their inter-relationships, and an understanding of how coincidences can arise. We also reveal how under
particular conditions, such elements provide people with opportunities to encounter coincidence. This understanding of
coincidence demonstrates how McCarthy and Wright’s framework can be usefully applied to an empirical investigation of user
experience.
 
Designing Virtual Instruments with Touch-Enabled Interface - Short Case Study
Community: designCommunity: engineering
Contribution & Benefit: Describes designing a virtual percussion instrument system on a multi-touch tabletop. Can be adopted by users collaboratively to emulate real-world percussive music playing and offer advantages of digital instruments.
Abstract » We present and discuss the design of a virtual musical instrument system that can be used by a collaborative group of users to emulate playing percussive music. An optical multi-touch tabletop serves as the input device for multiple users, and an algorithmic pipeline interprets users' interactions with this touch-sensing table and provides control signals to activate the coupled physics-based sound simulation system. The musical tunes can be modulated by our numerical acoustic simulator to create believable acoustic effects generated due to cavity in instruments such as drums. It further allows the users to change the materials, shapes, and sizes of the instruments, thereby offering the capability for both rapid prototyping and active exploration of sound effects by altering various physical parameters. We discuss some of key design principles and what such a system can offer.
 
Listening Factors: A Large-Scale Principal Components Analysis of Long-Term Music Listening Histories - Note
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a principal component analysis of automatically collected music listening histories. Groups and derives the impact of 48 listening behavior variables based on this analysis.
Abstract » There are about as many strategies for listening to music as there are music enthusiasts. This makes learning about overarching patterns and similarities difficult. In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of long-term music listening histories from the last.fm web service. It gives insight into the most distinguishing factors in music listening behavior. Our sample contains 310 histories with up to six years duration and 48 associated variables describing various user and music characteristics. Using a principal components analysis, we aggregated these variables into 13 components and found several correlations between them. The analysis especially showed the impact of seasons and a listener's interest in novelty on music choice. Using this information, a sample of a user's listening history or even just demographical data could be used to create personalized interfaces and novel recommendation strategies. We close with derived design considerations for future music interfaces.
ACM
Course 15: User Experience Evaluation in Entertainment and GamesCourseRoom: 11A
 
 
Course 15: User Experience Evaluation in Entertainment and Games - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods methods, opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games.
Abstract » Benefits: This course comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods methods, opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games. It provides an overview on what user experience is about (in contrast to usability), it provides an understanding on enablers for successful future games and entertainment experiences and which user experience evaluation methods are currently available and used for the development of games.

Objectives of this course are:
• to provide an overview on user experience evaluation in the games and entertainment area.
• to provide definitions of user experience, and discuss the factors that contribute to the overall user experience in a game (e.g. flow, immersion, playability)
• to explain how game development is different from software engineering development, especially the evaluation phase.
Based on these foundations the objective is:
• to give an overview on existing methods
• to allow participants in the course a first hands-on experience on how to apply one of the methods to a real game.


Audience:
* Developers and designers: the course will help to establish an understanding how to evaluate user experience in the area of games and entertainment and how outcomes of the evaluation can be integrated in the next iteration of the game and entertainment application development;
* Industrial and academic researchers: the course will provide an overview on current methods in the area, and can help to understand the concept of user experience.
* Students: the course provides a first introduction to user experience in games, but lessons can also be taken for the application in other domains.
Space: The Interaction FrontierPaperRoom: 19AB
 
 
 
 
 
Going Beyond the Surface: Studying Multi-Layer Interaction Above the Tabletop - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents guidelines for designers of Tangible Magic Lens systems that are targeted for a tabletop environment. Can assist in developing effective multi-layer based interaction styles.
Abstract » Lightweight spatially aware displays (Tangible Magic Lenses) are an effective approach for exploring complex information spaces within a tabletop environment. One way of using the 3D space above a horizontal surface is to divide it into discrete parallel layers stacked upon each other. Horizontal and vertical lens movements are essential tasks for the style of multi-layer interaction associated with it. We conducted a comprehensive user study with 18 participants investigating fundamental issues such as optimal number of layers and their thickness, movement and holding accuracies, and physical boundaries of the interaction volume. Findings include a rather limited overall interaction height (44 cm), a different minimal layer thickness for vertical and horizontal search tasks (1 cm/4 cm), a reasonable maximum number of layers depending on the primary task, and a convenience zone in the middle for horizontal search. Derived from that, design guidelines are also presented.
ACM
 
A Comparative Evaluation of Finger and Pen Stroke Gestures - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: First study investigating the differences and similarities between finger and pen gestures. Can assist UI designers of finger-based gesture design in applying the principles, methods and findings in our study.
Abstract » This paper reports an empirical investigation in which participants produced a set of stroke gestures with varying degrees of complexity and in different target sizes using both the finger and the pen. The recorded gestures were then analyzed according to multiple measures characterizing many aspects of stroke gestures. Our findings were as follows: (1) Finger drawn gestures were quite different to pen drawn gestures in basic measures including size ratio and average speed. Finger drawn gestures tended to be larger and faster than pen drawn gestures. They also differed in shape geometry as measured by, for example, aperture of closed gestures, corner shape distance and intersecting points deviation; (2) Pen drawn gestures and finger drawn gestures were similar in several measures including articulation time, indicative angle difference, axial symmetry and proportional shape distance; (3) There were interaction effects between gesture implement (finger vs. pen) and target gesture size and gesture complexity. Our findings show that half of the features we tested were performed well enough by the finger. This finding suggests that "finger friendly" systems should exploit these features when designing finger interfaces and avoid using the other features in which the finger does not perform as well as the pen.
ACM
 
A Handle Bar Metaphor for Virtual Object Manipulation with Mid-Air Interaction - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A novel handle bar metaphor is proposed to realise a suite of intuitive and highly-controllable mid-air interaction for manipulating single/multiple virtual 3D objects with low-resolution depth sensors like Kinect
Abstract » Commercial 3D scene acquisition systems such as the Microsoft Kinect sensor can reduce the cost barrier of realizing mid-air interaction. However, since it can only sense hand position but not hand orientation robustly, current mid-air interaction methods for 3D virtual object manipulation often require contextual and mode switching to perform translation, rotation, and scaling, thus preventing natural continuous gestural interactions. A novel handle bar metaphor is proposed as an effective visual control metaphor between the user's hand gestures and the corresponding virtual object manipulation operations. It mimics a familiar situation of handling objects that are skewered with a bimanual handle bar. The use of relative 3D motion of the two hands to design the mid-air interaction allows us to provide precise controllability despite the Kinect sensor's low image resolution. A comprehensive repertoire of 3D manipulation operations is proposed to manipulate single objects, perform fast constrained rotation, and pack/align multiple objects along a line. Three user studies were devised to demonstrate the efficacy and intuitiveness of the proposed interaction techniques on different virtual manipulation scenarios.
ACM
 
Fly: Studying Recall, Macrostructure Understanding, and User Experience of Canvas Presentations - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents a user study to investigate the effect of the canvas presentation format on recall, macrostructure understanding, and user experience.
Abstract » Most presentation software uses the slide deck metaphor to create visual presentation support. Recently, canvas presentation tools such as Fly or Prezi have begun to use a zoomable free-form canvas to arrange information instead. While their effect on authoring presentations has been evaluated previously, we studied how they impact the audience. In a quantitative study, we compared audience retention and macrostructure understanding of slide deck vs. canvas presentations. We found both approaches to be equally capable of communicating information to the audience. Canvas presentations, however, were rated by participants to better aid them in staying oriented during a talk. This makes canvas presentation tools a promising slideware alternative.
ACM
Tuesday, May 08, 14:30
The Tools of the TradePaperRoom: 12AB
 
 
 
 
 
A Hybrid Mass Participation Approach to Mobile Software Trials - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes methodology for combining simultaneous 'app store' style mobile software trial with local deployment. Allows for explanation of observed behaviour, verification to prevent misleading findings and more solid ethical practice.
Abstract » User trials of mobile applications have followed a steady march out of the lab, and progressively further ‘into the wild’, recently involving ‘app store’-style releases of software to the general public. Yet from our experiences on these mass participation systems and a survey of the literature, we identify a number of reported difficulties. We propose a hybrid methodology that aims to address these, by combining a global software release with a concurrent local trial. A phone–based game, created to explore the uptake and use of ad hoc peer-to-peer networking, was evaluated using this new hybrid trial method, combining a small-scale local trial (11 users) with a ‘mass participation’ trial (over 10,000 users). Our hybrid method offers many benefits, allowing locally observed findings to be verified, patterns in globally collected data to be explained and addresses ethical issues raised by the mass participation approach. We note trends in the local trial that did not appear in the larger scale deployment, and which would therefore have led to misleading results were the application trialled using ‘traditional’ methods alone. Based on this study and previous experience, we provide a set of guidelines to researchers working in this area.
ACM
 
"Yours is Better!" Participant Response Bias in HCI - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Interviewer demand characteristics can lead to serious experimental biases in HCI. Our study in Bangalore, India shows that researchers should expect significant response biases, especially when interacting with underprivileged populations.
Abstract » Although HCI researchers and practitioners frequently work with groups of people that differ significantly from themselves, little attention has been paid to the effects these differences have on the evaluation of HCI systems. Via 450 interviews in Bangalore, India, we measure participant response bias due to interviewer demand characteristics and the role of social and demographic factors in influencing that bias. We find that respondents are about 2.5x more likely to prefer a technological artifact they believe to be developed by the interviewer, even when the alternative is identical. When the interviewer is a foreign researcher requiring a translator, the bias towards the interviewer's artifact increases to 5x. In fact, the interviewer's artifact is preferred even when it is degraded to be obviously inferior to the alternative. We conclude that participant response bias should receive more attention within the CHI community, especially when designing for underprivileged populations.
ACM
 
Digital Pen and Paper Practices in Observational Research - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We present digital pen and paper practices and their integration with ChronoViz, documenting the co-evolution of notetaking and system features as participants used the tool during an 18-month field deployment.
Abstract » Researchers from many disciplines are taking advantage of increasingly inexpensive digital video to capture extensive records of human activity in real-world settings. The ability to record and share such data has created a critical moment in the practice and scope of behavioral research. While recent work is beginning to develop techniques for visualizing and interacting with integrated multimodal information collected during field research, navigating and analyzing these large datasets remains challenging and tools are especially needed to support the early stages of data exploration.

In this paper we describe digital pen and paper practices in observational research and their integration with ChronoViz, a tool for annotating, visualizing, and analyzing multimodal data. The goal is to better support researchers both in the field, while collecting data, and later in the lab, during analysis. We document the co-evolution of notetaking practices and system features as 28 participants used the tool during an 18-month deployment.
ACM
 
User See, User Point: Gaze and Cursor Alignment in Web Search - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a lab study of alignment in eye-gaze and mouse cursor positions in Web search. Studies when gaze and cursor are aligned, and presents a model for predicting visual attention.
Abstract » Past studies of user behavior in Web search have correlated eye-gaze and mouse cursor positions, and other lines of research have found cursor interactions to be useful in determining user intent and relevant parts of Web pages. However, cursor interactions are not all the same; different types of cursor behavior patterns exist, such as reading, hesitating, scrolling and clicking, each of which has a different meaning. We conduct a search study with 36 subjects and 32 search tasks to determine when gaze and cursor are aligned, and thus when the cursor position is a good proxy for gaze position. We study the effect of time, behavior patterns, user, and search task on the gaze-cursor alignment, findings which lead us to question the maxim that "gaze is well approximated by cursor." These lessons inform an experiment in which we predict the gaze position with better accuracy than simply using the cursor position, improving the state-of-the-art technique for approximating visual attention with the cursor. Our new technique can help make better use of large-scale cursor data in identifying how users examine Web search pages.
ACM
Publics and Civic VirtuesPaper & ToCHIRoom: 17AB
 
 
 
 
 
Participation and Publics: Supporting Community Engagement - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: In the findings reported here, I continue to develop the framing of Deweyan publics as a way to scaffold an environmental approach to technology design in contexts with diverse stakeholders.
Abstract » CHI researchers are beginning a shift from studying technology use in uncommon or exotic communities to designing and deploying technology interventions into those same settings. This paper picks up on these recent developments and further examines the impact and implication of using a bespoke technology platform within the context of providing shelter and basic social services to homeless mothers and their children. I build on findings from a previous system deployment by describing targeted changes made to the technology, the design impetus for making those changes, and the resulting impact those changes had on the relationship between shelter staff, residents, and the information they shared via the system. By way of the findings reported here, I continue to develop the framing of Deweyan publics as a way to scaffold an environmental approach to technology design in contexts with multiple and diverse stakeholders.
ACM
 
Towards a Framework of Publics: Re-encountering Media Sharing and its User - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: This paper proposes “publics” from media theory to stimulate reflection on prevailing interpretations of participation. Implications concern the role of digital media for collective practice and expression of values.
Abstract » Design and evaluation of user-generated media production and sharing in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) often focus on formal and informal media sharing, such as communication within social networks, automatic notifications of activities, and the exchange of digital artifacts. However, conceptual tools for understanding how people relate to the audiences they reach through these systems are limited. The increasing interest in user-generated content in HCI demands the infusion of new methods and theories that explicitly engage the construction and use of media within and among large groups of individuals and systems. In this paper, we suggest that the notion of “publics,” drawn from media theory, provides useful insights into user-driven, social, and cultural forms of technology use and digital content creation. We illustrate this by employing the notion of publics to the findings from a two-month deployment of a mobile photo sharing platform in a youth housing community. The results of this empirical work coupled with a theoretical examination of publics stimulate reflection on prevailing interpretations of user-designer-reader roles. The paper provides an outlook for potentially new and productive ways of understanding interdependencies within those activities. Implications that can be drawn from this work concern the role of digital media creation and sharing for the formation of collectives and how people position themselves collectively in relation to larger social groups and societal norms. The analysis suggests fruitful crossovers among HCI, Media Theory and New Media Research by approaching the user as both consumer and producer of digital content.
 
Viewpoint: Empowering Communities with Situated Voting Devices - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a public voting device designed to help empower communities and inform decision making. Experiences from deploying this device are presented as guidelines for community voting technologies.
Abstract » Viewpoint is a public voting device developed to allow residents in a disadvantaged community to make their voices heard through a simple, lightweight interaction. This was intended to open a new channel of communication within the community and increase community members' perception of their own efficacy. Local elected officials and community groups were able to post questions on devices located in public spaces, where residents could vote for one of two responses. Question authors were subsequently required to post a response indicating any actions to be taken. Following a two-month trial, we present our experiences and contribute guidelines for the design of public democracy tools and dimensions impacting their effectiveness, including credibility, efficacy and format.
ACM
 
Examining Technology that Supports Community Policing - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: This paper investigates how citizens use technology to support community policing efforts. Our results suggest that technologies intended for crime prevention should be designed to support communication amongst citizens.
Abstract » This paper investigates how citizens use technology to support community policing efforts. To explore the types of conversations that are shared on the community web forum, we conducted a qualitative study. We analyzed 865 forum posts from a community crime web forum from April 2004 to June 2011. We found that residents use the forum to: 1) build relationships by strengthening social ties, 2) discuss ways to take collective action, 3) share information and advice, and 4) regulate the social norms of the neighborhood and the web forum. Results suggest that technologies intended for crime prevention should be designed to support communication and problem-solving discussions amongst residents, as opposed to simply providing information to citizens.
ACM
Course 18: Social Interaction Design for Online Video and TelevisionCourseRoom: 13A
 
 
Course 18: Social Interaction Design for Online Video and Television - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Will teach you how to analyze, design and evaluate social interaction for online video and television, giving practical tools, techniques and guidelines to apply directly in your own work.
Abstract » Web applications with video content as well as television sets including network connections have become increasingly popular. The social nature of watching video and television drives developers of both types of applications to explore the integration of successful social media like Facebook or Twitter with streaming video. Moreover, several apps are being created for smartphones and tablets, which act as a second screen that allows remotely communicating with friends while watching. These types of applications can be called social TV, allowing remote viewers to interact with each other via the television set, smartphones, tablets or the PC. Features include remote talking or chatting while watching television, sending recommendations, leaving comments, showing what you watch or sharing video clips.

This course studies current developments on social television and online video applications, providing participants first hand knowledge on how to analyze, design and evaluate them. The term ‘sociability’ is used to indicate these interface aspects that support and enhance social interaction with and through new technologies and applications, and social interaction design is a way of including these sociability aspects in the design process. The specific nature of social video watching, such as enjoying a television program while communicating or using television content as conversation starter, warrant the use of a specific design process and guidelines, focusing on social interaction and sociability.

During the course, participants will learn in a very practical way how to design and evaluate social features of these emergent applications. Based on their extensive experience in designing and performing user tests of social television, and using real world examples, the instructors will explain the practical issues and will highlight key challenges for the CHI community.
Course 16: Innovating from Field Data: Driving the Voice of the Customer Into Solutions That Transform LivesCourseRoom: 15
 
 
Course 16: Innovating from Field Data: Driving the Voice of the Customer Into Solutions That Transform Lives - Course
Contribution & Benefit: This course teaches how the best ideas are produced when the inner “design compass” is educated by customer data. Participants interact with customer data and use it to generating ideas.
Abstract » You can’t just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to them. By the time you get it built, they’ll want something new.

This comment by Steve Jobs generated a heated discussion within the high tech community that continues to rage. It’s being held up as evidence that user-centered design is a waste of time, there’s no need to expend the effort needed to get customer input since they can’t tell you anything useful.

Is Steve Jobs right? Only if you take his quote literally. Jobs is correct in saying that asking customers, “What do you want?” and then giving it to them is a prescription for failure. But what do we use instead as our source of innovation? Our own ideas based on our creativity? Or is there a better way?

In this course, we show how the best ideas are produced when a designer’s inner “design compass” is educated by customer data. We discuss how successful innovation—practical innovation—arises from a deep understanding of customer needs. We explain how customer data is used to reveal customer needs, generate insights and produce designs that would not have otherwise happened. We show several real-world examples of how teams discovered new product ideas by using customer data, illustrated with the actual customer data and its connection to the new idea. Participants interact with actual customer data so they can experience its power for generating ideas
Course 19: User Experience Evaluation Methods: Which Method to Choose?CourseRoom: 14
 
 
Course 19: User Experience Evaluation Methods: Which Method to Choose? - Course
Contribution & Benefit: Helps to select the right user experience evaluation methods for different purposes. A collection of methods that investigate how people feel about the system under study is provided at www.allaboutux.org.
Abstract » High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of products in mature consumer markets. Improving UX during product development and research requires evaluation, but traditional usability testing methods are not adequate for evaluating UX. The evaluation methods for investigating how users feel about the tested system are still less known in the HCI community.

Since 2008, the instructors have been collecting a comprehensive set of 80 UX evaluation methods both from academia and industry, which is now available at www.allaboutux.org/all-methods.

This course will cover the following topics:
- the general targets of UX evaluation
- the various kinds of UX evaluation methods available for different purposes (an overview)
- how to choose the right method for the purpose
- the basics of a sample of UX methods of different types
- guidance on where to find more information on those methods

By the end of this course, you will be able to choose suitable methods for your specific user experience evaluation cases.

Our target audience consists of researchers and practitioners who want to get acquainted with user experience evaluation methods. The participants should have basic understanding of the user-centered design process, and preferably experience on usability studies.
Promoting Educational OpportunityCase Study, Paper & ToCHIRoom: 18AB
 
 
 
 
 
Signing on the Tactile Line: A Multimodal System for Teaching Handwriting to Blind Children - ToCHI
Contribution & Benefit: McSig is a multimodal system for teaching blind children to write and draw. Similar combinations of tactile, haptic, sound and stylus interaction could be useful for other non-visual interaction situations.
Abstract » We present McSig, a multimodal system for teaching blind children cursive handwriting so that they can create a personal signature. For blind people handwriting is very difficult to learn as it is a near-zero feedback activity that is needed only occasionally, yet in important situations; for example to make an attractive and repeatable signature for legal contracts. McSig aids the teaching of signatures by translating digital ink from the teacher’s stylus gestures into three non-visual forms: (1) audio pan and pitch represents the x and y movement of the stylus; (2) kinaesthetic information is provided to the student through a force-feedback haptic pen which mimics the teacher’s stylus movement; (3) a physical tactile line on the writing sheet is created by the haptic pen.
McSig has been developed over two major iterations of design, usability testing and evaluation. The final step of the first iteration was a short evaluation with eight visually impaired children. The results suggested that McSig had the highest potential benefit for congenitally and totally blind children and also indicated some areas where McSig could be enhanced. The second prototype incorporated significant modifications to the system, improving the audio, tactile and force-feedback. We then ran a detailed, longitudinal evaluation over 14 weeks with three of the congenitally blind children to assess McSig’s effectiveness in teaching the creation of signatures. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of McSig – they all made considerable progress in learning to create a recognizable signature. By the end of ten lessons two of the children could form a complete, repeatable signature unaided, the third could do so with a little verbal prompting. Furthermore, during this project we have learnt valuable lessons about providing consistent feedback between different communications channels (by manual interactions, haptic device, pen correction) that will be of interest to others developing multimodal systems.
 
Collaboration in Cognitive Tutor Use in Latin America: Field Study and Design Recommendations - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: Describes observations from a field study of children in three developing regions using adaptive educational technology. Presents guidelines for future development of technology that accounts for a collaborative use context.
Abstract » Technology has the promise to transform educational prac-tices worldwide. In particular, cognitive tutoring systems are an example of educational technology that has been ex-tremely effective at improving mathematics learning over traditional classroom instruction. However, studies on the effectiveness of tutor software have been conducted mainly in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, and little is known about how these systems might be used in other contexts with differing classroom practices and values. To understand this question, we studied the usage of mathematics tutoring software for middle school at sites in three Latin American countries: Brazil, Mexico, and Costa Rica. While cognitive tutors were designed for individual use, we found that students in these classrooms worked collaboratively, engaging in interdependently paced work and conducting work away from their own computer. In this paper we present design recommendations for how cognitive tutors might be incorporated into different classroom practices, and better adapted for student needs in these environments.
ACM
 
Building a Case for M-learning in Africa: African Youth Perspectives on Education - Long Case Study
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: The paper provides valuable insights into African youth in terms of education challenges and opportunities hence inspiring and informing research and development of technologies for Africa particularly for m-learning.
Abstract » This paper is based on a case study of six African countries. It takes a look at education challenges faced by African youth and the gaps that exist in the education systems. African youth have the potential to be frontrunners in socio-economic transformation in the continent. They need to be empowered to be able to play their part. The huge gaps between education policy and practice, and other problems in this sector leave many African youth out of the system. Information and communication technology (ICT) is being integrated in education in many African countries. The emphasis has been on equipping schools with computers and literacy of the same. However the progress and impact is minimal due to inadequate resources, infrastructural challenges and lack of capacity. Mobile phone penetration in the continent has increased phenomenally unlike ownership of personal computers. This paper therefore proposes m-learning using mobile phones as a logical and viable channel of delivering education to African youth.
 
Evaluating the Implicit Acquisition of Second Language Vocabulary Using a Live Wallpaper - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Using a novel language learning interfaces (called Vocabulary Wallpaper) we explore if second language vocabulary can be implicitly acquired through a user’s explicit interactions with her mobile phone.
Abstract » An essential aspect of learning a second language is the acquisition of vocabulary. However, acquiring vocabulary is often a protracted process that requires repeated and spaced exposure; which can be difficult to accommodate given the busyness of daily living. In this paper, we explore if a learner can implicitly acquire second language vocabulary through her explicit interactions with her mobile phone (e.g., navigating multiple home screens) using an interface we developed called Vocabulary Wallpaper. In addition, we examine if the type of vocabulary this technique exposes to the learner, whether it is contextually relevant or contextually-independent will influence the learner’s rate of vocabulary acquisition. The results of our study show participants were able to use Vocabulary Wallpaper to increase the number of second language vocabulary that they can recognize and recall and their rate of vocabulary acquisition was significantly greater when presented with a contextually relevant vocabulary than a contextually-independent vocabulary.
ACM
Course 12: Designing With and For Children in the 21st century: Techniques and PracticesCourseRoom: 13B
 
 
Course 12: Designing With and For Children in the 21st century: Techniques and Practices - Course
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This course will cover technology co-design methods involving children; covering history, practical techniques, roles of adults and children, and practical issues relating to an intergenerational design team.
Abstract » Children are fast becoming a large user-segment of new technologies in the world. The CHI community has acknowledged children as important users by featuring an "HCI for Kids" community this year. We believe that it is critical that the HCI community continue to lead the way in supporting the best possible design of technology for children. To this end, this course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques which balance the voices and contributions of adults and children. We will also ground these techniques in information on the history of co-design with children, as well as child development as it relates to the design of technology for children. We will additionally focus on the roles of the adult in and intergenerational co-design team, including addressing practical issues of beginning a co-design team.

This course will include a historical overview of co-designing with children. We will also address understanding how child development should be considered in technology design and the technology design process. The course will include hands-on experience using techniques for designing new technologies with and for children. It will also offer participants an understanding of the role of the adult in co-design processes with children, including consideration of practical issues in co-design.

The audience for this course requires no special background. We welcome and encourage attendance by industry professionals, academics, and students from a wide variety of communities (e.g., design, computer science, information studies, and psychology).
Interfaces for Health & Well BeingPaperRoom: 18CD
 
 
 
 
 
ShutEye: Encouraging Awareness of Healthy Sleep Recommendations with a Mobile, Peripheral Display - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Describes a field study of an application for mobile phones that uses a peripheral display to promote healthy sleep habits. Can help designers of mobile applications for behavioral awareness.
Abstract » Sleep is a basic physiological process essential for good health. However, 40 million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with sleep disorders, with many more undiagnosed. To help address this problem, we developed an application, ShutEye, which provides a peripheral display on the wall-paper of the user's mobile phone to promote awareness about recommended activities that promote good sleep quality. Based on preferences about the user's desired bed-time and activities' for example, consuming caffeine or performing vigorous exercise. ShutEye displays guidance about when engaging in those activities is likely to affect sleep without requiring any explicit interaction from the user. In this paper, we describe ShutEye and results from a four-week field study with 12 participants. Results indicate that a simple, recommendation-based peripheral display can be a very low-effort but still effective method for improving awareness of healthy sleep habits. We also provide recommendations about designing peripheral displays and extend insights for designing health-based mobile applications.
ACM
 
Using Mobile Phones to Present Medical Information to Hospital Patients - Paper
Community: user experience
Contribution & Benefit: We provided 25 emergency department patients with a mobile phone interface to near-real-time data about their care. Our study indicates that this is a promising approach to improving patient awareness.
Abstract » The awareness that hospital patients have of the people and events surrounding their care has a dramatic impact on satisfaction and clinical outcomes. However, patients are often under-informed about even basic aspects of their care. In this work, we hypothesize that mobile devices - which are increasingly available to patients - can be used as real-time information conduits to improve patient awareness and consequently improve patient care. To better understand the unique affordances that mobile devices offer in the hospital setting, we provided twenty-five patients with mobile phones that presented a dynamic, interactive report on their progress, care plan, and care team throughout their emergency department stay. Through interviews with these patients, their visitors, and hospital staff, we explore the benefits and challenges of using the mobile phone as an information display, finding overall that this is a promising approach to improving patient awareness. Furthermore, we demonstrate that only a small number of technology challenges remain before such a system could be deployed without researcher intervention.
ACM
 
Engagement with Online Mental Health Interventions: An Exploratory Clinical Study of a Treatment for Depression - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: A clinical study of an online intervention for depression designed to maximise client engagement using a range of strategies. Yielded high user engagement and clinically significant improvements in depression scores.
Abstract » Online mental health interventions can benefit people experiencing a range of psychological difficulties, but attrition is a major problem in real-world deployments. We discuss strategies to reduce attrition, and present SilverCloud, a platform designed to provide more engaging online experiences. The paper presents the results of a practice-based clinical study in which 45 clients and 6 therapists used an online Cognitive Behavioural Therapy programme for depression. Pre and post-treatment assessments, using the Beck Depression Inventory, indicate a statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms, with a large effect size, for the moderate-to-severe clinical sub-sample receiving standalone online treatment (n=18). This group was the primary target for the intervention. A high level of engagement was also observed compared to a prior online intervention used within the same service. We discuss strategies for design in this area and consider how the quantitative and qualitative results contribute towards our understanding of engagement.
ACM
 
Best Intentions: Health Monitoring Technology and Children - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: Presents suggestions for development of health monitoring technology intended to enhance self-care in children without creating parent-child conflict. Provides designers an understanding of the impact of emotional response to technology.
Abstract » In this paper we describe findings from two studies aimed at understanding how health monitoring technology affects the parent-child relationship, examining emotional response and barriers to using this type of technology. We present suggestions for the design of health monitoring technology intended to enhance self-care in children without creating parent-child conflict. Our recommendations integrate the study findings, developmental stage specific concerns, and prior HCI research aimed at children's health.
ACM
CHI 2012 Sustainability Community Invited SIG: Inventory of Issues and OpportunitiesSIG MeetingRoom: 11B
 
 
CHI 2012 Sustainability Community Invited SIG: Inventory of Issues and Opportunities - SIG Meeting
Contribution & Benefit: This year’s CHI Sustainability Community’s SIG is designed to broaden participation and collect an inventory of issues and opportunities to broaden HCI’s role in securing a sustainable future.
Abstract » This year’s CHI Sustainability Community’s SIG is designed to broaden participation and also designed to collect an inventory of issues and opportunities to broaden the reach and scope of HCI’s role in securing a sustainable future.
Needle in the HaystackPaperRoom: 16AB
 
 
 
 
 
Representing “too small to see” as “too small to see” with Temporal Representation - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This study assessed how the interactions with a temporal representation with different supporting modalities can alter the way learners think about the sizes that are too small to see.
Abstract » Teaching and learning the vast range of the sizes of the objects that are too small to see with human eyes (called imperceptible objects) has been a challenging issue in education. Because representation is the only medium that learners can use to make sense of imperceptible phenomena, learners encounter challenges when trying to understand the range of imperceptible sizes. However, the conventional visual representations that are incorporated in many learning technologies tend to direct learners to overestimate the sizes of imperceptible objects. To address this issue, we designed a multimodal representation called “temporal-aural-visual representation (or TAVR) to provide students with an alternative way of perceiving and conceptualizing imperceptible sizes. In prior studies it was noticed that learners constructed more refined mental models of the vast range of imperceptible sizes through the TAVR-enhanced learning activity. In this paper, we introduce a recent study that explored how to best augment the temporal experience of the range of imperceptible sizes with supporting modalities.
ACM
 
The Case of the Missed Icon: Change Blindness on Mobile Devices - Paper
Contribution & Benefit: Presents evidence that change blindness occurs on small displays and is affected by interface designs. Can assist mobile application developers in improving the delivery of information through visual changes.
Abstract » Insights into human visual attention have benefited many areas of computing, but perhaps most significantly visualisation and UI design [3]. With the proliferation of mobile devices capable of supporting significantly complex applications on small screens, demands on mobile UI design and the user�s visual system are becoming greater. In this paper, we report results from an empirical study of human visual attention, specifically the Change Blindness phenomenon, on handheld mobile devices and its impact on mobile UI design. It is arguable that due to the small size of the screen - unlike a typical computer monitor - a greater visual coverage of the mobile device is possible, and that these phenomena may occur less frequently during the use of the device, or even that they may not occur at all. Our study shows otherwise.

We tested for Change Blindness (CB) and Inattentional Blindness (IB) in a single-modal, mobile context and attempted to establish factors in the application interface design that induce and/or reduce their occurrences. The results show that both CB and IB can and do occur while using mobile devices. The results also suggest that the number of separate attendable items on-screen is directly proportional to rates of CB. Newly inserted objects were correctly identified more often than changes applied to existing on-screen objects. These results suggest that it is important for mobile UI designers to take these aspects of visual attention into account when designing mobile applications that attempt to deliver information through visual changes or notifications.
ACM
 
The Bohemian Bookshelf: Supporting Serendipitous Book Discoveries through Information Visualization - Paper
Community: design
Contribution & Benefit: This paper explores information visualizations as a means to support serendipity based on the case study of the Bohemian Bookshelf, a visualization that was designed to support serendipitous book discoveries.
Abstract » Serendipity, a trigger of exciting yet unexpected discoveries, is an important but comparatively neglected factor in information seeking, research, and ideation. We suggest that serendipity can be facilitated through visualization. To explore this, we introduce the Bohemian Bookshelf, which aims to support serendipitous discoveries in the context of digital book collections. The Bohemian Bookshelf consists of five interlinked visualizations each offering a unique overview of the collection. It aims at encouraging serendipity by (1) offering multiple visual access points to the collection, (2) highlighting adjacencies between books, (3) providing flexible visual pathways for exploring the collection, (4) enticing curiosity through abstract, metaphorical, and visually distinct representations of books, and (5) enabling a playful approach to information exploration. A deployment at a library revealed that visitors embraced this approach of utilizing visualization to support open-ended explorations and serendipitous discoveries. This encourages future explorations into promoting serendipity through information visualization.
ACM
 
Reactive Information Foraging: An Empirical Investigation of Theory-Based Recommender Systems for Programmers - Paper